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Science and Technology of Enrobed and Filled Chocolate, Confectionery and Bakery Products

Science and Technology of Enrobed and Filled Chocolate, Confectionery and Bakery Products
  • Author : Geoff Talbot
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-06-26
  • Total pages :468
  • ISBN : 9781845696436
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Summary : Enrobed and filled confectionery and bakery products, such as praline-style chocolates, confectionery bars and chocolate-coated biscuits and ice-creams, are popular with consumers. The coating and filling can negatively affect product quality and shelf-life, but with the correct product design and manufacturing technology, the characteristics of the end-product can be much improved. This book provides a comprehensive overview of quality issues affecting enrobed and filled products and strategies to enhance product quality. Part one reviews the formulation of coatings and fillings, with chapters on key topics such as chocolate manufacture, confectionery fats, compound coatings and fat and sugar-based fillings. Product design issues, such as oil, moisture and ethanol migration and chocolate and filling rheology are the focus of Part two. Shelf-life prediction and testing are also discussed. Part three then covers the latest ingredient preparation and manufacturing technology for optimum product quality. Chapters examine tempering, enrobing, chocolate panning, production of chocolate shells and deposition technology. With its experienced team of authors, Science and technology of enrobed and filled chocolate, confectionery and bakery products is an essential purchase for professionals in the chocolate, confectionery and bakery industries. Provides a comprehensive review of quality issues affecting enrobed and filled products Reviews the formulation of coatings and fillings, addressing confectionery fats, compound coatings and sugar based fillings Focuses on product design issues such as oil, moisture and chocolate filling rheology

Science and Technology of Enrobed and Filled Chocolate, Confectionery and Bakery Products

Science and Technology of Enrobed and Filled Chocolate, Confectionery and Bakery Products
  • Author : Geoff Talbot
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009
  • Total pages :468
  • ISBN : 1845693906
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Summary : Enrobed and filled confectionery and bakery products, such as praline-style chocolates, confectionery bars and chocolate-coated biscuits and ice-creams, are popular with consumers. The coating and filling can negatively affect product quality and shelf-life, but with the correct product design and manufacturing technology, the characteristics of the end-product can be much improved. This book provides a comprehensive overview of quality issues affecting enrobed and filled products and strategies to enhance product quality. Part one reviews the formulation of coatings and fillings, with chapters on key topics such as chocolate manufacture, confectionery fats, compound coatings and fat and sugar-based fillings. Product design issues, such as oil, moisture and ethanol migration and chocolate and filling rheology are the focus of Part two. Shelf-life prediction and testing are also discussed. Part three then covers the latest ingredient preparation and manufacturing technology for optimum product quality. Chapters examine tempering, enrobing, chocolate panning, production of chocolate shells and deposition technology. With its experienced team of authors, Science and technology of enrobed and filled chocolate, confectionery and bakery products is an essential purchase for professionals in the chocolate, confectionery and bakery industries. Provides a comprehensive review of quality issues affecting enrobed and filled products Reviews the formulation of coatings and fillings, addressing confectionery fats, compound coatings and sugar based fillings Focuses on product design issues such as oil, moisture and chocolate filling rheology

Technology of Coated and Filled Chocolate, Confectionery and Bakery Products

Technology of Coated and Filled Chocolate, Confectionery and Bakery Products
  • Author : G. Talbot
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-07-28
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 1439801363
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Summary : A comprehensive overview of quality issues affecting enrobed and filled products and strategies to enhance product quality, this book reviews the formulation of coating and fillings. It begins with coverage of chocolate manufacture, confectionary fats, compound coatings, and fat and sugar-based fillings. Building on this foundation, the book discusses product design issues, such as oil, moisture, and ethanol migration as well as chocolate and filling rheology and shelf-life prediction. It concludes with examinations of ingredient preparation and manufacturing technology for optimum product quality, tempering, enrobing, chocolate panning, production of chocolate shells, and deposition technology.

