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RNA-Based Regulation in Human Health and Disease

RNA-Based Regulation in Human Health and Disease
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-08-15
  • Total pages :444
  • ISBN : 9780128171943
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Summary : RNA-based Regulation in Human Health and Disease offers an in-depth exploration of RNA mediated genome regulation at different hierarchies. Beginning with multitude of canonical and non-canonical RNA populations, especially noncoding RNA in human physiology and evolution, further sections examine the various classes of RNAs (from small to large noncoding and extracellular RNAs), functional categories of RNA regulation (RNA-binding proteins, alternative splicing, RNA editing, antisense transcripts and RNA G-quadruplexes), dynamic aspects of RNA regulation modulating physiological homeostasis (aging), role of RNA beyond humans, tools and technologies for RNA research (wet lab and computational) and future prospects for RNA-based diagnostics and therapeutics. One of the core strengths of the book includes spectrum of disease-specific chapters from experts in the field highlighting RNA-based regulation in metabolic & neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, inflammatory disease, viral and bacterial infections. We hope the book helps researchers, students and clinicians appreciate the role of RNA-based regulation in genome regulation, aiding the development of useful biomarkers for prognosis, diagnosis, and novel RNA-based therapeutics. Comprehensive information of non-canonical RNA-based genome regulation modulating human health and disease Defines RNA classes with special emphasis on unexplored world of noncoding RNA at different hierarchies Disease specific role of RNA - causal, prognostic, diagnostic and therapeutic Features contributions from leading experts in the field

RNA Regulation in Development and Disease

RNA Regulation in Development and Disease
  • Author : Maritza Jaramillo,Pascal Chartrand,Chiara Gamberi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-06-15
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889637898
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Summary :

AGO-Driven Non-Coding RNAs

AGO-Driven Non-Coding RNAs
  • Author : Bibekanand Mallick
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-01-20
  • Total pages :387
  • ISBN : 9780128156704
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Summary : The ‘RNA world’ hypothesis that proposed RNA molecules as the first form of genetic material was put forwarded in the late 1980s but got impetus only recently when high-throughput sequencing technologies began unearthing new types of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) transcripts in higher eukaryotes. Till then, research on ncRNAs were primarily confined to transfer RNAs and, ribosomal RNAs, which act as the messengers of the protein synthesis and allow translation of genetic information encoded by DNA into proteins. In recent years, the integration of high-throughput genomic technologies with molecular biology and omics sciences have revolutionized the fields of ncRNA research by identifying the hidden treasures of several new types of ncRNAs encoded in the genomes of several organisms and decrypting their versatile roles in gene expression and epigenetics. Among these, two small endogenous ncRNAs, namely microRNAs (miRNAs) and piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) that drive argonaute (AGO) family of proteins namely Ago and Piwi respectively and silence the expression of genes have geared up molecular and disease biology research in recent years. Both miRNAs and piRNAs are expressed in higher eukaryotes, including human and act as cellular rheostats by regulating the expression of significant fraction of genes encoded in the genomes. The aberrant expressions of these small ncRNAs within the cells cause various abnormalities and diseases including cancer. Manipulating their aberrant expression or function can serve as potential novel diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers and bring in new therapeutic strategies for multiple human diseases. This can be further translated from bench-side to clinic for improving human health. This book captures the essence of the pioneering work of some of the world’s leading researchers showcasing the scientific excitements surrounding the evolving regulatory roles of miRNAs and piRNAs highlighting their potential towards the diagnosis and therapeutics of various diseases. The book is geared towards scientists, students, and will particularly appeal to active investigators in RNA biology, molecular biology, cancer research as well as clinicians and will provide them a comprehensive view of recent discoveries and research progresses to utilize miRNAs, piRNAs and their interacting proteins, Ago and Piwi for diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutics of diseases. Provides a unified cutting-edge resource for both miRNAs and piRNAs, two promising AGO-clade small ncRNAs, their functions and potential applications Showcase high-throughput technologies and other approaches for discovery of these small ncRNAs and their targets Unveils the diverse molecular mechanisms by which miRNAs and piRNAs regulate gene expression in animal cells Showcase recent discoveries on involvement of Argonaute and Piwi proteins in different biological processes and diseases as well as their possible use in diagnosis Report breakthroughs in the use of small ncRNAs for diagnosis and personalized therapy

