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Sample Return Missions

Sample Return Missions
  • Author : Andrea Longobardo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-05-20
  • Total pages :396
  • ISBN : 9780128183311
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Summary : Sample Return Missions: The Last Frontier of Solar System Exploration examines the discoveries and results obtained from sample return missions of the past, present, and future. It analyses the results in the context of the current state of knowledge and their relation to the formation and evolution of planetary bodies, as well as to the available technologies and techniques. It provides detailed descriptions of experimental procedures applied to returned samples. Beginning with an overview of previous missions, Sample Return Missions then goes on to provide an overview of facilities throughout the world used to analyze the returned samples. Finally, it addresses techniques for collection, transport, and analysis of the samples, with an additional focus on lessons learned and future perspectives. Providing an in-depth examination of a variety of missions, with both scientific and engineering implications, this book is an important resource for the planetary science community, as well as the experimentalist and engineering communities. Presents sample return results obtained so far in relation to remote sensing measurements, methods and techniques for laboratory analysis, and technology Provides an overview of a variety of sample return missions, from Apollo, to Hayabusa-2, to future missions Examines technological and methodological advances in analyzing returned samples, as well as the resources available globally

Planetary Protection Classification of Sample Return Missions from the Martian Moons

Planetary Protection Classification of Sample Return Missions from the Martian Moons
  • Author : European Science Foundation,European Space Sciences Committee,National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on Planetary Protection Requirements for Sample Return Missions from Martian Moons
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-07-20
  • Total pages :74
  • ISBN : 9780309488594
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Summary : An international consensus policy to prevent the biological cross-contamination of planetary bodies exists and is maintained by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) of the International Council for Science, which is consultative to the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. Currently, COSPAR's planetary protection policy does not specify the status of sample-return missions from Phobos or Deimos, the moons of Mars. Although the moons themselves are not considered potential habitats for life or of intrinsic relevance to prebiotic chemical evolution, recent studies indicate that a significant amount of material recently ejected from Mars could be present on the surface of Phobos and, to a lesser extent, Deimos. This report reviews recent theoretical, experimental, and modeling research on the environments and physical conditions encountered by Mars ejecta during certain processes. It recommends whether missions returning samples from Phobos and/or Deimos should be classified as "restricted" or "unrestricted" Earth return in the framework of the planetary protection policy maintained by COSPAR. This report also considers the specific ways the classification of sample return from Deimos is a different case than sample return from Phobos.

Strategic Investments in Instrumentation and Facilities for Extraterrestrial Sample Curation and Analysis

Strategic Investments in Instrumentation and Facilities for Extraterrestrial Sample Curation and Analysis
  • Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on Extraterrestrial Sample Analysis Facilities
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-04-29
  • Total pages :138
  • ISBN : 9780309486699
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Summary : The United States possesses a treasure-trove of extraterrestrial samples that were returned to Earth via space missions over the past four decades. Analyses of these previously returned samples have led to major breakthroughs in the understanding of the age, composition, and origin of the solar system. Having the instrumentation, facilities and qualified personnel to undertake analyses of returned samples, especially from missions that take up to a decade or longer from launch to return, is thus of paramount importance if the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is to capitalize fully on the investment made in these missions, and to achieve the full scientific impact afforded by these extraordinary samples. Planetary science may be entering a new golden era of extraterrestrial sample return; now is the time to assess how prepared the scientific community is to take advantage of these opportunities. Strategic Investments in Instrumentation and Facilities for Extraterrestrial Sample Curation and Analysis assesses the current capabilities within the planetary science community for sample return analyses and curation, and what capabilities are currently missing that will be needed for future sample return missions. This report evaluates whether current laboratory support infrastructure and NASA's investment strategy is adequate to meet these analytical challenges and advises how the community can keep abreast of evolving and new techniques in order to stay at the forefront of extraterrestrial sample analysis.

