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Social Network Analysis of Disaster Response, Recovery, and Adaptation

Social Network Analysis of Disaster Response, Recovery, and Adaptation
  • Author : Eric C Jones,A.J. Faas
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-09-09
  • Total pages :322
  • ISBN : 9780128052839
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Summary : Social Network Analysis of Disaster Response, Recovery, and Adaptation covers systematic social network analysis and how people and institutions function in disasters, after disasters, and the ways they adapt to hazard settings. As hazards become disasters, the opportunities and constraints for maintaining a safe and secure life and livelihood become too strained for many people. Anecdotally, and through many case studies, we know that social interactions exacerbate or mitigate those strains, necessitating a concerted, intellectual effort to understand the variation in how ties within, and outside, communities respond and are affected by hazards and disasters. Examines the role of societal relationships in a disaster context, incorporating theory and case studies by experts in the field Integrates research in the areas of social network analysis and inter-organizational networks Presents a range of studies from around the world, employing different approaches to network analysis in disaster contexts

The Angry Earth

The Angry Earth
  • Author : Anthony Oliver-Smith,Susanna M. Hoffman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-12-06
  • Total pages :402
  • ISBN : 9781315298894
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Summary : The Angry Earth explores how various cultures in different historical moments have responded to calamity, offering insight into the complex relationship between societies and their environments. From hurricanes, floods, and earthquakes to oil spills and nuclear accidents, disasters triggered by both natural and technological hazards have become increasingly frequent and destructive across the planet. Through case studies drawn from around the globe the contributors to this volume examine issues ranging from the social and political factors that set the stage for disaster, to the cultural processes experienced by survivors, to the long-term impact of disasters on culture and society. In the second edition, each chapter has been updated with a postscript to reflect on recent developments in the field. There is also new material on key present-day topics including epidemics, drought, non-governmental organizations, and displacement and resettlement. This book demonstrates the relevance of studying disaster from an anthropological perspective and is a valuable resource not only for anthropologists but for other fields concerned with education, policy and practice.

Applications of Social Network Analysis for Building Community Disaster Resilience

Applications of Social Network Analysis for Building Community Disaster Resilience
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-08-23
  • Total pages :80
  • ISBN : 9780309140942
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Summary : Social Network Analysis (SNA) is the identification of the relationships and attributes of members, key actors, and groups that social networks comprise. The National Research Council, at the request of the Department of Homeland Security, held a two-day workshop on the use of SNA for the purpose of building community disaster resilience. The workshop, summarized in this volume, was designed to provide guidance to the DHS on a potential research agenda that would increase the effectiveness of SNA for improving community disaster resilience. The workshop explored the state of the art in SNA and its applications in the identification, construction, and strengthening of networks within U.S. communities. Workshop participants discussed current work in SNA focused on characterizing networks; the theories, principles and research applicable to the design or strengthening of networks; the gaps in knowledge that prevent the application of SNA to the construction of networks; and research areas that could fill those gaps. Elements of a research agenda to support the design, development, and implementation of social networks for the specific purpose of strengthening community resilience against natural and human-made disasters were discussed.

Healthy, Resilient, and Sustainable Communities After Disasters

Healthy, Resilient, and Sustainable Communities After Disasters
  • Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Committee on Post-Disaster Recovery of a Community's Public Health, Medical, and Social Services
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-09-10
  • Total pages :504
  • ISBN : 9780309316224
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Summary : In the devastation that follows a major disaster, there is a need for multiple sectors to unite and devote new resources to support the rebuilding of infrastructure, the provision of health and social services, the restoration of care delivery systems, and other critical recovery needs. In some cases, billions of dollars from public, private and charitable sources are invested to help communities recover. National rhetoric often characterizes these efforts as a "return to normal." But for many American communities, pre-disaster conditions are far from optimal. Large segments of the U.S. population suffer from preventable health problems, experience inequitable access to services, and rely on overburdened health systems. A return to pre-event conditions in such cases may be short-sighted given the high costs - both economic and social - of poor health. Instead, it is important to understand that the disaster recovery process offers a series of unique and valuable opportunities to improve on the status quo. Capitalizing on these opportunities can advance the long-term health, resilience, and sustainability of communities - thereby better preparing them for future challenges. Healthy, Resilient, and Sustainable Communities After Disasters identifies and recommends recovery practices and novel programs most likely to impact overall community public health and contribute to resiliency for future incidents. This book makes the case that disaster recovery should be guided by a healthy community vision, where health considerations are integrated into all aspects of recovery planning before and after a disaster, and funding streams are leveraged in a coordinated manner and applied to health improvement priorities in order to meet human recovery needs and create healthy built and natural environments. The conceptual framework presented in Healthy, Resilient, and Sustainable Communities After Disasters lays the groundwork to achieve this goal and provides operational guidance for multiple sectors involved in community planning and disaster recovery. Healthy, Resilient, and Sustainable Communities After Disasters calls for actions at multiple levels to facilitate recovery strategies that optimize community health. With a shared healthy community vision, strategic planning that prioritizes health, and coordinated implementation, disaster recovery can result in a communities that are healthier, more livable places for current and future generations to grow and thrive - communities that are better prepared for future adversities.