The Science of Chocolate

The Science of Chocolate
  • Author : Stephen Beckett
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-10-31
  • Total pages :190
  • ISBN : 9781847552143
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Summary : Chocolate is available to today's consumers in a variety of colours, shapes and textures. But how many of us, as we savour our favourite brand, consider the science that has gone into its manufacture? This book describes the complete chocolate making process, from the growing of the beans to the sale in the shops. The Science of Chocolate first describes the history of this intriguing substance. Subsequent chapters cover the ingredients and processing techniques, enabling the reader to discover not only how confectionery is made but also how basic science plays a vital role with coverage of scientific principles such as latent and specific heat, Maillard reactions and enzyme processes. There is also discussion of the monitoring and controlling of the production process, and the importance, and variety, of the packaging used today. A series of experiments, which can be adapted to suit students of almost any age, is included to demonstrate the physical, chemical or mathematical principles involved. Ideal for those studying food science or about to join the confectionery industry, this mouth-watering title will also be of interest to anyone with a desire to know more about the production of the world's favourite confectionery.

Confectionery Science and Technology

Confectionery Science and Technology
  • Author : Richard W. Hartel,Joachim H. von Elbe,Randy Hofberger
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-10-09
  • Total pages :536
  • ISBN : 9783319617428
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Summary : This book examines both the primary ingredients and the processing technology for making candies. In the first section, the chemistry, structure, and physical properties of the primary ingredients are described, as are the characteristics of commercial ingredients. The second section explores the processing steps for each of the major sugar confectionery groups, while the third section covers chocolate and coatings. The manner in which ingredients function together to provide the desired texture and sensory properties of the product is analyzed, and chemical reactions and physical changes that occur during processing are examined. Trouble shooting and common problems are also discussed in each section. Designed as a complete reference and guide, Confectionery Science and Technology provides personnel in industry with solutions to the problems concerning the manufacture of high-quality confectionery products.

Specialty Oils and Fats in Food and Nutrition

Specialty Oils and Fats in Food and Nutrition
  • Author : Geoff Talbot
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-06-29
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9781782423973
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Summary : Specialty Oils and Fats in Food and Nutrition: Properties, Processing and Applications examines the main specialty oils and fats currently in use in food processing, as well as those with significant potential. Specialty oils and fats have an increasing number of applications in the food industry, due to growing consumer interest in “clean label functional foods and the emerging markets in “free-from and specialist foods. Part One of this book covers the properties and processing of specialty oils and fats, with a focus on the chemistry, extraction, and quality of different fats and oils, including chapters on shea butter, tropical exotic oils, and structured triglycerides. Part Two looks at the applications of specialty oils and fats in different food and nutraceutical products, such as confectionary, ice cream, and margarine. Specialty Oils and Fats in Food and Nutrition is a key text for R&D managers and product development personnel working in the dairy, baking, and dairy analogue sectors, or any sector using fats and oils. It is a particularly useful reference point for companies reformulating their products or developing new products to alter fat content, as well as academics with a research interest in the area, such as lipid scientists or food scientists. Authored by an industry expert with 35 years of experience working for Unilever and Loders Croklaan Broad coverage encompasses tropical exotic oils, tree nut oils, algal oils, GM vegetable oils, and more Addresses growing application areas including nutraceuticals, infant formula, and ice cream and confectionery

Food and Beverage Stability and Shelf Life

Food and Beverage Stability and Shelf Life
  • Author : David Kilcast,Persis Subramaniam
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-04-08
  • Total pages :864
  • ISBN : 9780857092540
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Summary : Ensuring that foods and beverages remain stable during the required shelf life is critical to their success in the market place, yet companies experience difficulties in this area. Food and beverage stability and shelf life provides a comprehensive guide to factors influencing stability, methods of stability and shelf life assessment and the stability and shelf life of major products. Part one describes important food and beverage quality deterioration processes, including microbiological spoilage and physical instability. Chapters in this section also investigate the effects of ingredients, processing and packaging on stability, among other factors. Part two describes methods for stability and shelf life assessment including food storage trials, accelerated testing and shelf life modelling. Part three reviews the stability and shelf life of a wide range of products, including beer, soft drinks, fruit, bread, oils, confectionery products, milk and seafood. With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Food and beverage stability and shelf life is a valuable reference for professionals involved in quality assurance and product development and researchers focussing on food and beverage stability. A comprehensive guide to factors influencing stability, methods of stability and shelf life assessment and the stability and shelf life of major products Describes important food and beverage quality deterioration processes exploring microbiological spoilage and physical instability Investigate the effects of ingredients, processing and packaging on stability and documents methods for stability and shelf life assessment

