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Solar Cell Device Physics

Solar Cell Device Physics
  • Author : Stephen Fonash
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-02
  • Total pages :352
  • ISBN : 9780323154635
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Summary : Solar Cell Device Physics offers a balanced, in-depth qualitative and quantitative treatment of the physical principles and operating characteristics of solar cell devices. Topics covered include photovoltaic energy conversion and solar cell materials and structures, along with homojunction solar cells. Semiconductor-semiconductor heterojunction cells and surface-barrier solar cells are also discussed. This book consists of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the basic physical principles and materials properties that are the foundations of photovoltaic energy conversion, with emphasis on various photovoltaic devices capable of efficiently converting solar energy into usable electrical energy. The electronic and optical properties of crystalline, polycrystalline, and amorphous materials with both organic and inorganic materials are considered, together with the manner in which these properties change from one material class to another and the implications of such changes for photovoltaics. Generation, recombination, and bulk transport are also discussed. The two mechanisms of photocarrier collection in solar cells, drift and diffusion, are then compared. The remaining chapters focus on specific solar cell device classes defined in terms of the interface structure employed: homojunctions, semiconductor-semiconductor heterojunctions, and surface-barrier devices. This monograph is appropriate for use as a textbook for graduate students in engineering and the sciences and for seniors in electrical engineering and applied physics, as well as a reference book for those actively involved in solar cell research and development.

Organic Solar Cells

Organic Solar Cells
  • Author : Pankaj Kumar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-10-03
  • Total pages :325
  • ISBN : 9781315353623
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Summary : This book contains detailed information on the types, structure, fabrication, and characterization of organic solar cells (OSCs). It discusses processes to improve efficiencies and the prevention of degradation in OSCs. It compares the cost-effectiveness of OSCs to those based on crystalline silicon and discusses ways to make OSCs more economical. This book provides a practical guide for the fabrication, processing, and characterization of OSCs and paves the way for further development in OSC technology.

The Physics of Solar Cells

The Physics of Solar Cells
  • Author : Jenny Nelson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003-05-09
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9781848168237
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Summary : This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the physics of the photovoltaic cell. It is suitable for undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers new to the field. It covers: basic physics of semiconductors in photovoltaic devices; physical models of solar cell operation; characteristics and design of common types of solar cell; and approaches to increasing solar cell efficiency. The text explains the terms and concepts of solar cell device physics and shows the reader how to formulate and solve relevant physical problems. Exercises and worked solutions are included.

The Physics of Solar Cells

The Physics of Solar Cells
  • Author : Jenny Nelson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003-01-01
  • Total pages :363
  • ISBN : 1860943403
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Summary : This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the physics of the photovoltaic cell. It is suitable for undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers new to the field. It covers: basic physics of semiconductors in photovoltaic devices; physical models of solar cell operation; characteristics and design of common types of solar cell; and approaches to increasing solar cell efficiency. The text explains the terms and concepts of solar cell device physics and shows the reader how to formulate and solve relevant physical problems. Exercises and worked solutions are included.

Organic Solar Cells

Organic Solar Cells
  • Author : Wallace C.H. Choy
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-11-19
  • Total pages :266
  • ISBN : 9781447148234
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Summary : Organic solar cells have emerged as new promising photovoltaic devices due to their potential applications in large area, printable and flexible solar panels. Organic Solar Cells: Materials and Device Physics offers an updated review on the topics covering the synthesis, properties and applications of new materials for various critical roles in devices from electrodes, interface and carrier transport materials, to the active layer composed of donors and acceptors. Addressing the important device physics issues of carrier and exciton dynamics and interface stability and novel light trapping structures, the potential for hybrid organic solar cells to provide high efficiency solar cells is examined and discussed in detail. Specific chapters covers key areas including: Latest research and designs for highly effective polymer donors/acceptors and interface materials Synthesis and application of highly transparent and conductive graphene Exciton and charge dynamics for in-depth understanding of the mechanism underlying organic solar cells. New potentials and emerging functionalities of plasmonic effects in OSCs Interface Degradation Mechanisms in organic photovoltaics improving the entire device lifetime Device architecture and operation mechanism of organic/ inorganic hybrid solar cells for next generation of high performance photovoltaics This reference can be practically and theoretically applied by senior undergraduates, postgraduates, engineers, scientists, researchers, and project managers with some fundamental knowledge in organic and inorganic semiconductor materials or devices.