Climate-Induced Disasters in the Asia-Pacific Region

Climate-Induced Disasters in the Asia-Pacific Region
  • Author : Andreas Neef,Natasha Pauli
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-11-09
  • Total pages :280
  • ISBN : 9781839099861
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Summary : In this volume, contributors look at response, recovery and adaptation to climate-induced disasters, in Asia-Pacific - the world's most disaster-prone region. Chapters examine case studies from Cambodia, Fiji, Solomon Islands and Samoa.

Building Resilience

Building Resilience
  • Author : Daniel P. Aldrich
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-08-15
  • Total pages :244
  • ISBN : 9780226012896
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Summary : The factor that makes some communities rebound quickly from disasters while others fall apart: “A fascinating book on an important topic.”—E.L. Hirsch, in Choice Each year, natural disasters threaten the strength and stability of communities worldwide. Yet responses to the challenges of recovery vary greatly and in ways that aren’t explained by the magnitude of the catastrophe or the amount of aid provided by national governments or the international community. The difference between resilience and disrepair, as Daniel P. Aldrich shows, lies in the depth of communities’ social capital. Building Resilience highlights the critical role of social capital in the ability of a community to withstand disaster and rebuild both the infrastructure and the ties that are at the foundation of any community. Aldrich examines the post-disaster responses of four distinct communities—Tokyo following the 1923 earthquake, Kobe after the 1995 earthquake, Tamil Nadu after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, and New Orleans post-Katrina—and finds that those with robust social networks were better able to coordinate recovery. In addition to quickly disseminating information and financial and physical assistance, communities with an abundance of social capital were able to minimize the migration of people and valuable resources out of the area. With governments increasingly overstretched and natural disasters likely to increase in frequency and intensity, a thorough understanding of what contributes to efficient reconstruction is more important than ever. Building Resilience underscores a critical component of an effective response.

Facing Hazards and Disasters

Facing Hazards and Disasters
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Committee on Disaster Research in the Social Sciences: Future Challenges and Opportunities
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006-09-10
  • Total pages :408
  • ISBN : 9780309101783
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Summary : Social science research conducted since the late 1970s has contributed greatly to society's ability to mitigate and adapt to natural, technological, and willful disasters. However, as evidenced by Hurricane Katrina, the Indian Ocean tsunami, the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, and other recent events, hazards and disaster research and its application could be improved greatly. In particular, more studies should be pursued that compare how the characteristics of different types of events-including predictability, forewarning, magnitude, and duration of impact-affect societal vulnerability and response. This book includes more than thirty recommendations for the hazards and disaster community.

Disaster Resilience

Disaster Resilience
  • Author : National Academies,Policy and Global Affairs,Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy,Committee on Increasing National Resilience to Hazards and Disasters
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-29
  • Total pages :260
  • ISBN : 9780309261500
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Summary : No person or place is immune from disasters or disaster-related losses. Infectious disease outbreaks, acts of terrorism, social unrest, or financial disasters in addition to natural hazards can all lead to large-scale consequences for the nation and its communities. Communities and the nation thus face difficult fiscal, social, cultural, and environmental choices about the best ways to ensure basic security and quality of life against hazards, deliberate attacks, and disasters. Beyond the unquantifiable costs of injury and loss of life from disasters, statistics for 2011 alone indicate economic damages from natural disasters in the United States exceeded $55 billion, with 14 events costing more than a billion dollars in damages each. One way to reduce the impacts of disasters on the nation and its communities is to invest in enhancing resilience--the ability to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover from and more successfully adapt to adverse events. Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative addresses the broad issue of increasing the nation's resilience to disasters. This book defines "national resilience", describes the state of knowledge about resilience to hazards and disasters, and frames the main issues related to increasing resilience in the United States. It also provide goals, baseline conditions, or performance metrics for national resilience and outlines additional information, data, gaps, and/or obstacles that need to be addressed to increase the nation's resilience to disasters. Additionally, the book's authoring committee makes recommendations about the necessary approaches to elevate national resilience to disasters in the United States. Enhanced resilience allows better anticipation of disasters and better planning to reduce disaster losses-rather than waiting for an event to occur and paying for it afterward. Disaster Resilience confronts the topic of how to increase the nation's resilience to disasters through a vision of the characteristics of a resilient nation in the year 2030. Increasing disaster resilience is an imperative that requires the collective will of the nation and its communities. Although disasters will continue to occur, actions that move the nation from reactive approaches to disasters to a proactive stance where communities actively engage in enhancing resilience will reduce many of the broad societal and economic burdens that disasters can cause.

