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Reprocessing and Recycling of Spent Nuclear Fuel

Reprocessing and Recycling of Spent Nuclear Fuel
  • Author : Robin Taylor
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-04-18
  • Total pages :684
  • ISBN : 9781782422174
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Summary : Reprocessing and Recycling of Spent Nuclear Fuel presents an authoritative overview of spent fuel reprocessing, considering future prospects for advanced closed fuel cycles. Part One introduces the recycling and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, reviewing past and current technologies, the possible implications of Generation IV nuclear reactors, and associated safely and security issues. Parts Two and Three focus on aqueous-based reprocessing methods and pyrochemical methods, while final chapters consider the cross-cutting aspects of engineering and process chemistry and the potential for implementation of advanced closed fuel cycles in different parts of the world. Expert introduction to the recycling and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel Detailed overview of past and current technologies, the possible implications of Generation IV nuclear reactors, and associated safely and security issues A lucid exploration of aqueous-based reprocessing methods and pyrochemical methods

Nuclear Wastes

Nuclear Wastes
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Committee on Separations Technology and Transmutation Systems
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1996-02-23
  • Total pages :592
  • ISBN : 9780309176484
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Summary : Disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear weapons production and power generation has caused public outcry and political consternation. Nuclear Wastes presents a critical review of some waste management and disposal alternatives to the current national policy of direct disposal of light water reactor spent fuel. The book offers clearcut conclusions for what the nation should do today and what solutions should be explored for tomorrow. The committee examines the currently used "once-through" fuel cycle versus different alternatives of separations and transmutation technology systems, by which hazardous radionuclides are converted to nuclides that are either stable or radioactive with short half-lives. The volume provides detailed findings and conclusions about the status and feasibility of plutonium extraction and more advanced separations technologies, as well as three principal transmutation concepts for commercial reactor spent fuel. The book discusses nuclear proliferation; the U.S. nuclear regulatory structure; issues of health, safety and transportation; the proposed sale of electrical energy as a means of paying for the transmutation system; and other key issues.

Advanced Separation Techniques for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing and Radioactive Waste Treatment

Advanced Separation Techniques for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing and Radioactive Waste Treatment
  • Author : Kenneth L Nash,Gregg J Lumetta
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-03-15
  • Total pages :512
  • ISBN : 9780857092274
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Summary : Advanced separations technology is key to closing the nuclear fuel cycle and relieving future generations from the burden of radioactive waste produced by the nuclear power industry. Nuclear fuel reprocessing techniques not only allow for recycling of useful fuel components for further power generation, but by also separating out the actinides, lanthanides and other fission products produced by the nuclear reaction, the residual radioactive waste can be minimised. Indeed, the future of the industry relies on the advancement of separation and transmutation technology to ensure environmental protection, criticality-safety and non-proliferation (i.e., security) of radioactive materials by reducing their long-term radiological hazard. Advanced separation techniques for nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment provides a comprehensive and timely reference on nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment. Part one covers the fundamental chemistry, engineering and safety of radioactive materials separations processes in the nuclear fuel cycle, including coverage of advanced aqueous separations engineering, as well as on-line monitoring for process control and safeguards technology. Part two critically reviews the development and application of separation and extraction processes for nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment. The section includes discussions of advanced PUREX processes, the UREX+ concept, fission product separations, and combined systems for simultaneous radionuclide extraction. Part three details emerging and innovative treatment techniques, initially reviewing pyrochemical processes and engineering, highly selective compounds for solvent extraction, and developments in partitioning and transmutation processes that aim to close the nuclear fuel cycle. The book concludes with other advanced techniques such as solid phase extraction, supercritical fluid and ionic liquid extraction, and biological treatment processes. With its distinguished international team of contributors, Advanced separation techniques for nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment is a standard reference for all nuclear waste management and nuclear safety professionals, radiochemists, academics and researchers in this field. A comprehensive and timely reference on nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment Details emerging and innovative treatment techniques, reviewing pyrochemical processes and engineering, as well as highly selective compounds for solvent extraction Discusses the development and application of separation and extraction processes for nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment

