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Seismic Fracture Characterization

Seismic Fracture Characterization
  • Author : Enru Liu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-12-06
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9789073834507
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Summary : During the last three decades, seismic anisotropy has evolved from a purely academic research topic into applications in the mainstream of applied geophysics. Today, nobody doubts that the earth is anisotropic and most (if not all) hydrocarbon reservoirs are anisotropic. Since shale accounts for 70% of sedimentary basins and fractures exist in all reservoirs, seismic anisotropy may be even more extensive than we think. Taking anisotropy into account in seismic processing has improved the quality of seismic images, even though it makes seismic processing more challenging since additional parameters are needed. At the same time, fracture characterization using the concept of seismic anisotropy has added value in reservoir characterization, reservoir management, and has increased recovery and optimized well locations. This book and the associated course provide an introduction to the fundamental concepts of seismic fracture characterization by introducing seismic anisotropy, equivalent-medium representation theories of fractured rock and methodologies for extracting fracture parameters from seismic data. We focus on practical applications using extensive field data examples. Includes cast studies demonstrating the applicability, workflow and limitations of this technology Contains physical laboratory 3D experiments where fracture distributions are known, a Middle East fractured carbonate reservoir and a fractured tight gas reservoir. Builds discrete fracture network models incorporating all data. These models should not only be geologically consistent but also geophysically and geomechanically consistent, so that the models can be used to forecast the behaviour and performance of fractured reservoirs.

Seismology of Azimuthally Anisotropic Media and Seismic Fracture Characterization

Seismology of Azimuthally Anisotropic Media and Seismic Fracture Characterization
  • Author : Ilya Tsvankin,Vladimir Grechka
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011
  • Total pages :491
  • ISBN : 0931830478
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Summary :

Seismology of Azimuthally Anisotropic Media and Seismic Fracture Characterization

Seismology of Azimuthally Anisotropic Media and Seismic Fracture Characterization
  • Author : I. D. T︠S︡vankin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011
  • Total pages :491
  • ISBN : 9781560802280
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Summary :

Natural Fracture Characterization Using Passive Seismic Illumination

Natural Fracture Characterization Using Passive Seismic Illumination
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003
  • Total pages :23
  • ISBN : OCLC:68488763
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Summary : The presence of natural fractures in reservoir rock can significantly enhance gas production, especially in tight gas formations. Any general knowledge of the existence, location, orientation, spatial density, and connectivity of natural fractures, as well as general reservoir structure, that can be obtained prior to active seismic acquisition and drilling can be exploited to identify key areas for subsequent higher resolution active seismic imaging. Current practices for estimating fracture properties before the acquisition of surface seismic data are usually based on the assumed geology and tectonics of the region, and empirical or fracture mechanics-based relationships between stratigraphic curvature and fracturing. The objective of this research is to investigate the potential of multicomponent surface sensor arrays, and passive seismic sources in the form of local earthquakes to identify and characterize potential fractured gas reservoirs located near seismically active regions. To assess the feasibility of passive seismic fracture detection and characterization, we have developed numerical codes for modeling elastic wave propagation in reservoir structures containing multiple, finite-length fractures. This article describes our efforts to determine the conditions for favorable excitation of fracture converted waves, and to develop an imaging method that can be used to locate and characterize fractures using multicomponent, passive seismic data recorded on a surface array.

Seismic Fracture Characterization Methodologies for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