Mars Sample Return

Mars Sample Return
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications,Task Group on Issues in Sample Return
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1997-02-28
  • Total pages :58
  • ISBN : 0309174872
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Summary : The Space Studies Board of the National Research Council (NRC) serves as the primary adviser to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on planetary protection policy, the purpose of which is to preserve conditions for future biological and organic exploration of planets and other solar system objects and to protect Earth and its biosphere from potential extraterrestrial sources of contamination. In October 1995 the NRC received a letter from NASA requesting that the Space Studies Board examine and provide advice on planetary protection issues related to possible sample-return missions to near-Earth solar system bodies.

Assessment of Mars Science and Mission Priorities

Assessment of Mars Science and Mission Priorities
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003-08-08
  • Total pages :144
  • ISBN : 9780309089173
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Summary : Within the Office of Space Science of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) special importance is attached to exploration of the planet Mars, because it is the most like Earth of the planets in the solar system and the place where the first detection of extraterrestrial life seems most likely to be made. The failures in 1999 of two NASA missions-Mars Climate Orbiter and Mars Polar Lander-caused the space agency's program of Mars exploration to be systematically rethought, both technologically and scientifically. A new Mars Exploration Program plan (summarized in Appendix A) was announced in October 2000. The Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), a standing committee of the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council, was asked to examine the scientific content of this new program. This goals of this report are the following: -Review the state of knowledge of the planet Mars, with special emphasis on findings of the most recent Mars missions and related research activities; -Review the most important Mars research opportunities in the immediate future; -Review scientific priorities for the exploration of Mars identified by COMPLEX (and other scientific advisory groups) and their motivation, and consider the degree to which recent discoveries suggest a reordering of priorities; and -Assess the congruence between NASA's evolving Mars Exploration Program plan and these recommended priorities, and suggest any adjustments that might be warranted.

Notes on Earth Atmospheric Entry for Mars Sample Return Missions

Notes on Earth Atmospheric Entry for Mars Sample Return Missions
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006
  • Total pages :134
  • ISBN : NASA:31769000452527
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Summary :

Lunar Sourcebook

Lunar Sourcebook
  • Author : Grant Heiken,David Vaniman,Bevan M. French
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1991-04-26
  • Total pages :736
  • ISBN : 0521334446
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Summary : The only work to date to collect data gathered during the American and Soviet missions in an accessible and complete reference of current scientific and technical information about the Moon.

Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022

Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on the Planetary Science Decadal Survey
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-01-30
  • Total pages :398
  • ISBN : 9780309224642
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Summary : In recent years, planetary science has seen a tremendous growth in new knowledge. Deposits of water ice exist at the Moon's poles. Discoveries on the surface of Mars point to an early warm wet climate, and perhaps conditions under which life could have emerged. Liquid methane rain falls on Saturn's moon Titan, creating rivers, lakes, and geologic landscapes with uncanny resemblances to Earth's. Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022 surveys the current state of knowledge of the solar system and recommends a suite of planetary science flagship missions for the decade 2013-2022 that could provide a steady stream of important new discoveries about the solar system. Research priorities defined in the report were selected through a rigorous review that included input from five expert panels. NASA's highest priority large mission should be the Mars Astrobiology Explorer Cacher (MAX-C), a mission to Mars that could help determine whether the planet ever supported life and could also help answer questions about its geologic and climatic history. Other projects should include a mission to Jupiter's icy moon Europa and its subsurface ocean, and the Uranus Orbiter and Probe mission to investigate that planet's interior structure, atmosphere, and composition. For medium-size missions, Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022 recommends that NASA select two new missions to be included in its New Frontiers program, which explores the solar system with frequent, mid-size spacecraft missions. If NASA cannot stay within budget for any of these proposed flagship projects, it should focus on smaller, less expensive missions first. Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022 suggests that the National Science Foundation expand its funding for existing laboratories and establish new facilities as needed. It also recommends that the program enlist the participation of international partners. This report is a vital resource for government agencies supporting space science, the planetary science community, and the public.

