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Sex Differences in Physiology

Sex Differences in Physiology
  • Author : Gretchen Neigh,Megan Mitzelfelt
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-05-10
  • Total pages :236
  • ISBN : 9780128026083
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Summary : Sex Differences in Physiology is an all-encompassing reference that details basic science research into sex differences in all physiological fields. It includes scientific discoveries concerning sex differences in cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, gastrointestinal, and musculoskeletal physiology. In addition, coverage of the development, endocrinology, neurophysiology, immunity, and metabolism is included, making this important reference a resource that will meet the needs of investigators interested in incorporating sex differences into their research programs, while also providing clinicians with the basis for providing the best sex-based medical treatment options available. Provides a sweeping, organ-by-organ review of currently observed sex differences in animal models and human disease Explains how sex differences influence physiology and disease Provides the critical knowledge on sex differences for better understanding of prevention and treatment of diseases

Principles of Sex-based Differences in Physiology

Principles of Sex-based Differences in Physiology
  • Author : Virginia M. Miller,Virginia L. Miller,Meredith Hay
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004
  • Total pages :333
  • ISBN : 044451497X
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Summary : Differences in physiology between men and women extend far beyond differences in reproductive functions. Medical literature abounds in descriptions of differences in prevalence, symptoms and severity of diseases between men and women including heart attack, rheumatic diseases, gastrointestinal disease and osteoporosis. Much of the information is descriptive rather than mechanistic and scattered throughout a variety of books, review articles and original papers. This book provides a single source that summarizes current basic mechanisms of gene/hormone interactions and their subsequent impact on physiological functions. It is an ideal source material to be used in training the next generation of physician/scientists who will develop a more individualized approach to prevention, diagnosis and therapeutic medical practice.

Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Physiology and Pathophysiology

Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Physiology and Pathophysiology
  • Author : Babbette LaMarca, Ph.D.,Barbara T. Alexander, PhD, FAHA, FAPS
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-06-15
  • Total pages :320
  • ISBN : 9780128131978
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Summary : Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Physiology and Pathophysiology is a comprehensive look into the often overlooked and underappreciated fundamental sex differences between men and women and how those differences affect the cardiovascular system. It covers cardiovascular function, anatomy, cell signaling and the development of pathology. With contributions from world-renowned research investigators, this up-to-date reference compiles critical knowledge on cardiovascular sex differences, providing researchers and clinicians with a better understanding of the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in both men and women. Identifies the fundamental sex differences in the physiology and pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system Describes cell signaling pathways involved in sex-associated cardiovascular function and diseases Puts the sex differences in cardiovascular diseases in the forefront to improve cardiovascular prognoses

Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health

Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health
  • Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Committee on Understanding the Biology of Sex and Gender Differences
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001-07-02
  • Total pages :288
  • ISBN : 0309132975
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Summary : It's obvious why only men develop prostate cancer and why only women get ovarian cancer. But it is not obvious why women are more likely to recover language ability after a stroke than men or why women are more apt to develop autoimmune diseases such as lupus. Sex differences in health throughout the lifespan have been documented. Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health begins to snap the pieces of the puzzle into place so that this knowledge can be used to improve health for both sexes. From behavior and cognition to metabolism and response to chemicals and infectious organisms, this book explores the health impact of sex (being male or female, according to reproductive organs and chromosomes) and gender (one's sense of self as male or female in society). Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health discusses basic biochemical differences in the cells of males and females and health variability between the sexes from conception throughout life. The book identifies key research needs and opportunities and addresses barriers to research. Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health will be important to health policy makers, basic, applied, and clinical researchers, educators, providers, and journalists-while being very accessible to interested lay readers.

Women and Gender

Women and Gender
  • Author : Catherine Lilian
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019
  • Total pages :341
  • ISBN : 1682505863
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Summary :

Sex Differences in the Central Nervous System

Sex Differences in the Central Nervous System
  • Author : Rebecca M. Shansky
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-09-14
  • Total pages :428
  • ISBN : 9780128021989
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Summary : Sex Differences in the Central Nervous System offers a comprehensive examination of the current state of sex differences research, from both the basic science and clinical research perspectives. Given the current NIH directive that funded preclinical research must consider both females and males, this topic is of interest to an increasing percentage of the neuroscience research population. The volume serves as an invaluable resource, offering coverage of a wide range of topics: sex differences in cognition, learning, and memory, sex hormone signaling mechanisms, neuroimmune interactions, epigenetics, social behavior, neurologic disease, psychological disorders, and stress. Discussions of research in both animal models and human patient populations are included. Details how sex hormones have widespread effects on the nervous system and influence the way males and females function Assists readers in determining how sex impacts their research and practice, and assists in determining how to adjust research programs to incorporate sex influences Includes discussions of research in both animal models and human patient populations, and at various developmental stages Features revised and updated chapters by leaders in the field around the globe—the broadest, most expert coverage available

Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology

Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology
  • Author : Edward Bittar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1992
  • Total pages :270
  • ISBN : 1559382090
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Summary : The fourth volume of the Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology series. Cell biology is a rapidly-developing discipline, bringing together many separate biological sciences. The interrelations of cell structure and function at molecular and subcellular levels are the central theme of the series.

Evolution and Gender

Evolution and Gender
  • Author : Rosemary L. Hopcroft
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-12-22
  • Total pages :254
  • ISBN : 9781317353300
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Summary : Offering new research and analysis on the relation between gender and evolution, this book explains conflict between the sexes and the frequent emergence and stubborn continuation of patriarchal regimes that serve to control the behavior of women in societies around the world, both past and present. Women and men are different, on average. But that does not mean they are unequal. Indeed, understanding average differences is key to the full realization of equality in health care and other dimensions of social life. Hopcroft shows that gender differences in physiology, psychology, and behavior can be traced to slight differences in evolved traits between men and women. These differences exist because of sex differences in investment in offspring, which meant that, in the environment of evolution, some adaptive problems were more important for men to solve than for women, and vice versa. For men, the most important adaptive problem to solve was that of finding a mate. Men who did not solve this problem are not our ancestors. For women, the most important adaptive problem to solve was that of successfully bearing and raising children. Women who did not solve this problem are not our ancestors. These small differences underlie all the differences described in the book, including sex differences in mate preferences, physiology, cognition, aggression, status striving, and emotional experience. It can also help explain the differential treatment of children by parents, the differential success of boys and girls in modern schools, and sex differences in style of communication.

Sex Differences in Physiology and Behavior

Sex Differences in Physiology and Behavior
  • Author : Kathleen Curtis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009
  • Total pages :136
  • ISBN : OCLC:634588655
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Summary :

Sex on the Brain

Sex on the Brain
  • Author : Deborah Blum
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1998
  • Total pages :329
  • ISBN : 0140263489
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Summary : Looks at the biology of gender, including such topics as male and female brains, sex differences in emotions, sexual orientation, hormones, and social roles

Principles of Gender-Specific Medicine

Principles of Gender-Specific Medicine
  • Author : Marianne J. Legato
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-05-15
  • Total pages :792
  • ISBN : 9780128035429
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Summary : The announcement that we had decoded the human genome in 2000 ushered in a new and unique era in biomedical research and clinical medicine. This Third Edition of Principles of Gender-Specific Medicine focuses, as in the past two editions, on the essentials of sexual dimorphism in human physiology and pathophysiology, but emphasizes the latest information about molecular biology and genomic science in a variety of disciplines. Thus, this edition is a departure from the previous two; the editor solicited individual manuscripts from innovative scientists in a variety of fields rather than the traditional arrangement of sections devoted to the various subspecialties of medicine edited by section chiefs. Wherever it was available, these authors incorporated the latest information about the impact of the genome and the elements that modify its expression on human physiology and illness. All chapters progress translationally from basic science to the clinical applications of gender-specific therapy and suggest the most important topics for future investigation. This book is essential reading for all biomedical investigators and medical educators involved in gender-specific medicine. It will also be useful for primary care practitioners who need information about the importance of sex and gender in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of illness. Outlines sex-specific differences in normal human function and explains the impact of age, hormones, and environment on the incidence and outcome of illness Reflects the latest information about the molecular basis of the sexual dimorphism in human physiology and the experience of disease Reviews the implications of our ever-improving ability to describe the genetic basis of vulnerability to disease and our capacity to alter the genome itself Illustrates the importance of new NIH guidelines that urge the inclusion of sex as a variable in research protocols

Sex Differences and Implications for Translational Neuroscience Research

Sex Differences and Implications for Translational Neuroscience Research
  • Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-01-25
  • Total pages :110
  • ISBN : 0309187664
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Summary : Biological differences between the sexes influence not only individual health but also public health, biomedical research, and health care. The Institute of Medicine held a workshop March 8-9, 2010, to discuss sex differences and their implications for translational neuroscience research, which bridges the gap between scientific discovery and application.