The Stability and Shelf Life of Food

The Stability and Shelf Life of Food
  • Author : Persis Subramaniam,Peter Wareing
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-05-24
  • Total pages :612
  • ISBN : 9780081004364
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Summary : The second edition of The Stability and Shelf-life of Food is a fully revised and thoroughly updated edition of this highly-successful book. This new edition covers methods for shelf-life and stability evaluation, reviewing the modelling and testing of the deterioration of products as well as the use of sensory evaluation methods for testing food spoilage. The first part of the book focuses on deteriorative processes and factors influencing shelf-life, covering aspects such as chemical deterioration, physical instability and microbiological spoilage. The effects of process and packaging on the stability and shelf-life of products are also covered in this part. Part Two reviews the methods for shelf life and stability evaluation. These include sensory evaluation methods and instrumental methods to determine food quality deterioration. The final section of the book covers stability of important ingredient categories, from oils and fats, to beverages such as beer, wine, coffee and fruit juices, in addition to bakery products and meats. With updated chapters reflecting advances made in the field and with the addition of new chapters covering the stability and shelf-life a variety of products, this new edition will provide the latest research for both academics working in the field of food quality as well as providing essential information for food scientists working in industry. Thoroughly revised and updated edition of a very popular and well regarded book Includes dedicated chapters covering the shelf-life and stability of specific products making this book ideal for those working in industry Presents a wide coverage of the processes and factors influencing shelf-life, the evaluation of stability and shelf-life and the stability and shelf-life of particular products makes this book valuable for both academics and those working in industry

The Science of Sugar Confectionery

The Science of Sugar Confectionery
  • Author : William P Edwards
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-11-09
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9781782626091
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Summary : Confectionery is a topic close to many people's hearts and its manufacture involves some interesting science. The confectionery industry is divided into three classes: chocolate, flour and sugar confectionery. It is the background science of this latter category that is covered in The Science of Sugar Confectionery. The manufacture of confectionery is not a science based industry, as these products have traditionally been created by skilled confectioners working empirically. In fact, scientific understanding of the production process has only been acquired retroactively. Historically however, sugar confectionery has had technological synergies with the pharmaceutical industry, such as making sugar tablets and applying panned sugar coatings. This book gives an introduction to the subject, with some basic definitions and commonly used ingredients and then moves on to discuss the chemistry of various types of sugar confectionery. These include "sugar glasses" (boiled sweets), "grained sugar products" (fondants), toffees and fudges, "hydrocolloids" (gums, pastilles and jellies) and concludes with a chapter dedicated to sugar-free confectionery.

The Technology of Wafers and Waffles I

The Technology of Wafers and Waffles I
  • Author : Karl F. Tiefenbacher
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-05-16
  • Total pages :712
  • ISBN : 9780128114520
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Summary : The Technology of Wafers and Waffles: Operational Aspects is the definitive reference book on wafer and waffle technology and manufacture. It covers specific ingredient technology (including water quality, wheat flour, starches, dextrins, oils and fats) and delves extensively into the manufacturing elements and technological themes in wafer manufacturing, including no/low sugar wafers, hygroscopic wafers, fillings and enrobing. The book explains, in detail, operating procedures such as mixing, baking, filling, cooling, cutting and packaging for every type of wafer: flat and shaped wafers for making biscuits, ice cream cones, cups, wafer reels, wafer sticks (flute wafers) and biscuit wafers. It also explores the various types of European (Belgian) waffles and North American frozen waffles. Serves as a complete reference book on wafer and waffle technology and manufacturing, the first of its kind Covers specific ingredient technology such as water quality, wheat flour, starches, dextrins, oils and fats for wafer and waffles Explores wafer and waffle product types, development, ingredients, manufacturing and quality assurance Explains the scientific background of wafer and waffle baking Informs both artisan and industrial bakers about many related areas of bakery product manufacturing