Primitive Meteorites and Asteroids

Primitive Meteorites and Asteroids
  • Author : Neyda M. Abreu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-07-27
  • Total pages :558
  • ISBN : 9780128133262
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Summary : Primitive Meteorites and Asteroids: Physical, Chemical, and Spectroscopic Observations Paving the Way to Exploration covers the physical, chemical and spectroscopic aspects of asteroids, providing important data and research on carbonaceous chondrites and primitive meteorites. This information is crucial to the success of missions to parent bodies, thus contributing to an understanding of the early solar system. The book offers an interdisciplinary perspective relevant to many fields of planetary science, as well as cosmochemistry, planetary astronomy, astrobiology, geology and space engineering. Including contributions from planetary and missions scientists worldwide, the book collects the fundamental knowledge and cutting-edge research on carbonaceous chondrites and their parent bodies into one accessible resource, thus contributing to the future of space exploration. Presents the most current data and information on the mission-relevant characteristics of primitive asteroids Addresses the physical, chemical and spectral characteristics of carbonaceous chondritic meteorites and the bearings on successful exploration of their parent asteroids Includes chapters on geotechnical properties and resource extraction

From Habitability to Life on Mars

From Habitability to Life on Mars
  • Author : Nathalie A. Cabrol,Edmond A. Grin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-07-10
  • Total pages :390
  • ISBN : 9780128099360
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Summary : From Habitability to Life on Mars explores the current state of knowledge and questions on the past habitability of Mars and the role that rapid environmental changes may have played in the ability of prebiotic chemistry to transition to life. It investigates the role that such changes may have played in the preservation of biosignatures in the geological record and what this means for exploration strategies. Throughout the book, the authors show how the investigation of terrestrial analogs to early Martian habitats under various climates and environmental extremes provide critical clues to understand where, what and how to search for biosignatures on Mars. The authors present an introduction to the newest developments and state-of-the-art remote and in situ detection strategies and technologies that are being currently developed to support the upcoming ExoMars and Mars 2020 missions. They show how the current orbital and ground exploration is guiding the selection for future landing sites. Finally, the book concludes by discussing the critical question of the implications and ethics of finding life on Mars. Edited by the lead on a NASA project that searches for habitability and life on Mars leading to the Mars 2020 mission Presents the evidence, questions and answers we have today (including a summary of the current state of knowledge in advance of the ESA ExoMars and NASA Mars 2020 missions) Includes contributions from authors directly involved in past, current and upcoming Mars missions Provides key information as to how Mars rovers, such as ExoMars and Mars 2020, will address the search for life on Mars with their instrumentation

Moon Rush

Moon Rush
  • Author : Leonard David
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-05-07
  • Total pages :224
  • ISBN : 9781426220067
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Summary : Veteran space journalist digs into the science and technology--past, present, and future--central to our explorations of Earth's only satellite, the space destination most hotly pursued today. In these rich pages, veteran science journalist Leonard David explores the moon in all its facets, from ancient myth to future "Moon Village" plans. Illustrating his text with maps, graphics, and photographs, David offers inside information about how the United States, allies and competitors, as well as key private corporations like Moon Express and Jeff Bezos's Blue Origin, plan to reach, inhabit, and even harvest the moon in the decades to come. Spurred on by the Google Lunar XPRIZE--$20 million for the first to get to the moon and send images home--the 21st-century space race back to the moon has become more urgent, and more timely, than ever. Accounts of these new strategies are set against past efforts, including stories never before told about the Apollo missions and Cold War plans for military surveillance and missile launches from the moon. Timely and fascinating, this book sheds new light on our constant lunar companion, offering reasons to gaze up and see it in a different way than ever before.