Seismic Fracture Characterization Methodologies for Enhanced Geothermal Systems
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016
  • Total pages :155
  • ISBN : OCLC:951617310
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Summary : Executive Summary The overall objective of this work was the development of surface and borehole seismic methodologies using both compressional and shear waves for characterizing faults and fractures in Enhanced Geothermal Systems. We used both surface seismic and vertical seismic profile (VSP) methods. We adapted these methods to the unique conditions encountered in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) creation. These conditions include geological environments with volcanic cover, highly altered rocks, severe structure, extreme near surface velocity contrasts and lack of distinct velocity contrasts at depth. One of the objectives was the development of methods for identifying more appropriate seismic acquisition parameters for overcoming problems associated with these geological factors. Because temperatures up to 300ð C are often encountered in these systems, another objective was the testing of VSP borehole tools capable of operating at depths in excess of 1,000 m and at temperatures in excess of 200ð C.A final objective was the development of new processing and interpretation techniques based on scattering and time-frequency analysis, as well as the application of modern seismic migration imaging algorithms to seismic data acquired over geothermal areas. The use of surface seismic reflection data at Brady's Hot Springs was found useful in building a geological model, but only when combined with other extensive geological and geophysical data. The use of fine source and geophone spacing was critical in producing useful images. The surface seismic reflection data gave no information about the internal structure (extent, thickness and filling) of faults and fractures, and modeling suggests that they are unlikely to do so. Time-frequency analysis was applied to these data, but was not found to be significantly useful in their interpretation. Modeling does indicate that VSP and other seismic methods with sensors located at depth in wells will be the most effective seismic tools for getting information on the internal structure of faults and fractures in support of fluid flow pathway management and EGS treatment. Scattered events similar to those expected from faults and fractures are seen in the VSP reported here. Unfortunately, the source offset and well depth coverage do not allow for detailed analysis of these events. This limited coverage also precluded the use of advanced migration and imaging algorithms. More extensive acquisition is needed to support fault and fracture characterization in the geothermal reservoir at Brady's Hot Springs. The VSP was effective in generating interval velocity estimates over the depths covered by the array. Upgoing reflection events are also visible in the VSP results at locations corresponding to reflection events in the surface seismic. Overall, the high temperature rated fiber optic sensors used in the VSP produced useful results. Modeling has been found useful in the interpretation of both surface reflection seismic and VSP data. It has helped identify possible near surface scattering in the surface seismic data. It has highlighted potential scattering events from deeper faults in the VSP data. Inclusion of more detailed fault and fracture specific stiffness parameters are needed to fully interpret fault and fracture scattered events for flow properties (Pyrak-Nolte and Morris, 2000, Zhu and Snieder, 2002). Shear wave methods were applied in both the surface seismic reflection and VSP work. They were not found to be effective in the Brady's Hot Springs area. This was due to the extreme attenuation of shear waves in the near surface at Brady's. This does not imply that they will be ineffective in general. In geothermal areas where good shear waves can be recorded, modeling suggests they should be very useful for characterizing faults and fractures.

Seismology of Azimuthally Anisotropic Media and Seismic Fracture Characterization

Seismology of Azimuthally Anisotropic Media and Seismic Fracture Characterization
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011
  • Total pages :491
  • ISBN : 0931830478
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Summary :

Seismology of Azimuthally Anisotropic Media and Seismic Fracture Characterization

Seismology of Azimuthally Anisotropic Media and Seismic Fracture Characterization
  • Author : I. D. Tsvankin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011
  • Total pages :491
  • ISBN : 0931830478
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Summary :

Seismology of Azimuthally Anisotropic Media and Seismic Fracture Characterization

Seismology of Azimuthally Anisotropic Media and Seismic Fracture Characterization
  • Author : Ilya D. Tsvankin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011
  • Total pages :491
  • ISBN : 0931830478
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Summary :

Seismic Characterization of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

Seismic Characterization of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
  • Author : Reeshidev Bansal
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007
  • Total pages :418
  • ISBN : OCLC:171176621
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Summary :