Food Processing Technology

Food Processing Technology
  • Author : P J Fellows
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-10-04
  • Total pages :1152
  • ISBN : 9780081005231
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Summary : Food Processing Technology: Principles and Practice, Fourth Edition, has been updated and extended to include the many developments that have taken place since the third edition was published. The new edition includes an overview of the component subjects in food science and technology, processing stages, important aspects of food industry management not otherwise considered (e.g. financial management, marketing, food laws and food industry regulation), value chains, the global food industry, and over-arching considerations (e.g. environmental issues and sustainability). In addition, there are new chapters on industrial cooking, heat removal, storage, and distribution, along with updates on all the remaining chapters. This updated edition consolidates the position of this foundational book as the best single-volume introduction to food manufacturing technologies available, remaining as the most adopted standard text for many food science and technology courses. Updated edition completely revised with new developments on all the processing stages and aspects of food industry management not otherwise considered (e.g. financial management, marketing, food laws, and food industry regulation), and more Introduces a range of processing techniques that are used in food manufacturing Explains the key principles of each process, including the equipment used and the effects of processing on micro-organisms that contaminate foods Describes post-processing operations, including packaging and distribution logistics Includes extra textbook elements, such as videos and calculations slides, in addition to summaries of key points in each chapter

Chocolate, Cocoa and Confectionery: Science and Technology

Chocolate, Cocoa and Confectionery: Science and Technology
  • Author : Bernard Minifie
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :904
  • ISBN : 9789401179249
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Summary : The second edition of this book achieved worldwide recognition within the chocolate and confectionery industry. I was pressed to prepare the third edition to include modern developments in machinery, production, and packaging. This has been a formidable task and has taken longer than anticipated. Students still require, in one book, descriptions of the fundamental principles of the industry as well as an insight into modern methods. Therefore, parts of the previous edition describing basic technology have been retained, with minor alterations where necessary. With over fifty years' experience in the industry and the past eighteen years working as an author, lecturer, and consultant, I have collected a great deal of useful information. Visits to trade exhibitions and to manufacturers of raw materials and machinery in many parts of the world have been very valuable. Much research and reading have been necessary to prepare for teaching and lecturing at various colleges, seminars, and manufacturing establishments. The third edition is still mainly concerned with science, technology, and production. It is not a book of formulations, which are readily available elsewhere. Formulations without knowledge of principles lead to many errors, and recipes are given only where examples are necessary. _ Analytical methods are described only when they are not available in textbooks, of which there are many on standard methods of food analysis. Acknowledgments I am still indebted to many of the persons mentioned under "Acknowledgments" in the second edition. I am especially grateful to the following.

Biscuit, Cookie and Cracker Process and Recipes

Biscuit, Cookie and Cracker Process and Recipes
  • Author : Glyn Barry Sykes,Iain Davidson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-02-28
  • Total pages :248
  • ISBN : 9780128206133
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Summary : Biscuit, Cookie and Cracker Process and Recipes: A practical reference for a wide range of recipes and production information for crackers, snack crackers, semi-sweet biscuits, short doughs, cookies and sandwich biscuits. These recipes have been developed in Europe, Asia, Australia, North America and South America. Beginning with an explanation of the production process and formulations, this book provides easy-access information for developing new biscuits, cookies and crackers for international markets. All the process details, formulations, technical information are based on the notes and files of the late Glyn Sykes. Glyn gained wide experience over a working lifetime in the biscuit baking industry, working with over fifty biscuit manufacturers world-wide. Glyn Sykes family have made the information available for the new book, which is a valuable reference for professionals in the biscuit baking industry and students in the food technology field. Includes more than 200 recipes and images to show the process of making crackers, semi-sweet biscuits, short dough biscuits and cookies Presents practical recipes as the basis for development of products using locally available ingredients and production equipment Provides insight from long experience in the baking industry world-wide