Successful Response Starts with a Map

Successful Response Starts with a Map
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Mapping Science Committee,Committee on Planning for Catastrophe: A Blueprint for Improving Geospatial Data, Tools, and Infrastructure
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-01-19
  • Total pages :198
  • ISBN : 9780309103404
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Summary : In the past few years the United States has experienced a series of disasters, such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which have severely taxed and in many cases overwhelmed responding agencies. In all aspects of emergency management, geospatial data and tools have the potential to help save lives, limit damage, and reduce the costs of dealing with emergencies. Great strides have been made in the past four decades in the development of geospatial data and tools that describe locations of objects on the Earth's surface and make it possible for anyone with access to the Internet to witness the magnitude of a disaster. However, the effectiveness of any technology is as much about the human systems in which it is embedded as about the technology itself. Successful Response Starts with a Map assesses the status of the use of geospatial data, tools, and infrastructure in disaster management, and recommends ways to increase and improve their use. This book explores emergency planning and response; how geospatial data and tools are currently being used in this field; the current policies that govern their use; various issues related to data accessibility and security; training; and funding. Successful Response Starts with a Map recommends significant investments be made in training of personnel, coordination among agencies, sharing of data and tools, planning and preparedness, and the tools themselves.

Social Media in Disaster Response

Social Media in Disaster Response
  • Author : Liza Potts
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-30
  • Total pages :146
  • ISBN : 9781134063079
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Summary : Social Media in Disaster Response focuses on how emerging social web tools provide researchers and practitioners with new opportunities to address disaster communication and information design for participatory cultures. Both groups, however, currently lack research toolkits for tracing participant networks across systems; there is little understanding of how to design not just for individual social web sites, but how to design across multiple systems. Given the volatile political and ecological climate we are currently living in, the practicality of understanding how people communicate during disasters is important both for those researching solutions and for those putting that research into practice. Social Media in Disaster Response addresses this situation by presenting the results of a large-scale sociotechnical usability study on crisis communication in the vernacular related to recent natural and human-made crisis; this is an analysis of the way social web applications are transformed, by participants, into a critical information infrastructure in moments of crisis. This book provides researchers with methods, tools, and examples for researching and analyzing these communication systems while providing practitioners with design methods and information about these participatory communities to assist them in influencing the design and structure of these communication systems.

Facing the Unexpected

Facing the Unexpected
  • Author : Ronald W. Perry,Michael K. Lindell,Kathleen J. Tierney
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001-11-06
  • Total pages :320
  • ISBN : 9780309171977
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Summary : Facing the Unexpected presents the wealth of information derived from disasters around the world over the past 25 years. The authors explore how these findings can improve disaster programs, identify remaining research needs, and discuss disaster within the broader context of sustainable development. How do different people think about disaster? Are we more likely to panic or to respond with altruism? Why are 110 people killed in a Valujet crash considered disaster victims while the 50,000 killed annually in traffic accidents in the U.S. are not? At the crossroads of social, cultural, and economic factors, this book examines these and other compelling questions. The authors review the influences that shape the U.S. governmental system for disaster planning and response, the effectiveness of local emergency agencies, and the level of professionalism in the field. They also compare technological versus natural disaster and examine the impact of technology on disaster programs.

Toward Resilience

Toward Resilience
  • Author : Marilise Turnbull,Charlotte L. Sterrett,Amy Hilleboe
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-01-01
  • Total pages :180
  • ISBN : 1853397865
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Summary : Toward Resilience: A Guide to Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation is an introductory resource for development and humanitarian practitioners working with populations at risk of disasters and other impacts of climate change.