Fracture Characterization from Seismic Measurements in a Borehole

Fracture Characterization from Seismic Measurements in a Borehole
  • Author : Sudhish Kumar Bakku
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015
  • Total pages :227
  • ISBN : OCLC:910512900
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Summary : Fracture characterization is important for optimal recovery of hydrocarbons. In this thesis, we develop techniques to characterize natural and hydraulic fractures using seismic measurements in a borehole. We first develop methods to characterize a fracture intersecting an open borehole by studying tubewave generation and attenuation at the fracture. By numerically studying the dispersion relation for fluid pressure in the fracture, we show that the tubewave measurements made in the transition regime from low to high frequency can constrain fracture compliance, aperture and length, while measurements made in the high-frequency regime can place a lower bound on fracture compliance. Analysis of field data suggest a large compliance value (10- 0m/Pa) for a meter-scale fracture and supports scaling of fracture compliance and applicability of scattering based methods for fracture characterization on a reservoir scale. We next study Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS), a novel Fiber Optic (FO) cable based seismic acquisition technology. We relate DAS measurements to traditional geophone measurements and make a comprehensive study of factors that influence DAS measurements. Using a layered borehole model, we analytically compare the sensitivity of DAS measurements to P- and S-wave incidence at arbitrary angles for the cases when the FO cable is installed in the borehole fluid or when cemented outside the casing. In addition, we study the azimuthal placement of the cable, the effect of cable design, and the effect of environmental conditions on time-lapse measurements. We show that DAS is a reliable tool for time-lapse monitoring. Finally, we analyze time-lapse DAS Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) data collected during a multi-stage hydraulic fracture treatment of a well drilled into a tight gas sandstone reservoir. We develop a processing workflow to mitigate the unique challenges posed by DAS data and propose methods for DAS depth calibration. We observe systematic and long-lived (over 10 days) time-lapse changes in the amplitudes of direct P-waves and nearly no phase changes due to stimulation. We argue that the time-lapse changes cannot be explained by measurement factors alone and that they may be correlated to the stimulated volume. Though the current geometry is not ideal, DAS is promising for hydraulic fracture monitoring.

Field Experiments for Fracture Characterization

Field Experiments for Fracture Characterization
  • Author : Nedra Danielle Bonal
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007
  • Total pages :350
  • ISBN : OCLC:213450980
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Summary :

Integrating 3D Seismic Curvature and Curvature Gradient Attributes for Fracture Characterization

Integrating 3D Seismic Curvature and Curvature Gradient Attributes for Fracture Characterization
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:953404875
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Summary : In 3D seismic interpretation, curvature is a popular attribute that depicts the geometry of seismic reflectors and has been widely used to detect faults in the subsurface; however, it provides only part of the solutions to subsurface structure analysis. This study extends the curvature algorithm to a new curvature gradient algorithm, and integrates both algorithms for fracture detection using a 3D seismic test data set over Teapot Dome (Wyoming). In fractured reservoirs at Teapot Dome known to be formed by tectonic folding and faulting, curvature helps define the crestal portion of the reservoirs that is associated with strong seismic amplitude and high oil productivity. In contrast, curvature gradient helps better define the regional northwest-trending and the cross-regional northeast-trending lineaments that are associated with weak seismic amplitude and low oil productivity. In concert with previous reports from image logs, cores, and outcrops, the current study based on an integrated seismic curvature and curvature gradient analysis suggests that curvature might help define areas of enhanced potential to form tensile fractures, whereas curvature gradient might help define zones of enhanced potential to develop shear fractures. In certain fractured reservoirs such as at Teapot Dome where faulting and fault-related folding contribute dominantly to the formation and evolution of fractures, curvature and curvature gradient attributes can be potentially applied to differentiate fracture mode, to predict fracture intensity and orientation, to detect fracture volume and connectivity, and to model fracture networks.

VSP [Vertical Seismic Profiling] and Cross Hole Tomographic Imaging for Fracture Characterization

VSP [Vertical Seismic Profiling] and Cross Hole Tomographic Imaging for Fracture Characterization
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1989
  • Total pages :10
  • ISBN : OCLC:727242755
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Summary : For the past several years LBL has been carrying out experiments at various fractured rock sites to determine the fundamental nature of the propagation of seismic waves in fractured media. These experiments have been utilizing high frequency (1000 to 10000 Hz.) signals in a cross-hole configuration at scales of several tens of meters. Three component sources and receivers are used to map fracture density, and orientation. The goal of the experiments has been to relate the seismological parameters to the hydrological parameters, if possible, in order to provide a more accurate description of a starting model for hydrological characterization. The work is ultimately aimed at the characterization and monitoring of the Yucca Mountain site for the storage of nuclear waste. In addition to these controlled experiments multicomponent VSP work has been carried out at several sites to determine fracture characteristics. The results to date indicate that both P-wave and S-wave can be used to map the location of fractures. In addition, fractures that are open and conductive are much more visible to seismic waves that non-conductive fractures. The results of these tests indicate direct use in an unsaturated environment. 12 refs., 10 figs.