Principles of Gender-Specific Medicine

Principles of Gender-Specific Medicine
  • Author : Marianne J. Legato
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-07-02
  • Total pages :1396
  • ISBN : 9780080492148
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Summary : Principles of Gender-Specific Medicine examines how normal human biology differs between men and women and how the diagnosis and treatment of disease differs as a function of gender. This revealing research covers various conditions that predominantly occur in men, and as well conditions that predominantly occur in women. Among the subjects covered are cardiovascular disease, mood disorders, the immune system, lung cancer as a consequence of smoking, osteoporosis, diabetes, obesity, and infectious diseases. * Gathers important information in the field of gender-based biology and clinical medicine, proving that a patient's sex is increasingly important in preventing illness, making an accurate diagnosis, and choosing safe and effective treatment of disease * Addresses gender-specific areas ranging from organ transplantation, gall bladder and biliary diseases, to the epidemiology of osteoporosis and fractures in men and women * Many chapters present questions about future directions of investigations

Gender Differences in Different Contexts

Gender Differences in Different Contexts
  • Author : Aida Alvinius
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-02-01
  • Total pages :160
  • ISBN : 9789535129059
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Summary : The development of gender differences as an area of research has been rapid over the last decades. Varieties of studies have focused on the gender differences as well as the similarities of women and men. The common purpose of the research attempt is to find out the possibilities and even the consequences of gender differences and the impact on human beings on one side, and social and cultural environment on the other. This book is an attempt to provide theoretical and empirical framework to better understand gender differences in various contexts and on different levels. Therefore, the contributions cover an array of themes that span from an individual level to an organizational and societal level.

Brain Storm

Brain Storm
  • Author : Rebecca M. Jordan-Young
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-01-07
  • Total pages :408
  • ISBN : 9780674058798
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Summary : Jordan-Young has written a stunning book that demolishes most of the science associated with the dominant paradigm of the development of sex and gender identity, behavior, and orientation. The current paradigm, brain organization theory, proposes: "Because of early exposure to different sex hormones, males and females have different brains"; and these hormones also create "gay" and "straight" brains. Jordan-Young interviewed virtually every major researcher in the field and reviewed hundreds of published scientific papers. Her conclusion: "Brain organization theory is little more than an elaboration of longstanding folk tales about antagonistic male and female essences and how they connect to antagonistic male and female natures." She explains, in exquisite detail, the flaws in the underlying science, from experimental designs that make no statistical sense to "conceptually sloppy" definitions of male and female sexuality, contradictory results, and the social construction of normality. Her conclusion that the patterns we see are far more complicated than previously believed and due to a wider range of variables will shake up the research community and alter public perception.

Sex and Cardiac Electrophysiology

Sex and Cardiac Electrophysiology
  • Author : Marek Malik
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-07-11
  • Total pages :1032
  • ISBN : 9780128177297
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Summary : Sex and Cardiac Electrophysiology: Differences in Cardiac Electrical Disorders Between Men and Women is a comprehensive investigation into all aspects of sex differences in cardiac electrophysiology. As there are substantial differences between female and male patients in physiology, pathology triggering factors, disease progression, clinical approaches and treatment outcome, this book provides a comprehensive examination. In cardiology, the differences between women and men are more recognized, hence this title summarizes these important differences, providing the essential information needed for clinical specialists and researchers involved in the design and implementation of clinical studies. Explores topics ranging from the physiologic differences between women and men to the differences in clinical handling of arrhythmic disorders between female and male patients Provides sex differences in cardiac electrophysiology in separate chapters Covers the sex differences of cardiac electrical disorders, providing insights beyond cardiac metabolic syndrome, hypertension, atherogenesis and heart failure