Solar Cells

Solar Cells
  • Author : S. K. Sharma,Khuram Ali
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-01-07
  • Total pages :350
  • ISBN : 9783030363543
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Summary : This book addresses the rapidly developing class of solar cell materials and designed to provide much needed information on the fundamental principles of these materials, together with how these are employed in photovoltaic applications. A special emphasize have been given for the space applications through study of radiation tolerant solar cells. This book present a comprehensive research outlining progress on the synthesis, fabrication and application of solar cells from fundamental to device technology and is helpful for graduate students, researchers, and technologists engaged in research and development of materials.

Next Generation Multilayer Graded Bandgap Solar Cells

Next Generation Multilayer Graded Bandgap Solar Cells
  • Author : A. A. Ojo,W. M. Cranton,I. M. Dharmadasa
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-08-16
  • Total pages :254
  • ISBN : 9783319966670
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Summary : This book will guide Photovoltaics researchers in a new way of thinking about harvesting light energy from all wavelengths of the solar spectrum. It closes the gap between general solar cells books and photovoltaics journal articles, by focusing on the latest developments in our understanding of solid-state device physics. The material presented is experimental and based on II-VI thin-film materials, mainly CdTe-based solar cells. The authors describe the use of new device design, based on multilayer graded bandgap configuration, using CdTe-based solar cells. The authors also explain how the photo-generated currents can be enhanced using multi-step charge carrier production. The possibility of fabricating these devices using low-cost and scalable electroplating is demonstrated. The value of electroplating for large area electronic devices such as PV solar panels, display devices and nano-technology devices are also demonstrated. By enabling new understanding of the engineering of electroplated semiconductor materials and providing an overview of the semiconductor physics and technology, this practical book is ideal to guide researchers, engineers, and manufacturers on future solar cell device designs and fabrications. Discusses in detail the processes of growths, treatments, solar cell device fabrication and solid state physics, improving readers’ understanding of fundamental solid state physics; Enables future improvements in CdTe-based device efficiency; Explains the significance of defects in deposited semiconductor materials and interfaces that affect the material properties and resulting device performance.

Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Diodes

Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Diodes
  • Author : Adrian Kitai
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-08-24
  • Total pages :336
  • ISBN : 9781119975236
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Summary : This textbook introduces the physical concepts required for a comprehensive understanding of p-n junction devices, light emitting diodes and solar cells. Semiconductor devices have made a major impact on the way we work and live. Today semiconductor p-n junction diode devices are experiencing substantial growth: solar cells are used on an unprecedented scale in the renewable energy industry; and light emitting diodes (LEDs) are revolutionizing energy efficient lighting. These two emerging industries based on p-n junctions make a significant contribution to the reduction in fossil fuel consumption. This book covers the two most important applications of semiconductor diodes - solar cells and LEDs - together with quantitative coverage of the physics of the p-n junction. The reader will gain a thorough understanding of p-n junctions as the text begins with semiconductor and junction device fundamentals and extends to the practical implementation of semiconductors in both photovoltaic and LED devices. Treatment of a range of important semiconductor materials and device structures is also presented in a readable manner. Topics are divided into the following six chapters: • Semiconductor Physics • The PN Junction Diode • Photon Emission and Absorption • The Solar Cell • Light Emitting Diodes • Organic Semiconductors, OLEDs and Solar Cells Containing student problems at the end of each chapter and worked example problems throughout, this textbook is intended for senior level undergraduate students doing courses in electrical engineering, physics and materials science. Researchers working on solar cells and LED devices, and those in the electronics industry would also benefit from the background information the book provides.

Energy Conversion Efficiency of Solar Cells

Energy Conversion Efficiency of Solar Cells
  • Author : Takashi Kita,Yukihiro Harada,Shigeo Asahi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-07-06
  • Total pages :202
  • ISBN : 9789811390890
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Summary : This book offers a concise primer on energy conversion efficiency and the Shockley-Queisser limit in single p-n junction solar cells. It covers all the important fundamental physics necessary to understand the conversion efficiency, which is indispensable in studying, investigating, analyzing, and designing solar cells in practice. As such it is valuable as a supplementary text for courses on photovoltaics, and bridges the gap between advanced topics in solar cell device engineering and the fundamental physics covered in undergraduate courses. The book first introduces the principles and features of solar cells compared to those of chemical batteries, and reviews photons, statistics and radiation as the physics of the source energy. Based on these foundations, it clarifies the conversion efficiency of a single p-n junction solar cell and discusses the Shockley-Queisser limit. Furthermore, it looks into various concepts of solar cells for breaking through the efficiency limit given in the single junction solar cell and presents feasible theoretical predictions. To round out readers’ knowledge of p-n junctions, the final chapter also reviews the essential semiconductor physics. The foundation of solar cell physics and engineering provided here is a valuable resource for readers with no background in solar cells, such as upper undergraduate and master students. At the same time, the deep insights provided allow readers to step seamlessly into other advanced books and their own research topics.