Sugar Confectionery and Chocolate Manufacture

Sugar Confectionery and Chocolate Manufacture
  • Author : R. Lees
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :380
  • ISBN : 9781468414950
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Summary : The authors had five objectives in preparing this book: (i) to bring together relevant information on many raw materials used in the manufacture of sweets and chocolate; (ii) to describe the principles involved and to relate them to production with maximum economy but maintaining high quality; (iii) to describe both traditional and modern production processes, in par ticular those continuous methods which are finding increasing application; (iv) to give basic recipes and methods, set out in a form for easy reference, for producing a large variety of sweets, and capable of easy modification to suit the raw materials and plant available; (v) to explain the elementary calculations most likely to be required. The various check lists and charts, showing the more likely faults and how to eliminate them, reflect the fact that art still plays no small part in this industry. To help users all over the world, whatever units they employ, most for mulations are given in parts by weight, but tables of conversion factors are provided at the end of the book. There also will be found a collection of other general reference data in tabular form; while the Glossary explains a number of technical terms, many of them peculiar to the industry.

Edible Films and Coatings for Food Applications

Edible Films and Coatings for Food Applications
  • Author : Milda E. Embuscado,Kerry C. Huber
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-06-10
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 0387928243
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Summary : Edible films and coatings play an important role in the quality, safety, transportation, storage, and display of a wide range of fresh and processed foods. Edible films and coatings, while preventing moisture loss and maintaining quality, prevent spoilage and microbial contamination of foods. The edible film and coating industry is now a multimillion dollar industry. Less than $1 million in 1999, the market has grown to more than $100 million and is expected to grow to $350 million by 2008, according to James Rossman of Rossman Consulting. Pharmaceutical and consumer products have been responsible for the tremendous increase. This growth has produced an enormous amount of scientific articles, patents, and research projects undertaken by members of the food industry, academia, and research institutions. Edible Films and Coatings for Food Applications brings together this vast wealth of scientific knowledge in a systematically organized volume. It examines the science, application, function, and market for edible films and coatings.

Industrial Chocolate Manufacture and Use

Industrial Chocolate Manufacture and Use
  • Author : S. T. Beckett
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :408
  • ISBN : 9781461521112
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Summary :

Technology of Biscuits, Crackers, and Cookies

Technology of Biscuits, Crackers, and Cookies
  • Author : Duncan Manley
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000
  • Total pages :499
  • ISBN : 1855735326
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Summary : The first edition of Duncan Manley's reference book Technology of biscuits, crackers and cookies quickly established itself as the essential reference for anyone involved in the manufacture of biscuits, cookies and crackers. The publication of a fully revised and updated new edition will be warmly welcomed by this important industry. It is almost ten years since the publication of the second edition of this book. The pace of change witnessed by the food industry over the last decade more than justifies the publication of a fully revised and updated third edition. The increasing importance of safety and quality issues has led to a new chapter on TQM and HACCP. Another significant development in the past ten years has been the demand from consumers for increasingly innovative and nutritionally valuable foods. Manley has extensively revised and expanded the sections on product development and included new material on nutritional issues to enable manufacturers to meet these demands.

Chocolate Science and Technology

Chocolate Science and Technology
  • Author : Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-05-05
  • Total pages :536
  • ISBN : 9781118913772
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Summary : This second edition provides information on recent advances in the science and technology of chocolate manufacture and the entire international cocoa industry. It provides detailed review on a wide range of topics including cocoa production, cocoa and chocolate manufacturing operations, sensory perception of chocolate quality, flavour release and perception, sugar replacement and alternative sweetening solutions in chocolate production, industrial manufacture of sugar-free chocolates as well as the nutrition and health benefits of cocoa and chocolate consumption. The topics cover modern cocoa cultivation and production practices with special attention on cocoa bean composition, genotypic variations in the bean, post-harvest pre-treatments, fermentation and drying processes, and the biochemical basis of these operations. The scientific principles behind industrial chocolate manufacture are outlined with detailed explanations of the various stages of chocolate manufacturing including mixing, refining, conching and tempering. Other topics covered include the chemistry of flavour formation and development during cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture; volatile flavour compounds and their characteristics and identification; sensory descriptions and character; and flavour release and perception in chocolate. The nutritional and health benefits of cocoa and chocolate consumption as well as the application of HACCP and other food safety management systems such as ISO 22,000 in the chocolate processing industry are also addressed. Additionally, detailed research on the influence of different raw materials and processing operations on the flavour and other quality characteristics of chocolates have been provided with scope for process optimization and improvement. The book is intended to be a desk reference for all those engaged in the business of making and using chocolate worldwide; confectionery and chocolate scientists in industry and academia; students and practising food scientists and technologists; nutritionists and other health professionals; and libraries of institutions where agriculture, food science and nutrition is studied and researched.