Dissertation Abstracts International

Dissertation Abstracts International
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-05
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105213180859
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Summary :

Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation

Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation
  • Author : Christopher B. Field,Vicente Barros,Thomas F. Stocker,Qin Dahe
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-05-28
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9781107380103
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Summary : This Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report (IPCC-SREX) explores the challenge of understanding and managing the risks of climate extremes to advance climate change adaptation. Extreme weather and climate events, interacting with exposed and vulnerable human and natural systems, can lead to disasters. Changes in the frequency and severity of the physical events affect disaster risk, but so do the spatially diverse and temporally dynamic patterns of exposure and vulnerability. Some types of extreme weather and climate events have increased in frequency or magnitude, but populations and assets at risk have also increased, with consequences for disaster risk. Opportunities for managing risks of weather- and climate-related disasters exist or can be developed at any scale, local to international. Prepared following strict IPCC procedures, SREX is an invaluable assessment for anyone interested in climate extremes, environmental disasters and adaptation to climate change, including policymakers, the private sector and academic researchers.

Disaster Resiliency

Disaster Resiliency
  • Author : Naim Kapucu,Christopher V. Hawkins,Fernando I. Rivera
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-02
  • Total pages :436
  • ISBN : 9781136239953
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Summary : Natural disasters in recent years have brought the study of disaster resiliency to the forefront. The importance of community preparedness and sustainability has been underscored by such calamities as Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Japanese tsunami in 2011. Natural disasters will inevitably continue to occur, but by understanding the concept of resiliency as well as the factors that lead to it, communities can minimize their vulnerabilities and increase their resilience. In this volume, editors Naim Kapucu, Christopher V. Hawkins, and Fernando I. Rivera gather an impressive array of scholars to provide a much needed re-think to the topic disaster resiliency. Previous research on the subject has mainly focused on case studies, but this book offers a more systematic and empirical assessment of resiliency, while at the same time delving into new areas of exploration, including vulnerabilities of mobile home parks, the importance of asset mapping, and the differences between rural and urban locations. Employing a variety of statistical techniques and applying these to disasters in the United States and worldwide, this book examines resiliency through comparative methods which examine public management and policy, community planning and development, and, on the individual level, the ways in which culture, socio-economic status, and social networks contribute to resiliency. The analyses drawn will lead to the development of strategies for community preparation, response, and recovery to natural disasters. Combining the concept of resiliency, the factors that most account for the resiliency of communities, and the various policies and government operations that can be developed to increase the sustainability of communities in face of disasters, the editors and contributors have assembled an essential resource to scholars in emergency planning, management, and policy, as well as upper-level students studying disaster management and policy.

Psychosocial Capacity Building in Response to Disasters

Psychosocial Capacity Building in Response to Disasters
  • Author : Joshua L. Miller
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012
  • Total pages :358
  • ISBN : 9780231148214
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Summary : This book integrates Western mental health approaches and international models of psychosocial capacity building within a social ecology framework, providing practitioners and volunteers with a blueprint for individual, family, group, and community interventions. Joshua L. Miller focuses on a range of disasters at local, regional, national, and international levels. Global case studies explore the social, psychological, economic, political, and cultural issues affecting various reactions to disaster and illustrate the importance of drawing on local cultural practices to promote empowerment and resiliency. Miller encourages developing people’s capacity to direct their own recovery, using a social ecology framework to conceptualize disasters and their consequences. He also considers sources of vulnerability and how to support individual, family, and community resiliency; adapt and implement traditional disaster mental health interventions in different contexts; use groups and activities to facilitate recovery as part of a larger strategy of psychosocial capacity building; and foster collective grieving and memorializing. Miller’s text examines the unique dynamics of intergroup conflict and the relationship between psychosocial healing, social justice, and peace and reconciliation.

Disaster Risk Management Systems Analysis

Disaster Risk Management Systems Analysis
  • Author : Stephan Baas
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008
  • Total pages :78
  • ISBN : UOM:39015075645179
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Summary : Disaster Risk Management (DRM) combines, through a management perspective, the concept of prevention, mitigation and preparedness with response to the rising frequency and severity of natural hazards and disasters. This guide provides a set of tools thathave been developed and tested in field projects, with particular reference to disaster-prone areas and vulnerable sectors and population groups.--Publisher's description.

A Safer Future

A Safer Future
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,U.S. National Committee for the Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1991-02-01
  • Total pages :76
  • ISBN : 9780309045469
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Summary : Initial priorities for U.S. participation in the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction, declared by the United Nations, are contained in this volume. It focuses on seven issues: hazard and risk assessment; awareness and education; mitigation; preparedness for emergency response; recovery and reconstruction; prediction and warning; learning from disasters; and U.S. participation internationally. The committee presents its philosophy of calls for broad public and private participation to reduce the toll of disasters.