Genome Plasticity in Health and Disease

Genome Plasticity in Health and Disease
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-04-08
  • Total pages :288
  • ISBN : 9780128178201
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Summary : Genome Plasticity in Health and Disease provides a fully up-to-date overview on genome plasticity and its role in human physiology and disease. Following an introduction to the field, a diverse range of chapters cover genomic and epigenomic analysis and the use of model organisms and genomic databases in studies. Specific molecular and biochemical mechanisms of genome plasticity are examined, including somatic variants, De Novo variants, founder variations, isolated populations dynamics, copy-number variations, mobile elements, DNA methylation, histone modifications, transcription factors, non-coding RNAs, telomere dynamics and RNA editing. Later chapters explore disease relevance for cancer, as well as cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric, inflammatory, and endocrine disease, and associated pathways for drug discovery. Examines the role of genome plasticity across a range of disease types, from cardiovascular disease, to cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders Adopts an interdisciplinary approach, with expert contributions across the spectrum of basic science and disease relevance to drug discovery

The Epigenome and Developmental Origins of Health and Disease

The Epigenome and Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
  • Author : Cheryl S Rosenfeld
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-10-10
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 9780128016725
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Summary : The Epigenome and Developmental Origins of Health and Disease synthesizes the existing knowledge on how the in utero environment could be the most important environment in shaping later risk for various diseases or to conversely promote the health of the offspring. The book mines the existing literature from a variety of disciplines from toxicology to nutrition to epigenetics to reveal how contrasting maternal in utero environmental changes might be leading to epigenetic convergence and the resulting deleterious phenotypic and physiological effects in our offspring. It is increasingly becoming apparent that even subtle changes in the mother’s diet, stress, and exposure to low concentrations of toxic chemicals at levels deemed safe by the EPA and FDA, such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC), can dramatically impact the health of our children, possibly leading to metabolic, cardiovascular, immunological, neurobehavioral disorders, and increased risk for cancer to list but a few examples. Informs how everyday choices pregnant women make can impact child development Ties together how in utero environmental changes may be inducing epigenetic changes in the offspring leading to overlapping phenotypes regardless of the initial insult (toxic, nutrition, or stress) Includes a boxed-in area in each chapter for further references and resources to keep up with the field Features video interviews with the authors and other key leaders in the field

Regulating with RNA in Bacteria and Archaea

Regulating with RNA in Bacteria and Archaea
  • Author : Gisela Storz,Kai Papenfort
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-07-10
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 9781683670247
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Summary : Revealing the many roles of RNA in regulating gene expression For decades after the discoveries of messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA, it was largely assumed that the role of RNA in the cell was limited to shuttling the genomic message, chaperoning amino acids, and toiling in the ribosomes. Eventually, hints that RNA molecules might have regulatory roles began to appear. With the advent of genomics and bioinformatics, it became evident that numerous other RNA forms exist and have specific functions, including small RNAs (sRNA), RNA thermometers, and riboswitches to regulate core metabolic pathways, bacterial pathogenesis, iron homeostasis, quorum sensing, and biofilm formation. All of these functions, and more, are presented in Regulating with RNA in Bacteria and Archaea, written by RNA biologists from around the globe. Divided into eight sections-RNases and Helicases, Cis-Acting RNAs, Cis Encoded Base Pairing RNAs, Trans-Encoded Base Pairing RNAs, Protein Titration and Scaffolding, General Considerations, Emerging Topics, and Resources-this book serves as an excellent resource for established RNA biologists and for the many scientists who are studying regulated cellular systems. It is no longer a fair assumption that gene expression regulation is the provenance of proteins only or that control is exerted primarily at the level of transcription. This book makes clear that regulatory RNAs are key partners along with proteins in controlling the complex interactions and pathways found within prokaryotes.