Seismic Geometric Attribute Analysis for Fracture Characterization

Seismic Geometric Attribute Analysis for Fracture Characterization
  • Author : Haibin Di
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015
  • Total pages :217
  • ISBN : OCLC:960383029
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Summary :

Midale Reservoir Fracture Characterization Using Integrated Well and Seismic Data, Weyburn Field, Saskatchewan

Midale Reservoir Fracture Characterization Using Integrated Well and Seismic Data, Weyburn Field, Saskatchewan
  • Author : Robert J. Bunge
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000
  • Total pages :408
  • ISBN : OCLC:46348950
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Summary :

Expert answers

Expert answers
  • Author : E. Liu,C. Thompson,4C Exploration Ltd
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:770329462
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Summary :

Forward Modeling and Interpretation of Multicomponent Seismic Data for Fracture Characterization, Weyburn Field, Saskatchewan

Forward Modeling and Interpretation of Multicomponent Seismic Data for Fracture Characterization, Weyburn Field, Saskatchewan
  • Author : Micah Daniel Reasnor
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001
  • Total pages :312
  • ISBN : OCLC:49408778
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Summary :

Fracture Characterization at the Dickman Field, KS

Fracture Characterization at the Dickman Field, KS
  • Author : Timothy Brown
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:883194895
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Summary : Dickman Field, located in Ness County, Kansas, has produced 1.7 million barrels of oil since 1962 and is presently being evaluated by the University of Houston as a potential CO2 sequestration locality. The primary injection target is a porous, brine-saturated, Mississippian carbonate unit set approximately -2000 ft (-610 m) subsea. The objective of this study is to characterize sub-vertical fracture networks that potentially favor mobility of free-state CO2 within the reservoir. The 6 Hz results from a narrow-band decomposition of the Dickman 3D broadband volume show NW and NE striking lineaments in the reservoir interval. These spectral anomalies were originally assumed to be evidence of sub-resolution fracturing. Testing the validity of these features was accomplished by analyzing two kinds of data: 1) digital well logs from nearby wells and 2) available prestack seismic data from the Dickman 3D survey. A fuzzy inference system was used to obtain ground-truth fracture information from conventional well logs. Results show probable indicators of crosscutting fractures in the Mississippian section. Prestack analysis was used to detect azimuthal variations in the reflectivity gradient using amplitudes picked from the Gilmore City horizon. Azimuthal anisotropy orientations agree with the 6 Hz features as well as with lineament orientations found in previous seismic attribute studies. The 6 Hz anomalies, although supported by geological and geophysical evidence in terms of orientation, are most-likely products of low-frequency noise found in the upper 0.2 seconds of the Dickman 3D.