The Female Brain

The Female Brain
  • Author : Louann Brizendine, M.D.
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-08-07
  • Total pages :304
  • ISBN : 9780767928410
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Summary : Since Dr. Brizendine wrote The Female Brain ten years ago, the response has been overwhelming. This New York Times bestseller has been translated into more than thirty languages, has sold nearly a million copies between editions, and has most recently inspired a romantic comedy starring Whitney Cummings and Sofia Vergara. And its profound scientific understanding of the nature and experience of the female brain continues to guide women as they pass through life stages, to help men better understand the girls and women in their lives, and to illuminate the delicate emotional machinery of a love relationship. Why are women more verbal than men? Why do women remember details of fights that men can’t remember at all? Why do women tend to form deeper bonds with their female friends than men do with their male counterparts? These and other questions have stumped both sexes throughout the ages. Now, pioneering neuropsychiatrist Louann Brizendine, M.D., brings together the latest findings to show how the unique structure of the female brain determines how women think, what they value, how they communicate, and who they love. While doing research as a medical student at Yale and then as a resident and faculty member at Harvard, Louann Brizendine discovered that almost all of the clinical data in existence on neurology, psychology, and neurobiology focused exclusively on males. In response to the overwhelming need for information on the female mind, Brizendine established the first clinic in the country to study and treat women’s brain function. In The Female Brain, Dr. Brizendine distills all her findings and the latest information from the scientific community in a highly accessible book that educates women about their unique brain/body/behavior. The result: women will come away from this book knowing that they have a lean, mean, communicating machine. Men will develop a serious case of brain envy.

Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology

Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology
  • Author : Joan C. Chrisler,Donald R. McCreary
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-03-12
  • Total pages :828
  • ISBN : 1441914676
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Summary : Donald R. McCreary and Joan C. Chrisler The Development of Gender Studies in Psychology Studies of sex differences are as old as the ?eld of psychology, and they have been conducted in every sub?eld of the discipline. There are probably many reasons for the popularity of these studies, but three reasons seem to be most prominent. First, social psychological studies of person perception show that sex is especially salient in social groups. It is the ?rst thing people notice about others, and it is one of the things we remember best (Fiske, Haslam, & Fiske, 1991; Stangor, Lynch, Duan, & Glass, 1992). For example, people may not remember who uttered a witty remark, but they are likely to remember whether the quip came from a woman or a man. Second, many people hold ?rm beliefs that aspects of physiology suit men and women for particular social roles. Men’s greater upper body strength makes them better candidates for manual labor, and their greater height gives the impression that they would make good leaders (i. e. , people we look up to). Women’s reproductive capacity and the caretaking tasks (e. g. , breastfeeding, baby minding) that accompany it make them seem suitable for other roles that require gentleness and nurturance. Third, the logic that underlies hypothesis testing in the sciences is focused on difference. Researchers design their studies with the hope that they can reject the null hypothesis that experimental groups do not differ.