Advances in Thin-Film Solar Cells

Advances in Thin-Film Solar Cells
  • Author : I. M. Dharmadasa
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-09-05
  • Total pages :286
  • ISBN : 9780429668395
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Summary : Solar energy conversion plays a very important role in the rapid introduction of renewable energy, which is essential to meet future energy demands without further polluting the environment, but current solar panels based on silicon are expensive due to the cost of raw materials and high energy consumption during production. The way forward is to move towards thin-film solar cells using alternative materials and low-cost manufacturing methods. The photovoltaic community is actively researching thin-film solar cells based on amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS), and dye-sensitised and organic materials. However, progress has been slow due to a lack of proper understanding of the physics behind these devices. This book concentrates on the latest developments and attempts to improve our understanding of solid-state device physics. The material presented is mainly experimental and based on CdTe thin-film solar cells. The author extends these new findings to CIGS thin-film solar cells and presents a new device design based on graded bandgap multi-layer solar cells. This design has been experimentally tested using the well-researched GaAs/AlGaAs system, and initial devices have shown impressive device parameters. These devices are capable of absorbing all radiation (UV, visible and infra-red) within the solar spectrum and combine "impact ionisation" and "impurity photovoltaic" effects. The improved device understanding presented in this book should impact and guide future photovoltaic device development and low-cost thin-film solar panel manufacture. This new edition features an additional chapter besides exercises and their solutions, which will be useful for academics teaching in this field.

Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering

Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering
  • Author : Antonio Luque,Steven Hegedus
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-03-29
  • Total pages :1162
  • ISBN : 9780470976128
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Summary : The most comprehensive, authoritative and widely cited reference on photovoltaic solar energy Fully revised and updated, the Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Second Edition incorporates the substantial technological advances and research developments in photovoltaics since its previous release. All topics relating to the photovoltaic (PV) industry are discussed with contributions by distinguished international experts in the field. Significant new coverage includes: three completely new chapters and six chapters with new authors device structures, processing, and manufacturing options for the three major thin film PV technologies high performance approaches for multijunction, concentrator, and space applications new types of organic polymer and dye-sensitized solar cells economic analysis of various policy options to stimulate PV growth including effect of public and private investment Detailed treatment covers: scientific basis of the photovoltaic effect and solar cell operation the production of solar silicon and of silicon-based solar cells and modules how choice of semiconductor materials and their production influence costs and performance making measurements on solar cells and modules and how to relate results under standardised test conditions to real outdoor performance photovoltaic system installation and operation of components such as inverters and batteries. architectural applications of building-integrated PV Each chapter is structured to be partially accessible to beginners while providing detailed information of the physics and technology for experts. Encompassing a review of past work and the fundamentals in solar electric science, this is a leading reference and invaluable resource for all practitioners, consultants, researchers and students in the PV industry.

Polymer Photovoltaics

Polymer Photovoltaics
  • Author : Fei Huang,Hin-Lap Yip,Yong Cao
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-08-31
  • Total pages :422
  • ISBN : 9781849739870
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Summary : Polymer solar cells have gained much attention as they offer a potentially economic and viable way of commercially manufacturing lightweight, flexible and low-cost photovoltaics. With contributions from leading scientists, Polymer Photovoltaics provides an international perspective on the latest research for this rapidly expanding field. The book starts with an Introduction to polymer solar cells and covers several important topics that govern their photovoltaic properties including the chemistry and the design of new light harvesting and interfacial materials and their structure-property relationship; the physics for photocurrent generation in the polymer solar cells; new characterization tools to study morphology effect on the property of donor/acceptor bulk heterojunctions; new device concepts such as tandem cells and semi-transparent cells and advanced roll-to-roll processes for large-scale manufacturing of polymer solar cells. Written by active researchers, the book provides a comprehensive overview of the recent advancements in polymer solar cell technology for both researchers and students that are interested in this field.