Fracture Characterization of a Carbonate Reservoir in the Arabian Peninsula

Fracture Characterization of a Carbonate Reservoir in the Arabian Peninsula
  • Author : Mohammed Abdullah Alhussain
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013
  • Total pages :138
  • ISBN : OCLC:855383834
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Summary : Estimation of reservoir fracture parameters, fracture orientation and density, from seismic data is often difficult because of one important question: Is observed anisotropy caused by the reservoir interval or by the effect of the lithologic unit or multiple units above the reservoir? Often hydrocarbon reservoirs represent a small portion of the seismic section, and reservoir anisotropic parameter inversion can be easily obscured by the presence of an anisotropic overburden. In this study, I show examples where we can clearly observe imprints of overburden anisotropic layers on the seismic response of the target zone. Then I present a simple method to remove the effect of anisotropic overburden to recover reservoir fracture parameters. It involves analyzing amplitude variation with offset and azimuth (AVOA) for the top of reservoir reflector and for a reflector below the reservoir. Seismic CMP gathers are transformed to delay-time vs. slowness (tau-p) domain. We then calculate the ratio of the amplitudes of reflections at the reservoir top and from the reflector beneath the reservoir. The ratios of these amplitudes are then used to isolate the effect of the reservoir interval and remove the transmission effect of the overburden.The methodology is tested on two sets of models - one containing a fractured reservoir with isotropic overburden and the other containing a fractured reservoir with anisotropic overburden. Conventional analysis in the x-t domain indicates that the anisotropic overburden has completely obscured the anisotropic signature of the reservoir zone. When the new methodology is applied, the overburden effect is significantly reduced. The methodology is also applied to an actual PP surface reflection (Rpp) 3D dataset over a reservoir in the Arabian Peninsula. Ellipse-fitting technique was applied to invert for two Fracture parameters: (1) Fracture density and (2) fracture direction. Fracture density inversion results indicate increased fracturing in the anticline structure hinge zone. Fracture orientation inversion results agree with Formation MicroImaging (FMI) borehole logs showing a WNW-ESE trend. This newly developed amplitude ratio method is suitable for quantitative estimation of fracture parameters including normal and tangential "weaknesses" ([Delta]N and [Delta]T respectively). Initially, inversion of conventional AVOA for [Delta]N and [Delta]T parameters indicates that the [Delta]N parameter is reliably estimated given an accurate background isotropic parameter estimation derived from borehole logging data. While [Delta]N parameter inversion is successful, inversion for [Delta]T parameter from Rpp information is not, presumably due to the dependence of [Delta]T estimation on many medium parameters for accurate prediction. The [Delta]N parameter is then successfully recovered when applied to the amplitude ratio values derived from synthetic data. It is important to recognize that [Delta]N parameter is directly proportional to fracture density and high [Delta]N values can be attributed to high crack density values. The [Delta]N parameter inversion is also applied to the amplitude ratios derived from real seismic data. This inversion requires fracture azimuth data input that is obtained from the fracture direction inversion using ellipse-fitting technique. The background Vp/Vs ratio, estimated from well logs, is another required parameter for [Delta]N estimation. Inversion results are promising when fracture density computed from [Delta]N parameter is compared to the facture density computed from ellipse-fitting technique. The maps of both attributes show similarities with more fractures located at the anticline structure hinge. Spatial variability in fracture parameters has proven valuable in locating "sweet spots" areas or highly fractured zones within the reservoir interval.

MULTI-ATTRIBUTE SEISMIC

MULTI-ATTRIBUTE SEISMIC
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000
  • Total pages :160
  • ISBN : OCLC:68498762
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Summary : This project consists of three key interrelated Phases, each focusing on the central issue of imaging and quantifying fractured reservoirs, through improved integration of the principles of rock physics, geology, and seismic wave propagation. This report summarizes the results of Phase I of the project. The key to successful development of low permeability reservoirs lies in reliably characterizing fractures. Fractures play a crucial role in controlling almost all of the fluid transport in tight reservoirs. Current seismic methods to characterize fractures depend on various anisotropic wave propagation signatures that can arise from aligned fractures. We are pursuing an integrated study that relates to high-resolution seismic images of natural fractures to the rock parameters that control the storage and mobility of fluids. Our goal is to go beyond the current state-of-the art to develop and demonstrate next generation methodologies for detecting and quantitatively characterizing fracture zones using seismic measurements. Our study incorporates 3 key elements: (1) Theoretical rock physics studies of the anisotropic viscoelastic signatures of fractured rocks, including up scaling analysis and rock-fluid interactions to define the factors relating fractures in the lab and in the field. (2) Modeling of optimal seismic attributes, including offset and azimuth dependence of travel time, amplitude, impedance and spectral signatures of anisotropic fractured rocks. We will quantify the information content of combinations of seismic attributes, and the impact of multi-attribute analyses in reducing uncertainty in fracture interpretations. (3) Integration and interpretation of seismic, well log, and laboratory data, incorporating field geologic fracture characterization and the theoretical results of items 1 and 2 above. The focal point for this project is the demonstration of these methodologies in the Marathon Oil Company Yates Field in West Texas.

Using Direct S-wave Seismic Modes for Reservoir Characterization in Wellington Field, Kansas

Using Direct S-wave Seismic Modes for Reservoir Characterization in Wellington Field, Kansas
  • Author : Menal Gupta
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017
  • Total pages :250
  • ISBN : OCLC:1004308644
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Summary :