Sample Return Missions to Small Bodies

Sample Return Missions to Small Bodies
  • Author : COSPAR. Scientific Commission B. B0.1 Symposium (Nagoya, Japan),COSPAR. Scientific Assembly
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000
  • Total pages :120
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105028811805
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Summary :

Handbook of Cosmic Hazards and Planetary Defense

Handbook of Cosmic Hazards and Planetary Defense
  • Author : Joseph N. Pelton,Firooz Allahdadi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-04-27
  • Total pages :1127
  • ISBN : 3319039512
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Summary : Covers in a comprehensive fashion all aspects of cosmic hazards and possible strategies for contending with these threats through a comprehensive planetary defense strategy. This handbook brings together in a single reference work a rich blend of information about the various types of cosmic threats that are posed to human civilization by asteroids, comets, bolides, meteors, solar flares and coronal mass ejections, cosmic radiation and other types of threats that are only recently beginning to be understood and studied, such as investigation of the “cracks” in the protective shield provided by the Van Allen belts and the geomagnetosphere, of matter-antimatter collisions, orbital debris and radiological or biological contamination. Some areas that are addressed involve areas about which there is a good deal of information that has been collected for many decades by multiple space missions run by many different space agencies, observatories and scientific researchers. Other areas involving research and studies that have only recently gotten underway are discussed by some of the world’s foremost experts in each of these areas, who provide up-to-date and scientifically verifiable information. Although much of the work in these various areas have been conducted by space agencies, an expanding range of work is also being carried out by observatories, by universities and other research centers, and even by private foundations and professional organizations. The purpose of this work is thus several-fold: to include the latest information and most systematic research from around the world in a single reference work; to note where there are significant gaps in knowledge where new research, spacecraft, observatories, or other initiatives are needed to fill in critical missing information; and to give the best possible information about preventative actions that might be taken against cosmic threats and identify various alternative strategies that are now under way or planned to cope with these various threats.

An Astrobiology Strategy for the Exploration of Mars

An Astrobiology Strategy for the Exploration of Mars
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Life Sciences,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on an Astrobiology Strategy for the Exploration of Mars
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-06-26
  • Total pages :130
  • ISBN : 0309179416
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Summary : Three recent developments have greatly increased interest in the search for life on Mars. The first is new information about the Martian environment including evidence of a watery past and the possibility of atmospheric methane. The second is the possibility of microbial viability on Mars. Finally, the Vision for Space Exploration initiative included an explicit directive to search for the evidence of life on Mars. These scientific and political developments led NASA to request the NRC’s assistance in formulating an up-to-date integrated astrobiology strategy for Mars exploration. Among other topics, this report presents a review of current knowledge about possible life on Mars; an astrobiological assessment of current Mars missions; a review of Mars-mission planetary protection; and findings and recommendations. The report notes that the greatest increase in understanding of Mars will come from the collection and return to Earth of a well-chosen suite of Martian surface materials.

Soviet and Russian Lunar Exploration

Soviet and Russian Lunar Exploration
  • Author : Brian Harvey
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-08-17
  • Total pages :318
  • ISBN : 9780387739762
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Summary : This book tells the story of the Soviet and Russian lunar programme, from its origins to the present-day federal Russian space programme. Brian Harvey describes the techniques devised by the USSR for lunar landing, from the LK lunar module to the LOK lunar orbiter and versions tested in Earth’s orbit. He asks whether these systems would have worked and examines how well they were tested. He concludes that political mismanagement rather than technology prevented the Soviet Union from landing cosmonauts on the moon. The book is well timed for the return to the moon by the United States and the first missions there by China and India.