Organic Solar Cells

Organic Solar Cells
  • Author : Qiquan Qiao
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-12-19
  • Total pages :446
  • ISBN : 9781482229844
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Summary : Current energy consumption mainly depends on fossil fuels that are limited and can cause environmental issues such as greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. These factors have stimulated the search for alternate, clean, and renewable energy sources. Solar cells are some of the most promising clean and readily available energy sources. Plus, the successful utilization of solar energy can help reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. Recently, organic solar cells have gained extensive attention as a next-generation photovoltaic technology due to their light weight, mechanical flexibility, and solution-based cost-effective processing. Organic Solar Cells: Materials, Devices, Interfaces, and Modeling provides an in-depth understanding of the current state of the art of organic solar cell technology. Encompassing the full spectrum of organic solar cell materials, modeling and simulation, and device physics and engineering, this comprehensive text: Discusses active layer, interfacial, and transparent electrode materials Explains how to relate synthesis parameters to morphology of the photoactive layer using molecular dynamics simulations Offers insight into coupling morphology and interfaces with charge transport in organic solar cells Explores photoexcited carrier dynamics, defect states, interface engineering, and nanophase separation Covers inorganic–organic hybrids, tandem structure, and graphene-based polymer solar cells Organic Solar Cells: Materials, Devices, Interfaces, and Modeling makes an ideal reference for scientists and engineers as well as researchers and students entering the field from broad disciplines including chemistry, material science and engineering, physics, nanotechnology, nanoscience, and electrical engineering.

The Physics of Solar Energy Conversion

The Physics of Solar Energy Conversion
  • Author : Juan Bisquert
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-06-09
  • Total pages :470
  • ISBN : 9780429000140
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Summary : Research on advanced energy conversion devices such as solar cells has intensified in the last two decades. A broad landscape of candidate materials and devices were discovered and systematically studied for effective solar energy conversion and utilization. New concepts have emerged forming a rather powerful picture embracing the mechanisms and limitation to efficiencies of different types of devices. The Physics of Solar Energy Conversion introduces the main physico-chemical principles that govern the operation of energy devices for energy conversion and storage, with a detailed view of the principles of solar energy conversion using advanced materials. Key Features include: Highlights recent rapid advances with the discovery of perovskite solar cells and their development. Analyzes the properties of organic solar cells, lithium ion batteries, light emitting diodes and the semiconductor materials for hydrogen production by water splitting. Embraces concepts from nanostructured and highly disordered materials to lead halide perovskite solar cells Takes a broad perspective and comprehensively addresses the fundamentals so that the reader can apply these and assess future developments and technologies in the field. Introduces basic techniques and methods for understanding the materials and interfaces that compose operative energy devices such as solar cells and solar fuel converters.

The Physics of Solar Cells

The Physics of Solar Cells
  • Author : Juan Bisquert
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-11-15
  • Total pages :226
  • ISBN : 9781351395571
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Summary : The book provides an explanation of the operation of photovoltaic devices from a broad perspective that embraces a variety of materials concepts, from nanostructured and highly disordered organic materials, to highly efficient devices such as the lead halide perovskite solar cells. The book establishes from the beginning a simple but very rich model of a solar cell, in order to develop and understand step by step the photovoltaic operation according to fundamental physical properties and constraints. It emphasizes the aspects pertaining to the functioning of a solar cell and the determination of limiting efficiencies of energy conversion. The final chapters of the book establish a more refined and realistic treatment of the many factors that determine the actual performance of experimental devices: transport gradients, interfacial recombination, optical losses and so forth. The book finishes with a short review of additional important aspects of solar energy conversion, such as the photonic aspects of spectral modification, and the direct conversion of solar photons to chemical fuel via electrochemical reactions.

Physics of Solar Cells

Physics of Solar Cells
  • Author : Peter Würfel,Uli Würfel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-06-13
  • Total pages :288
  • ISBN : 9783527413096
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Summary : The new edition of this highly regarded textbook provides a detailed overview of the most important characterization techniques for solar cells and a discussion of their advantages and disadvantages. It describes in detail all aspects of solar cell function, the physics behind every single step, as well as all the issues to be considered when improving solar cells and their efficiency. The text is now complete with examples of how the appropriate characterization techniques enable the distinction between several potential limitation factors, describing how quantities that have been introduced theoretically in earlier chapters become experimentally accessible. With exercises after each chapter to reinforce the newly acquired knowledge and requiring no more than standard physics knowledge, this book enables students and professionals to understand the factors driving conversion efficiency and to apply this to their own solar cell development.