Managing Spent Nuclear Fuel

Managing Spent Nuclear Fuel
  • Author : Tom LaTourrette,Thomas Light,Debra Knopman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010
  • Total pages :71
  • ISBN : 0833051083
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Summary : Increasing awareness of the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions has renewed interest in nuclear power generation. At the same time, the longstanding logjam over how to manage spent nuclear fuel continues to hamper the expansion of nuclear power. If nuclear power is to be a sustainable option for the United States, methods for managing spent fuel that meet stringent safety and environmental standards must be implemented. This monograph evaluates the main technical and institutional approaches to spent nuclear fuel management and identifies implications for the development of spent fuel management policy. The authors find that on-site storage, centralized interim storage, and permanent geological disposal are generally safe, secure, and low- to moderate-cost approaches with no insurmountable technical obstacles. Advanced fuel cycles enabling spent-fuel recycling could reduce waste repository capacity needs but are difficult to evaluate because they still in early research stages. Public acceptance challenges stand as a major impediment to any technical approach. The analysis shows that the technical approaches can be combined in different ways to form different spent fuel management strategies that can be distinguished primarily in terms of societal preferences in three areas: the disposition of spent fuel, the growth of nuclear power, and intergenerational trade-offs.

Status and Trends in Spent Fuel Reprocessing

Status and Trends in Spent Fuel Reprocessing
  • Author : International Atomic Energy Agency
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005
  • Total pages :101
  • ISBN : UOM:39015062458602
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Summary : The management of spent fuel arising from nuclear power production is a crucial issue for the sustainable development of nuclear energy. The IAEA has issued several publications in the past that provide technical information on the global status and trends in spent fuel reprocessing and associated topics, and one reason for this present publication is to provide an update of this information which has mostly focused on the conventional technology applied in the industry. However, the scope of this publication has been significantly expanded in an attempt to make it more comprehensive and by including a section on emerging technologies applicable to future innovative nuclear systems, as are being addressed in such international initiatives as INPRO, Gen IV and MICANET. In an effort to be informative, this publication attempts to provide a state-of-the-art review of these technologies, and to identify major issues associated with reprocessing as an option for spent fuel management. It does not, however, provide any detailed information on some of the related issues such as safety or safeguards, which are addressed in other relevant publications.

Safety and Security of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage

Safety and Security of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Radioactive Waste Management,Committee on the Safety and Security of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006-02-19
  • Total pages :126
  • ISBN : 9780309096478
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Summary : In response to a request from Congress, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Homeland Security sponsored a National Academies study to assess the safety and security risks of spent nuclear fuel stored in cooling pools and dry casks at commercial nuclear power plants. The information provided in this book examines the risks of terrorist attacks using these materials for a radiological dispersal device. Safety and Security of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel is an unclassified public summary of a more detailed classified book. The book finds that successful terrorist attacks on spent fuel pools, though difficult, are possible. A propagating fire in a pool could release large amounts of radioactive material, but rearranging spent fuel in the pool during storage and providing emergency water spray systems would reduce the likelihood of a propagating fire even under severe damage conditions. The book suggests that additional studies are needed to better understand these risks. Although dry casks have advantages over cooling pools, pools are necessary at all operating nuclear power plants to store at least the recently discharged fuel. The book explains it would be difficult for terrorists to steal enough spent fuel to construct a significant radiological dispersal device.

Storing Spent Fuel Until Transport to Reprocessing Or Disposal

Storing Spent Fuel Until Transport to Reprocessing Or Disposal
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-05-22
  • Total pages :40
  • ISBN : 9201007191
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Summary : This publication identifies issues and challenges relevant to the development and implementation of options, policies, strategies and programmes for ensuring safe, secure, and effective storage of spent fuel until transport for reprocessing or disposal. The target audience of this publication includes policy and decision makers who need to be aware of the implicit risks and costs associated with decision timing for determining and implementing an end point for spent fuel management (such as reprocessing or disposal) to ensure the responsible and sustainable use of nuclear energy. The publication will assist those within the nuclear industry in communicating the importance of a clear, credible and sustainable spent fuel management strategy and will encourage decision makers to consider different approaches that may be useful in addressing the uncertainties resulting from an unknown storage duration and an undefined end point for spent fuel management.

State-of-the-art Report on the Progress of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Chemistry

State-of-the-art Report on the Progress of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Chemistry
  • Author : Agence pour l'énergie nucléaire
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018
  • Total pages :299
  • ISBN : 9264298541
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Summary : The implementation of advanced nuclear systems requires that new technologies associated with the back end of the fuel cycle are developed. The separation of minor actinides from other fuel components is one of the advanced concepts being studied to help close the nuclear fuel cycle and to improve the long-term effects on the performance of geological repositories. Separating spent fuel elements and subsequently converting them through transmutation into short-lived nuclides should considerably reduce the longterm risks associated with nuclear power generation. R&D programmes worldwide are attempting to address such challenges, and many processes for advanced reprocessing and partitioning minor actinides are being developed. This report provides a comprehensive overview of progress on separation chemistry processes, and in particular on the technologies associated with the separation and recovery of minor actinides for recycling so as to help move towards the implementation of advanced fuel cycles. The report examines both aqueous and pyro processes, as well as the status of current and proposed technologies described according to the hierarchy of separations targeting different fuel components. The process criteria that will affect technology downselection are also reviewed, as are non-proliferation requirements. The maturity of different reprocessing techniques are assessed using a scale based on the technology readiness level, and perspectives for future R&D are reviewed.