RNA Diseases in Humans – From Fundamental Research to Therapeutic Applications

RNA Diseases in Humans – From Fundamental Research to Therapeutic Applications
  • Author : Naoyuki Kataoka,Akila Mayeda,Kinji Ohno
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-10-15
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889630974
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Summary : This Research Topic addresses the human diseases caused by a malfunction of the RNA metabolism. We aim at strengthening the link between fundamental research and therapeutic applications. In eukaryotes, RNA is transcribed from genomic DNA. RNA molecules undergo multiple post-transcriptional processes such as splicing, editing, modification, translation, and degradation. A defect, mis-regulation, or malfunction of these processes often results in diseases in humans, referred to as 'RNA diseases'. There is an increasing number of studies focused on RNA diseases, which are aimed at uncovering the fundamental molecular mechanisms at play in order to develop therapeutic approaches.

Epigenetics in Human Disease

Epigenetics in Human Disease
  • Author : Trygve O. Tollefsbol
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012
  • Total pages :577
  • ISBN : 9780123884152
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Summary : Epigenetics is one of the fastest growing fields of sciences, illuminating studies of human diseases by looking beyond genetic make-up and acknowledging that outside factors play a role in gene expression. The goal of this volume is to highlight those diseases or conditions for which we have advanced knowledge of epigenetic factors such as cancer, autoimmune disorders and aging as well as those that are yielding exciting breakthroughs in epigenetics such as diabetes, neurobiological disorders and cardiovascular disease. Where applicable, attempts are made to not only detail the role of epigenetics in the etiology, progression, diagnosis and prognosis of these diseases, but also novel epigenetic approaches to the treatment of these diseases. Chapters are also presented on human imprinting disorders, respiratory diseases, infectious diseases and gynecological and reproductive diseases. Since epigenetics plays a major role in the aging process, advances in the epigenetics of aging are highly relevant to many age-related human diseases. Therefore, this volume closes with chapters on aging epigenetics and breakthroughs that have been made to delay the aging process through epigenetic approaches. With its translational focus, this book will serve as valuable reference for both basic scientists and clinicians alike. Comprehensive coverage of fundamental and emergent science and clinical usage Side-by-side coverage of the basis of epigenetic diseases and their treatments Evaluation of recent epigenetic clinical breakthroughs

Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation

Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation
  • Author : Suming Huang,Michael D Litt,C. Ann Blakey
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-10-19
  • Total pages :482
  • ISBN : 9780128004715
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Summary : Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation reviews current knowledge on the heritable molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, contribute to disease susceptibility, and point to potential treatment in future therapies. The book shows how these heritable mechanisms allow individual cells to establish stable and unique patterns of gene expression that can be passed through cell divisions without DNA mutations, thereby establishing how different heritable patterns of gene regulation control cell differentiation and organogenesis, resulting in a distinct human organism with a variety of differing cellular functions and tissues. The work begins with basic biology, encompasses methods, cellular and tissue organization, topical issues in epigenetic evolution and environmental epigenesis, and lastly clinical disease discovery and treatment. Each highly illustrated chapter is organized to briefly summarize current research, provide appropriate pedagogical guidance, pertinent methods, relevant model organisms, and clinical examples. Reviews current knowledge on the heritable molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, contribute to disease susceptibility, and point to potential treatment in future therapies Helps readers understand how epigenetic marks are targeted, and to what extent transgenerational epigenetic changes are instilled and possibly passed onto offspring Chapters are replete with clinical examples to empower the basic biology with translational significance Offers more than 100 illustrations to distill key concepts and decipher complex science

Subject Index of Current Research Grants and Contracts Administered by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute

Subject Index of Current Research Grants and Contracts Administered by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute
  • Author : National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1978
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105223074068
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Summary :

microRNA Regulation in Health and Disease

microRNA Regulation in Health and Disease
  • Author : Clifford J. Steer,Subbaya Subramanian
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-02-21
  • Total pages :154
  • ISBN : 9783039217144
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Summary : MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that play a crucial role in posttranscriptional gene regulation. Over two thousand miRNAs have been identified in humans, and many of them are conserved in other species. miRNAs are implicated in fundamental cellular functions, including development and disease. In the last decade, there has been an overwhelming amount of data contributing to the understanding of miRNA biogenesis and their target genes. Moreover, a significant amount of work has been carried out in developing miRNA biomarkers and therapeutics for various disease conditions. RNA-based markers and therapeutics have been proven to have a clinical impact, and many of these miRNA-based therapies are at various stages of human clinical trials and clinical applications. Notably, miRNAs are also found in exosomes, and are considered to impart intercellular communication and function via several different modalities, including tunneling nanotubes. In spite of our understanding of miRNA biology and function, there are many challenges in effectively using miRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic agents in clinical applications. In this Special Issue, we are inviting reviews, perspectives, and original research articles to address some of these challenges. Topics will include, but are not limited to, miRNA biogenesis, clinical applications, extracellular function, biomarkers, miRNA immune regulation, signaling pathways, and preclinical models.

MicroRNA in Regenerative Medicine

MicroRNA in Regenerative Medicine
  • Author : Chandan K. Sen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-11-26
  • Total pages :1288
  • ISBN : 9780124058583
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Summary : This work encapsulates the uses of miRNA across stem cells, developmental biology, tissue injury and tissue regeneration. In particular contributors provide focused coverage of methodologies, intervention and tissue engineering. Regulating virtually all biological processes, the genome’s 1048 encoded microRNAs appear to hold considerable promise for the potential repair and regeneration of tissues and organs in future therapies. In this work, 50 experts address key topics of this fast-emerging field. Concisely summarizing and evaluating key findings emerging from fundamental research into translational application, they point to the current and future significance of clinical research in the miRNA area. Coverage encompasses all major aspects of fundamental stem cell and developmental biology, including the uses of miRNA across repair and regeneration, and special coverage of methodologies and interventions as they point towards organ and tissue engineering Multi-colour text layout with 150 colour figures to illustrate important findings Take home messages encapsulate key lessons throughout text Short chapters offer focused discussion and clear ‘voice’

Regulation of Gene Expression by Small RNAs

Regulation of Gene Expression by Small RNAs
  • Author : Rajesh K. Gaur,John J. Rossi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-04-27
  • Total pages :440
  • ISBN : 9781420008708
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Summary : New Findings Revolutionize Concepts of Gene FunctionEndogenous small RNAs have been found in various organisms, including humans, mice, flies, worms, fungi, and bacteria. Furthermore, it's been shown that microRNAs acting as cellular rheostats have the ability to modulate gene expression. In higher eukaryotes, microRNAs may regulate as much as 50 p

Applications of RNA-Seq and Omics Strategies

Applications of RNA-Seq and Omics Strategies
  • Author : Fabio Marchi,Priscila Cirillo,Elvis Cueva Mateo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-09-13
  • Total pages :328
  • ISBN : 9789535135036
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Summary : The large potential of RNA sequencing and other "omics" techniques has contributed to the production of a huge amount of data pursuing to answer many different questions that surround the science's great unknowns. This book presents an overview about powerful and cost-efficient methods for a comprehensive analysis of RNA-Seq data, introducing and revising advanced concepts in data analysis using the most current algorithms. A holistic view about the entire context where transcriptome is inserted is also discussed here encompassing biological areas with remarkable technological advances in the study of systems biology, from microorganisms to precision medicine.