The Physics of Solar Cells

The Physics of Solar Cells
  • Author : Juan Bisquert
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-11-15
  • Total pages :226
  • ISBN : 9781351395571
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Summary : The book provides an explanation of the operation of photovoltaic devices from a broad perspective that embraces a variety of materials concepts, from nanostructured and highly disordered organic materials, to highly efficient devices such as the lead halide perovskite solar cells. The book establishes from the beginning a simple but very rich model of a solar cell, in order to develop and understand step by step the photovoltaic operation according to fundamental physical properties and constraints. It emphasizes the aspects pertaining to the functioning of a solar cell and the determination of limiting efficiencies of energy conversion. The final chapters of the book establish a more refined and realistic treatment of the many factors that determine the actual performance of experimental devices: transport gradients, interfacial recombination, optical losses and so forth. The book finishes with a short review of additional important aspects of solar energy conversion, such as the photonic aspects of spectral modification, and the direct conversion of solar photons to chemical fuel via electrochemical reactions.

Organic Solar Cells

Organic Solar Cells
  • Author : Wolfgang Tress
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-11-22
  • Total pages :464
  • ISBN : 9783319100975
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Summary : This book covers in a textbook-like fashion the basics or organic solar cells, addressing the limits of photovoltaic energy conversion and giving a well-illustrated introduction to molecular electronics with focus on the working principle and characterization of organic solar cells. Further chapters based on the author’s dissertation focus on the electrical processes in organic solar cells by presenting a detailed drift-diffusion approach to describe exciton separation and charge-carrier transport and extraction. The results, although elaborated on small-molecule solar cells and with focus on the zinc phthalocyanine: C60 material system, are of general nature. They propose and demonstrate experimental approaches for getting a deeper understanding of the dominating processes in amorphous thin-film based solar cells in general. The main focus is on the interpretation of the current-voltage characteristics (J-V curve). This very standard measurement technique for a solar cell reflects the electrical processes in the device. Comparing experimental to simulation data, the author discusses the reasons for S-Shaped J-V curves, the role of charge carrier mobilities and energy barriers at interfaces, the dominating recombination mechanisms, the charge carrier generation profile, and other efficiency-limiting processes in organic solar cells. The book concludes with an illustrative guideline on how to identify reasons for changes in the J-V curve. This book is a suitable introduction for students in engineering, physics, material science, and chemistry starting in the field of organic or hybrid thin-film photovoltaics. It is just as valuable for professionals and experimentalists who analyze solar cell devices.

Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Related Devices

Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Related Devices
  • Author : Adrian Kitai
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-11-05
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9781119451020
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Summary : The second edition of the text that offers an introduction to the principles of solar cells and LEDs, revised and updated The revised and updated second edition of Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Related Devices offers an introduction to the physical concepts required for a comprehensive understanding of p-n junction devices, light emitting diodes and solar cells. The author – a noted expert in the field – presents information on the semiconductor and junction device fundamentals and extends it to the practical implementation of semiconductors in both photovoltaic and LED devices. In addition, the text offers information on the treatment of a range of important semiconductor materials and device structures including OLED devices and organic solar cells. This second edition contains a new chapter on the quantum mechanical description of the electron that will make the book accessible to students in any engineering discipline. The text also includes a new chapter on bipolar junction and junction field effect transistors as well as expanded chapters on solar cells and LEDs that include more detailed information on high efficiency devices. This important text: Offers an introduction to solar cells and LEDs, the two most important applications of semiconductor diodes Provides a solid theoretical basis for p-n junction devices Contains updated information and new chapters including better coverage of LED out-coupling design and performance and improvements in OLED efficiency Presents student problems at the end of each chapter and worked example problems throughout the text Written for students in electrical engineering, physics and materials science and researchers in the electronics industry, Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Related Devices is the updated second edition that offers a guide to the physical concepts of p-n junction devices, light emitting diodes and solar cells.

High-Efficiency Solar Cells

High-Efficiency Solar Cells
  • Author : Xiaodong Wang,Zhiming M. Wang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-30
  • Total pages :674
  • ISBN : 3319019899
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Summary :

Introduction to Light Trapping in Solar Cell and Photo-detector Devices

Introduction to Light Trapping in Solar Cell and Photo-detector Devices
  • Author : Stephen Fonash
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-09-15
  • Total pages :76
  • ISBN : 9780124166370
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Summary : New Approaches to Light Trapping in Solar Cell Devices discusses in detail the use of photonic and plasmonic effects for light trapping in solar cells. It compares and contrasts texturing, the current method of light-trapping design in solar cells, with emerging approaches employing photonic and plasmonic phenomena. These new light trapping methods reduce the amount of absorber required in a solar cell, promising significant cost reduction and efficiency. This book highlights potential advantages of photonics and plasmonics and describes design optimization using computer modeling of these approaches. Its discussion of ultimate efficiency possibilities in solar cells is grounded in a review of the Shockley-Queisser analysis; this includes an in-depth examination of recent analyses building on that seminal work.