Nuclear Waste Governance

Nuclear Waste Governance
  • Author : Achim Brunnengräber,Maria Rosaria Di Nucci,Ana Maria Isidoro Losada,Lutz Mez,Miranda A. Schreurs
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-02-19
  • Total pages :327
  • ISBN : 9783658089627
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Summary : This volume examines the national plans that ten Euratom countries plus Switzerland and the United States are developing to address high-level radioactive waste storage and disposal. The chapters, which were written by 23 international experts, outline European and national regulations, technology choices, safety criteria, monitoring systems, compensation schemes, institutional structures, and approaches to public involvement. Key stakeholders, their values and interests are introduced, the responsibilities and authority of different actors considered, decision-making processes are analyzed as well as the factors influencing different national policy choices. The views and expectations of different communities regarding participatory decision making and compensation and the steps that have been or are being taken to promote dialogue and constructive problem-solving are also considered.​

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Energy
  • Author : David Bodansky
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-06-25
  • Total pages :694
  • ISBN : 0387269312
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Summary : This second edition represents an extensive revision of the ?rst edition, - though the motivation for the book and the intended audiences, as described inthepreviouspreface,remainthesame. Theoveralllengthhasbeenincreased substantially, with revised or expanded discussions of a number of topics, - cluding Yucca Mountain repository plans, new reactor designs, health e?ects of radiation, costs of electricity, and dangers from terrorism and weapons p- liferation. The overall status of nuclear power has changed rather little over the past eight years. Nuclear reactor construction remains at a very low ebb in much of the world, with the exception of Asia, while nuclear power’s share of the electricity supply continues to be about 75% in France and 20% in the United States. However,therearesignsofaheightenedinterestinconsideringpossible nuclear growth. In the late 1990s, the U. S. Department of Energy began new programs to stimulate research and planning for future reactors, and many candidate designs are now contending—at least on paper—to be the next generation leaders. Outside the United States, the commercial development ofthePebbleBedModularReactorisbeingpursuedinSouthAfrica,aFrench- German consortium has won an order from Finlandfor the long-plannedEPR (European Pressurized Water Reactor), and new reactors have been built or planned in Asia. In an unanticipated positive development for nuclear energy, the capacity factor of U. S. reactors has increased dramatically in recent years, and most operating reactors now appear headed for 20-year license renewals.

End Points for Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste in Russia and the United States

End Points for Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste in Russia and the United States
  • Author : National Research Council,Policy and Global Affairs,Development, Security, and Cooperation,Office for Central Europe and Eurasia,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Radioactive Waste Management,Committee on End Points for Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste in Russia and the United States
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003-06-12
  • Total pages :153
  • ISBN : 9780309087247
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Summary : End Points for spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste in Russian and the United States provides an analysis of the management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in Russia and the United States, describing inventories, comparing approaches, and assessing the end-point options for storage and disposal of materials and wastes. The authoring committee finds that despite differences in philosophy about nuclear fuel cycles, Russia and the United States need similar kinds of facilities and face similar challenges, although in Russia many of the problems are worse and funding is less available. This book contains recommendations for immediate and near-term actions, for example, protecting and stabilizing materials that are security and safety hazards, actions for the longer term, such as developing more interim storage capacity and studying effects of deep injection, and areas for collaboration.

Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing and Waste Management

Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing and Waste Management
  • Author : Zhang Jinsuo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-08-07
  • Total pages :308
  • ISBN : 9789813271388
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Summary : The question of how to effectively, efficiently, and responsibly manage used nuclear fuels is a concern of major impediment in the light of today's increasing usage of nuclear power and development of advanced nuclear reactors. This book focuses on two significant areas of (used) nuclear fuel: the reprocessing technology, and waste disposal and management. The book covers the fundamental knowledge, the current state-of-the-art, and future research activities for each topic. This book provides readers with the fundamental knowledge behind of nuclear used fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste management, and their technical applications, and their requirements and practices; to make the readers aware of social, economic, and environmental concerns as well as technical research needs. The book covers two well-known and well-developed reprocessing technologies: aqueous reprocessing technology, and electrochemical pyroprocessing. On the subject of waste management, it covers the dry storage of used nuclear fuel, novel waste form design, and nuclear waste disposal. This book is a good guide for readers who want to understand, apply, or develop the technologies.

Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing
  • Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science. Subcommittee on Energy
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005
  • Total pages :151
  • ISBN : UOM:39015061658517
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Summary :

An International Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility

An International Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility
  • Author : Russian Academy of Sciences,National Research Council,Policy and Global Affairs,Development, Security, and Cooperation,Office for Central Europe and Eurasia,Committee on the Scientific Aspects of an International Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility in Russia
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-10-03
  • Total pages :302
  • ISBN : 0309181186
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Summary : As part of a long-standing collaboration on nuclear nonproliferation, the National Academy of Sciences and the Russian Academy of Sciences held a joint workshop in Moscow in 2003 on the scientific aspects of an international radioactive disposal site in Russia. The passage of Russian laws permitting the importation and storage of high-level radioactive material (primarily spent nuclear fuel from reactors) has engendered interest from a number of foreign governments, including the U.S., in exploring the possibility of transferring material to Russia on a temporary or permanent basis. The workshop focused on the environmental aspects of the general location and characteristics of a possible storage site, transportation to and within the site, containers for transportation and storage, inventory and accountability, audits and inspections, and handling technologies.

Economic Aspects of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

Economic Aspects of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing
  • Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science. Subcommittee on Energy
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006
  • Total pages :107
  • ISBN : UOM:39015061651926
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Summary :

Internationalization of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

Internationalization of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle
  • Author : Russian Academy of Sciences,Russian Committee on the Internationalization of the Civilian Nuclear Fuel Cycle,National Research Council,National Academy of Sciences,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board,Policy and Global Affairs,Committee on International Security and Arms Control,U.S. Committee on the Internationalization of the Civilian Nuclear Fuel Cycle
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-01-26
  • Total pages :172
  • ISBN : 0309185947
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Summary : The so-called nuclear renaissance has increased worldwide interest in nuclear power. This potential growth also has increased, in some quarters, concern that nonproliferation considerations are not being given sufficient attention. In particular, since introduction of many new power reactors will lead to requiring increased uranium enrichment services to provide the reactor fuel, the proliferation risk of adding enrichment facilities in countries that do not have them now led to proposals to provide the needed fuel without requiring indigenous enrichment facilities. Similar concerns exist for reprocessing facilities. Internationalization of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle summarizes key issues and analyses of the topic, offers some criteria for evaluating options, and makes findings and recommendations to help the United States, the Russian Federation, and the international community reduce proliferation and other risks, as nuclear power is used more widely. This book is intended for all those who are concerned about the need for assuring fuel for new reactors and at the same time limiting the spread of nuclear weapons. This audience includes the United States and Russia, other nations that currently supply nuclear material and technology, many other countries contemplating starting or growing nuclear power programs, and the international organizations that support the safe, secure functioning of the international nuclear fuel cycle, most prominently the International Atomic Energy Agency.

Disposition of High-Level Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel

Disposition of High-Level Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Radioactive Waste Management,Committee on Disposition of High-Level Radioactive Waste Through Geological Isolation
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001-07-05
  • Total pages :212
  • ISBN : 9780309073172
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Summary : Focused attention by world leaders is needed to address the substantial challenges posed by disposal of spent nuclear fuel from reactors and high-level radioactive waste from processing such fuel. The biggest challenges in achieving safe and secure storage and permanent waste disposal are societal, although technical challenges remain. Disposition of radioactive wastes in a deep geological repository is a sound approach as long as it progresses through a stepwise decision-making process that takes advantage of technical advances, public participation, and international cooperation. Written for concerned citizens as well as policymakers, this book was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and waste management organizations in eight other countries.

Disposal of Radioactive Waste

Disposal of Radioactive Waste
  • Author : Nuclear Energy Agency Performance Assessment Advisory Group,OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. Performance Assessment Advisory Group,OECD.,OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. Radioactive Waste Management Committee,OECD Nuclear Energy Agency
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1991
  • Total pages :77
  • ISBN : UOM:39015025190599
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Summary :

Energy and water development appropriations bill, 2006

Energy and water development appropriations bill, 2006
  • Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005
  • Total pages :209
  • ISBN : MINN:31951D024801483
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Summary :

Programmatic National Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Program and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program (ID,CA,WA,NV)

Programmatic National Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Program and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program (ID,CA,WA,NV)
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1995
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : NWU:35556027732981
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Summary :

Legislation to Amend the Nuclear Non-proliferation Act of 1978

Legislation to Amend the Nuclear Non-proliferation Act of 1978
  • Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on International Security and Scientific Affairs
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1983
  • Total pages :456
  • ISBN : PURD:32754076915820
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Summary :