The Genesis Mission

The Genesis Mission
  • Author : C.T. Russell
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003-07-31
  • Total pages :171
  • ISBN : 1402011253
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Summary : NASA's Genesis mission, launched on August 8, 2001 is the fifth mission in the Discovery series. Genesis addresses questions about the materials and processes involved in the origin of the solar system by providing precise knowledge of solar isotopic and elemental compositions for comparison with the compositions of meteoritic and planetary materials. This book describes the Genesis mission, the solar wind collector materials, the solar wind concentrator and simulations of its performance, the plasma ion and electron instruments, and the way these two instruments are used to determine the solar wind flow regime on board the spacecraft. The book is of interest to all potential users of the data returned by the Genesis mission, to those studying the isotopic and chemical composition of the early solar system whose work will be influenced by the measurements made by Genesis and by all those interested in the design and implementation of space instruments to study space plasmas.

Mars Sample Return Mission

Mars Sample Return Mission
  • Author : James R. French
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1986
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UCSD:31822026267823
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Summary :

Introduction to Mineralogy and Petrology

Introduction to Mineralogy and Petrology
  • Author : Swapan Kumar Haldar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-19
  • Total pages :354
  • ISBN : 9780124167100
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Summary : Introduction to Mineralogy and Petrology presents the essentials of both disciplines through an approach accessible to industry professionals, academic researchers, and students. Mineralogy and petrology stand as the backbone of the geosciences. Detailed knowledge of minerals and rocks and the process of formation and association are essential for practicing professionals and advanced students. This book is designed as an accessible, step-by-step guide to exploring, retaining, and implementing the core concepts of mineral and hydrocarbon exploration, mining, and extraction. Each topic is fully supported by working examples, diagrams and full-color images. The inclusion of petroleum, gas, metallic deposits and economic aspects enhance the book’s value as a practical reference for mineralogy and petrology. Authored by two of the world’s premier experts, this book is a must for any young professional, researcher, or student looking for a thorough and inclusive guide to mineralogy and petrology in a single source. Authored by two of the world’s experts in mineralogy and petrology, who have more than 70 years of experience in research and instruction combined Addresses the full scope of the core concepts of mineralogy and petrology, including crystal structure, formation and grouping of minerals and soils, definition, origin, structure and classification of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks Features more than 150 figures, illustrations, and color photographs to vividly explore the fundamental principles of mineralogy and petrology Offers a holistic approach to both subjects, beginning with the formation of geologic structures followed by the hosting of mineral deposits and concluding with the exploration and extraction of lucrative, usable products to improve the health of global economies

Automated Mars Surface Sample Return Mission Concepts for Achievement of Essential Scientific Objectives

Automated Mars Surface Sample Return Mission Concepts for Achievement of Essential Scientific Objectives
  • Author : William L. Weaver
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1975
  • Total pages :154
  • ISBN : UIUC:30112106661231
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Summary :

Benefits of in Situ Propellant Utilization for a Mars Sample Return Mission

Benefits of in Situ Propellant Utilization for a Mars Sample Return Mission
  • Author : Mary F. Wadel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1993
  • Total pages :13
  • ISBN : NASA:31769000604325
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Summary :

Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions

Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on the Review of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-06-06
  • Total pages :90
  • ISBN : 9780309130738
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Summary : NASA maintains a planetary protection policy to avoid the forward biological contamination of other worlds by terrestrial organisms, and back biological contamination of Earth from the return of extraterrestrial materials by spaceflight missions. Forward-contamination issues related to Mars missions were addressed in a 2006 National Research Council (NRC) book, Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars. However, it has been more than 10 years since back-contamination issues were last examined. Driven by a renewed interest in Mars sample return missions, this book reviews, updates, and replaces the planetary protection conclusions and recommendations contained in the NRC's 1997 report Mars Sample Return: Issues and Recommendations. The specific issues addressed in this book include the following: The potential for living entities to be included in samples returned from Mars; Scientific investigations that should be conducted to reduce uncertainty in the above assessment; The potential for large-scale effects on Earth's environment by any returned entity released to the environment; Criteria for intentional sample release, taking note of current and anticipated regulatory frameworks; and The status of technological measures that could be taken on a mission to prevent the inadvertent release of a returned sample into Earth's biosphere.