Nutritional Epigenomics

Nutritional Epigenomics
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-07-20
  • Total pages :478
  • ISBN : 9780128173107
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Summary : Nutritional Epigenomics offers a comprehensive overview of nutritional epigenomics as a mode of study, along with nutrition’s role in the epigenomic regulation of disease, health and developmental processes. Here, an expert team of international contributors introduces readers to nutritional epigenomic regulators of gene expression, our diet’s role in epigenomic regulation of disease and disease inheritance, caloric restriction and exercise as they relate to recent epigenomic findings, and the influence of nutritional epigenomics over circadian rhythms, aging and longevity, and fetal health and development, among other processes. Disease specific chapters address metabolic disease (obesity and diabetes), cancer, and neurodegeneration, among other disorders. Diet-gut microbiome interactions in the epigenomic regulation of disease are also discussed, as is the role of micronutrients and milk miRNAs in epigenetic regulation. Finally, chapter authors examine ongoing discussions of race and ethnicity in the social-epigenomic regulation of health and disease. Empowers the reader to employ nutritional epigenomics approaches in their own research Discusses the latest topics in nutritional epigenomics in the regulation of aging, circadian rhythm, inheritance and fetal development, as well as metabolism and disease Offers a full grounding in epigenetic reprogramming and nutritional intervention in the treatment and prevention of disease, as informed by population-based studies

Post-Transcriptional Gene Regulation

Post-Transcriptional Gene Regulation
  • Author : Jane Wu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-04-24
  • Total pages :280
  • ISBN : 9783527665419
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Summary : Reflecting the rapid progress in the field, the book presents the current understanding of molecular mechanisms of post-transcriptional gene regulation thereby focusing on RNA processing mechanisms in eucaryotic cells. With chapters on mechanisms as RNA splicing, RNA interference, MicroRNAs, RNA editing and others, the book also discusses the critical role of RNA processing for the pathogenesis of a wide range of human diseases. The interdisciplinary importance of the topic makes the title a useful resource for a wide reader group in science, clinics as well as pharmaceutical industry.

Molecular Biology of the Cell

Molecular Biology of the Cell
  • Author : Bruce Alberts
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 0815332181
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Summary :

Long Non-coding RNAs in Human Disease

Long Non-coding RNAs in Human Disease
  • Author : Kevin V. Morris
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-04-13
  • Total pages :262
  • ISBN : 9783319239071
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Summary : This volume focuses on the roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in contexts ranging from human cancers to cardiovascular disease and ageing. The role of lncRNAs in X-inactivation and those lncRNAs derived from pseudogenes, past retroelements integrated within the human genome, as well as the role these pseudogene-derived lncRNAs play in cancer development are discussed in detail. Further, the book examines the function of lncRNAs in diseases such as diabetes, in smooth muscle formation, and in the modulation of nuclear receptors, as well as in connection with perspectives on the development of personalized therapeutics. It offers an appealing and insightful resource for scientists and clinicians alike.

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UCLA:L0099054413
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Summary :

Transcriptional and Post-transcriptional Regulation

Transcriptional and Post-transcriptional Regulation
  • Author : Ghedira Kais
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-10-10
  • Total pages :134
  • ISBN : 9781789237917
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Summary : This book focuses on the transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulations and presents a detailed portrait of many novel aspects related to highlighting the importance of key TFs in some vital biological processes, the role of certain TFs to control some infectious diseases, the role of non-coding RNAs in controlling mRNA expression, the involvement of these non-coding RNAs in diseases, and the interplay between TFs and microRNAs as key players for gene expression regulation giving a complete picture of how genes are regulated at the cellular level. The editor embarked upon this writing project entitled "Transcriptional and Post-transcriptional Regulation" to make pertinent contributions accessible to the scientific community. Hopefully, a large audience will enjoy reading and benefit from the chapters of this book.

The Human Body in Health and Disease

The Human Body in Health and Disease
  • Author : Ruth Lundeen Memmler,Dena Lin Wood
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1983
  • Total pages :363
  • ISBN : 0397543859
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Summary :