Confectionery and Chocolate Engineering

Confectionery and Chocolate Engineering
  • Author : Ferenc A. Mohos
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-02-06
  • Total pages :792
  • ISBN : 9781118939772
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Summary : Confectionery and chocolate manufacture has been dominated by large-scale industrial processing for several decades. It is often the case though, that a trial and error approach is applied to the development of new products and processes, rather than verified scientific principles. Confectionery and Chocolate Engineering: Principles and Applications, Second edition, adds to information presented in the first edition on essential topics such as food safety, quality assurance, sweets for special nutritional purposes, artizan chocolate, and confectioneries. In addition, information is provided on the fading memory of viscoelastic fluids, which are briefly discussed in terms of fractional calculus, and gelation as a second order phase transition. Chemical operations such as inversion, caramelization, and the Maillard reaction, as well as the complex operations including conching, drying, frying, baking, and roasting used in confectionery manufacture are also described. This book provides food engineers, scientists, technologists and students in research, industry, and food and chemical engineering-related courses with a scientific, theoretical description and analysis of confectionery manufacturing, opening up new possibilities for process and product improvement, relating to increased efficiency of operations, the use of new materials, and new applications for traditional raw materials.

Food Processing Technology

Food Processing Technology
  • Author : P.J. Fellows
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-07-28
  • Total pages :928
  • ISBN : 143980821X
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Summary : Widely regarded as a standard work in its field, this book introduces the range of processing techniques that are used in food manufacturing. It explains the principles of each process, the processing equipment used, operating conditions and the effects of processing on micro-organisms that contaminate foods, the biochemical properties of foods and their sensory and nutritional qualities. The book begins with an overview of important basic concepts. It describes unit operations that take place at ambient temperature or involve minimum heating of foods. Subsequent chapters examine operations that heat foods to preserve them or alter their eating quality, and explore operations that remove heat from foods to extend their shelf life with minimal changes in nutritional quality or sensory characteristics. Finally, the book reviews post-processing operations, including packaging and distribution logistics. The third edition has been substantially rewritten, updated and extended to include the many developments in food technology that have taken place since the second edition was published in 2000. Nearly all unit operations have undergone significant developments, and these are reflected in the large amount of additional material in each chapter. In particular, advances in microprocessor control of equipment, ‘minimal’ processing technologies, genetic modification of foods, functional foods, developments in ‘active’ or ‘intelligent’ packaging, and storage and distribution logistics are described. Developments in technologies that relate to cost savings, environmental improvement or enhanced product quality are highlighted. Additionally, sections in each chapter on the impact of processing on food-borne micro-organisms are included for the first time.

Snack Food

Snack Food
  • Author : R. Gordon Booth
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :402
  • ISBN : 9781461314776
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Summary : Rather than containing for the most part fairly detailed food science and technology intended for daily use and reference by food scientists and technologists, this book is designed for use by a much wider range of readers concerned with a particular and rapidly expanding area of food production, promotion, marketing, and packaging. A certain amount of basic detail is provided to enable relatively rough estimates of the production methods and packaging facilities necessary to enable new or improved items to be made, but the overall emphasis is on the wide range of food products that can now quite legitimately be regarded as coming within the broad definition of foods used as snacks, as contrasted with main meals. Thus, we start with the basic requirements to be met in a snack food whatever its nature, and follow with the great variety of items nowadays used 3..'l snacks or as adjuvants to snacks, concluding with an assessment of nutritional consequences of the growth of "snacking" or "browsing," and with the special packaging requirements of snack foods.