Gender, Emotion, and the Family

Gender, Emotion, and the Family
  • Author : Leslie BRODY
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-06-30
  • Total pages :368
  • ISBN : 0674028821
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Summary : Do women express their feelings more than men? Popular stereotypes say they do, but in this provocative book, Leslie Brody breaks with conventional wisdom. Integrating a wealth of perspectives and research--biological, sociocultural, developmental--her work explores the nature and extent of gender differences in emotional expression, as well as the endlessly complex question of how such differences come about. Nurture, far more than nature, emerges here as the stronger force in fashioning gender differences in emotional expression. Brody shows that whether and how men and women express their feelings varies widely from situation to situation and from culture to culture, and depends on a number of particular characteristics including age, ethnicity, cultural background, power, and status. Especially pertinent is the organization of the family, in which boys and girls elicit and absorb different emotional strategies. Brody also examines the importance of gender roles, whether in the family, the peer group, or the culture at large, as men and women use various patterns of emotional expression to adapt to power and status imbalances. Lucid and level-headed, Gender, Emotion, and the Family offers an unusually rich and nuanced picture of the great range of male and female emotional styles, and the variety of the human character. Reviews of this book: Gender, Emotion, and the Family focuses on gender differences in the experience and expression of emotion...[Brody] has gathered an amazing amount of data from innumerable studies...[and gives] a balanced account of the effect of environmental variables on the development of emotion. --Lucy Horwitz, Boston Book Review Reviews of this book: Finally, an accurate and well-balanced discussion of topics that are on everybody's mind. Brody integrates research on the socialization of violence in boys and of the caretaking role for girls. Both this book and actual scientific research strongly support the role of nurture rather than nature in gender socialization...[A] highly recommended book. --F. Smolucha, Choice Reviews of this book: Drawing on a wealth of information, [Leslie Brody] illuminates the ways in which men and women, boys and girls, develop and express emotions in the context of the family...This in-depth research addresses many issues, from power in relationships to the physiological expression of emotion; evidence of contradictory findings is detailed. This is a valuable addition to the ever-changing frontiers of behavior research. --Margaret Cardwell, Library Journal Reviews of this book: Beyond the main points about the complexities and contingencies of gender differences and their development, the book contains accounts of many, many fascinating studies and intriguing points of view. . . . Brody ultimately succeeds in articulating a comprehensive, thoughtful, and intellectually rigorous review of the research literature on gender differences in emotional expression, from a feminist empiricist perspective. This is an important book to own . . . . a valuable reference for researchers and professionals. --Contemporary Psychology Brody has formidable mastery of this burgeoning field. Gender, Emotion, and the Family offers new theoretical insights for lay readers and fellow scholars alike. Highly readable, responsible, and original, this will be the major work on the socialization of emotion for a long time to come. --Judith A. Hall, Northeastern University A beautifully written text that integrates theory and research in a sophisticated yet highly readable way. Brody examines the development of emotional experience and expression in the family and the intimate connections between emotion, familial relationships, and gender. Brody's tremendous breadth of scholarship shows in every chapter, and her thoughtful, comprehensive, and insightful responses to the complex questions in the field are a must read for students and scholars alike. --Amy G. Halberstadt, North Carolina State University Leslie Brody provides a careful evaluation of the research data on precisely what the gender differences are--and are not--in emotional experience and expression, but that is only the first strength of her book. With an original and complex transactional theory, she shows how physiological, relational and cultural factors interact in creating gender differences in emotion, and reminds us how peculiar it is to try--as psychologists have!-- to make much of any single factor. Gender, Emotion, and the Family outlines a compelling research agenda that will move the next generation of empirical studies to a new and much more exciting level. --Abigail Stewart, Professor of Psychology and Women's Studies, University of Michigan An invaluable resource for researchers on all aspects of the psychology and sociology of gender, Gender, Emotion, and the Family comprehensively synthesizes and re-analyzes the enormous research literature on supposed gender differences in emotional expression. Leslie Brody offers a clear and compelling critique of the widespread belief that males and females have essentially different emotional styles. Arguing that apparent gender differences in emotion are closely related to gender differences in dominance and power, Brody illuminates the great diversity of experience and behavior found among members of the same sex, and reminds us of the powerful role played by stereotypes in dictating emotions that men and women should display, and the pressures they feel to conform to those stereotypes. --Elizabeth Aries, Amherst College Brody has formidable mastery of this burgeoning field. Gender, Emotion, and the Family offers new theoretical insights for lay readers and fellow scholars alike. Highly readable, responsible, and original, this will be the major work on the socialization of emotion for a long time to come. --Judith A. Hall, Northeastern University Leslie Brody provides a careful evaluation of the research data on precisely what the gender differences are--and are not--in emotional experience and expression, but that is only the first strength of her book. With an original and complex transactional theory, she shows how physiological, relational and cultural factors interact in creating gender differences in emotion, and reminds us how peculiar it is to try--as psychologists have!-- to make much of any single factor. Gender, Emotion, and the Family outlines a compelling research agenda that will move the next generation of empirical studies to a new and much more exciting level. --Abigail Stewart, University of Michigan

The Gendered Brain

The Gendered Brain
  • Author : Gina Rippon
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-02-13
  • Total pages :448
  • ISBN : 1784706817
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Summary : Barbie or Lego? Reading maps or reading emotions? Do you have a female brain or a male brain? Or is that the wrong question? On a daily basis we face deeply ingrained beliefs that our sex determines our skills and preferences, from toys and colours to career choice and salaries. But what does this mean for our thoughts, decisions and behaviour? Using the latest cutting-edge neuroscience, Gina Rippon unpacks the stereotypes that bombard us from our earliest moments and shows how these messages mould our ideas of ourselves and even shape our brains. Rigorous, timely and liberating, The Gendered Brain has huge repercussions for women and men, for parents and children, and for how we identify ourselves. 'Highly accessible... Revolutionary to a glorious degree' Observer

Active Bodies

Active Bodies
  • Author : Martha H. Verbrugge
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-06-21
  • Total pages :391
  • ISBN : 9780195168792
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Summary : "Active Bodies" examines the ideas, programs, and experiences of white and black female physical educators from the introduction of mandatory gym class through the recent revolution in women's sports. Amidst sweeping changes in science, feminism, and attitudes about gender, race, and sexuality, women teachers debated how to achieve equality for their female students and themselves.