Reducing Poverty, Protecting Livelihoods, and Building Assets in a Changing Climate

Reducing Poverty, Protecting Livelihoods, and Building Assets in a Changing Climate
  • Author : Dorte Verner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010
  • Total pages :431
  • ISBN : UCSD:31822038164893
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Summary : Dorte Verner and her team are once again ahead of the curve, bringing home the threat not just to our planet but our people in Reducing Poverty, Protecting Livelihoods, and Building Assets in a Changing Climate. they focus on the danger in the most human terms, examining the risk to our planet's most vulnerable, in particular the world's poor who rely on natural resources to survive---resources endangered by extreme weather changes. While focusing on Latin America, this book reminds us all there isn't a place on earth exempt from the threat of climate change.It's a moral wake-up call.---John F. Kerry, U. S. Senator In this important and provocative volume, Dorte Verner and her colleagues provide an expansive treatment of climate change and its many effects, especially on the global poor---David Lee, Professor, Cornell University This book is bound to become the defining analysis of climate change's implications for poverty and social cohesion... A key guide for policy makers---Daniel Cohen, Professor and Vice President, Paris School of Economics This much-welcome overview provides guidelines and suggests priorities for designing and implementing suitable adaptation measures.---Anthony Hall, Professor, London School of Economics It is no longer possible to prevent damaging climate change. If used properly, this book will save many lives---Robert Waldmann. Professor, University of Rome This is persuasive, comprehensive, excellent, thoughtful, and well-written work---Steven Solomon, Author, WATER: The Epic Struggle for Wealth, Power, and Civilization This book is simply a must for all those concerned by climate change.--- Javier Santiso, Professor of Economics, ESADE Business School This is first time to have a comprehensive social assessment of climate change and it will become a standard reference.---Shengen Fan, Director General, International Food Policy Research Institute This book presents evidence that we must improve our efforts on resilience and adaptation measures to counter the consequences of climate change on the most vulnerable population groups---Soren Pind, Minister for Development Cooperation, Denmark The team is to be congratulated---very well compiled and analyzed---Augusta Molnar, Rights and Resources Initiative

Social Capital

Social Capital
  • Author : Nan Lin,Karen S. Cook,Ronald S. Burt
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021
  • Total pages :333
  • ISBN : 0202368947
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Summary : Leading scholars in the field of social networks from diverse disciplines present the first systematic and comprehensive collection of current theories and empirical research on the informal connections that individuals have for support, help, and information from other people. Expanding on concepts originally formulated by Pierre Bourdieu and James Coleman, this seminal work will find an essential place with educators and students in the fields of social networks, rational choice theory, institutions, and the socioeconomics of poverty, labor markets, social psychology, and race. The volume is divided into three parts. The first segment clarifies social capital as a concept and explores its theoretical and operational bases. Additional segments provide brief accounts that place the development of social capital in the context of the family of capital theorists, and identify some critical but controversial perspectives and statements regarding social capital in the literature. The editors then make the argument for the network perspective, why and how such a perspective can clarify controversies and advance our understanding of a whole range of instrumental and expressive outcomes. Social Capital further provides a forum for ongoing research programs initiated by social scientists working at the crossroads of formal theory and new methods. These scholars and programs share certain understandings and approaches in their analyses of social capital. They argue that social networks are the foundation of social capital. Social networks simultaneously capture individuals and social structure, thus serving as a vital conceptual link between actions and structural constraints, between micro- and macro-level analyses, and between relational and collective dynamic processes. They are further cognizant of the dual significance of the "structural" features of the social networks and the "resources" embedded in the networks as defining elements of social capital. Nan Lin is professor of sociology, Duke University. Karen Cook is Ray Lyman Wilber Professor of Sociology, Department of Sociology, Stanford University. Ronald S. Burt is Hobart W. Williams Professor of Sociology and Strategy, University of Chicago Graduate School of Business.

Disasters

Disasters
  • Author : Kathleen Tierney
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-04-15
  • Total pages :224
  • ISBN : 0745671012
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Summary : Disasters kill, maim, and generate increasingly large economic losses. But they do not wreak their damage equally across populations, and every disaster has social dimensions at its very core. This important book sheds light on the social conditions and on the global, national, and local processes that produce disasters. Topics covered include the social roots of disaster vulnerability, exposure to natural hazards such as hurricanes and tsunamis as a form of environmental injustice, and emerging threats. Written by a leading expert in the field, this book provides the necessary frameworks for understanding hazards and disasters, exploring the contributions of very different social science fields to disaster research and showing how these ideas have evolved over time. Bringing the social aspects of recent devastating disasters to the forefront, Tierney discusses the challenges of conducting research in the aftermath of disasters and critiques the concept of disaster resilience, which has come to be seen as a key to disaster risk reduction. Peppered with case studies, research examples, and insights from very different disciplines, this rich introduction is an invaluable resource to students and scholars interested in the social nature of disasters and their relation to broader social forces.