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Supercritical Water

Supercritical Water
  • Author : Yizhak Marcus
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-06-26
  • Total pages :218
  • ISBN : 9780470889473
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Summary : Discover the many new and emerging applications of supercritical water as a green solvent Drawing from thousands of original research articles, this book reviews and summarizes what is currently known about the properties and uses of supercritical water. In particular, it focuses on new and emerging applications of supercritical water as a green solvent, including the catalytic conversion of biomass into fuels and the oxidation of hazardous materials. Supercritical Water begins with an introduction that defines supercritical fluids in general. It then defines supercritical water in particular, using the saturation curve to illustrate its relationship to regular water. Following this introduction, the book: Describes the bulk macroscopic properties of supercritical water, using equations of state to explain temperature-pressure-density relationships Examines supercritical water's molecular properties, setting forth the latest experimental data as well as computer simulations that shed new light on structure and dynamics Explores the solubilities of gases, organic substances, salts, and ions in supercritical water in terms of the relevant phase equilibria Sets forth the practical uses of supercritical water at both small scales and full industrial scales Throughout the book, the author uses tables for at-a-glance reviews of key information. Summaries at the end of each chapter reinforce core principles, and references to original research and reviews serve as a gateway and guide to the extensive literature in the field. Supercritical Water is written for students and professionals in physical chemistry, chemistry of water, chemical engineering, and organic chemistry, interested in exploring the applications and properties of supercritical water.

Rapid Production of Micro- and Nano-particles Using Supercritical Water

Rapid Production of Micro- and Nano-particles Using Supercritical Water
  • Author : Zhen Fang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-07-24
  • Total pages :92
  • ISBN : 3642129870
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Summary : This book details progress in use of supercritical water (SCW) to synthesize nano- and micro- oxides, inorganic salts and metal particles, and shows how polymer/biomass particles can be produced by the precipitation of solutes from SCW.

Using Supercritical Water Oxidation to Treat Hydrolysate from VX Neutralization

Using Supercritical Water Oxidation to Treat Hydrolysate from VX Neutralization
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems,Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1998-05-08
  • Total pages :82
  • ISBN : 030917399X
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Summary : The U.S. Army has asked the National Research Council (NRC) to evaluate whether supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is an effective and appropriate means of eliminating hazardous or toxic organic constituents in VX hydrolysate for ultimate disposition. The NRC was not asked to conduct an in-depth analysis of the entire integrated VX bulk agent destruction and disposal process for the Newport Chemical Agent Disposal Facility. As the facility design is being finalized (March 1999-April 2000), the NRC will probably be asked to assess all aspects of the facility design, including monitoring, containment, process control, and redundancy, as well as the quantitative risk assessment (QRA). This report outlines the elements of the proposed neutralization/SCWO technology, evaluates the results of ongoing SCWO tests, and makes recommendations concerning aspects of the technology that require further development. The scope of this evaluation did not include evaluations of other potential technologies or management options for the treatment of VX hydrolysate.

Supercritical Water Processing Technologies for Environment, Energy and Nanomaterial Applications

Supercritical Water Processing Technologies for Environment, Energy and Nanomaterial Applications
  • Author : Shuzhong Wang,Donghai Xu,Yang Guo,Xingying Tang,Yuzhen Wang,Jie Zhang,Honghe Ma,Lili Qian,Yanhui Li
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-09-18
  • Total pages :352
  • ISBN : 9789811393266
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Summary : This book systematically presents the technical aspects of supercritical water oxidation and supercritical water gasification for energy and environmental applications, which include reactor design, construction materials, corrosion, salt precipitation, etc. The book provides a comprehensive introduction to the properties of supercritical water, and the industrial applications, reaction mechanisms and reaction kinetics of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) and supercritical water gasification (SCWG). The reactions occurring in supercritical water are complex, and studying their reaction mechanisms is of great importance for the development of supercritical water processing technologies. Accordingly, the book explains the oxidative mechanisms and kinetics of organic matter in supercritical water in detail. However, the harsh reaction conditions in supercritical water can easily create severe reactor corrosion and salt deposition problems. Therefore, the book also comprehensively reports on the mechanism analysis, state of research, and development trends regarding these two problems. Lastly, the book summarizes the development of supercritical water processing technologies, including studies on SCWO and SCWG, as well as near-zero-emission systems of pollutants based on SCWO technology. In short, the book provides a wealth of valuable information for all readers who are interested in using SCWO for organic waste treatment, and in using SCWG for hydrogen production with wet biomass.

Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes

Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes
  • Author : Gerd Brunner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-04-04
  • Total pages :604
  • ISBN : 9780444594181
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Summary : Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes presents an overview on the properties and applications of water at elevated temperatures and pressures. It combines fundamentals with production process aspects. Water is an extraordinary substance. At elevated temperatures (and pressures) its properties change dramatically due to the modifications of the molecular structure of bulk water that varies from a stable three-dimensional network, formed by hydrogen bonds at low and moderate temperatures, to an assembly of separated polar water molecules at high and supercritical temperatures. With varying pressure and temperature, water is turned from a solvent for ionic species to a solvent for polar and non-polar substances. This variability and an enhanced reactivity of water have led to many practical applications and to even more research activities, related to such areas as energy transfer, extraction of functional molecules, unique chemical reactions, biomass conversion and fuel materials processing, destruction of dangerous compounds and recycling of useful ones, growth of monolithic crystals, and preparation of metallic nanoparticles. This book provides an introduction into the wide range of activities that are possible in aqueous mixtures. It is organized to facilitate understanding of the main features, outlines the main applications, and gives access to further information Summarizes fundamental properties of water for engineering applications Compares process and reactor designs Evaluates processes from thermodynamic, economic, and social impact viewpoints

Materials and Water Chemistry for Supercritical Water-cooled Reactors

Materials and Water Chemistry for Supercritical Water-cooled Reactors
  • Author : David Guzonas,Radek Novotny,S. Pentilla,Aki Toivonen,Wenyue Zheng
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-10-31
  • Total pages :278
  • ISBN : 9780081020500
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Summary : Materials and Water Chemistry for Supercritical Water-cooled Reactors is unique in that it brings together materials and water chemistry, their interrelationship, the historical perspective and their application to SCWR conceptual design. Written by world’s leading experts, all active in the area of materials and chemistry R&D in support of GEN IV SCWR, this book presents for the first time a comprehensive reference on these topics, and in particular, how these data relate to the SCWR design itself. This book is an essential text for researchers in the areas of supercritical water-cooled reactor materials and chemistry, working in industry or academia. It will also give newcomers to the field a survey of all of the available literature and a clear understanding of how these studies relate to the design of the SCWR concept. The material presented is at a specialist’s level in materials or corrosion science, or in water chemistry of power plants. Provides comprehensive coverage of the chemistry and materials of SCWR Presents the latest research and results condensed into one book Covers the differences in use of SCW in nuclear reactors and fossil plants, and the resulting differences in materials requirements

Near-critical and Supercritical Water and Their Applications for Biorefineries

Near-critical and Supercritical Water and Their Applications for Biorefineries
  • Author : Zhen Fang,Chunbao (Charles) Xu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-07-02
  • Total pages :474
  • ISBN : 9789401789233
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Summary : The book provides fundamental chemistry and properties of near-critical water (NCW) and supercritical water (SCW), criteria and challenges/solutions in reactor design for NCW and SCW processes, and up-to-date reviews and practice of a wide range of their applications in bio refineries including: production of hydrochars from biomass, SCW oxidation (SCWO) for waste treatment, SCW gasification (SCWG) of biomass and waste for hydrogen and methane production, hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass, production of chemicals and SCWO of biofuels for energy. It also presents techno-economic analysis of hydrogen production via SCWG of biomass. The book will be highly essential for both academic researchers and industrial practitioners for developing novel bio refinery technologies and processes employing NCW or SCW for treatment of various organic waste streams and production of bio-energy and bio-based chemicals from bio-renewable resources. Prof. Dr. Zhen Fang is leader and founder of biomass group, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China. Dr. Chunbao (Charles) Xu is currently an Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering and NSERC/FP Innovations Industrial Research Chair in Forest Bio refinery at Western University, Canada.

Workshop on Federal Programs Involving Supercritical Water Oxidation

Workshop on Federal Programs Involving Supercritical Water Oxidation
  • Author : Gregory J. Rosasco
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1993-12
  • Total pages :303
  • ISBN : 0788100424
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Summary : Covers: energy recovery, space life support applications, hazardous waste, shipboard applications, conventional munitions, therodynamics and kinetics, and much more. Graphs and diagrams.

Assessment of Supercritical Water Oxidation System Testing for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant

Assessment of Supercritical Water Oxidation System Testing for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Army Science and Technology,Committee to Assess Supercritical Water Oxidation System Testing for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-10
  • Total pages :58
  • ISBN : 9780309287326
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Summary : Assessment of Supercritical Water Oxidation System Testing for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant reviews and evaluates the results of the tests conducted on one of the SCWO units to be provided to Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. The Army Element, Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (ACWA) is responsible for managing the conduct of destruction operations for the remaining 10 percent of the nation's chemical agent stockpile, stored at the Blue Grass Army Depot (Kentucky) and the Pueblo Chemical Depot (Colorado). Facilities to destroy the agents and their associated munitions are currently being constructed at these sites. The Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (BGCAPP) will destroy chemical agent and some associated energetic materials by a process of chemical neutralization known as hydrolysis. The resulting chemical waste stream is known as hydrolysate. Among the first-of-a-kind equipment to be installed at BGCAPP are three supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) reactor systems. These particular hydrolysate feeds present unique non-agent-related challenges to subsequent processing via SCWO due to their caustic nature and issues of salt management.This report provides recommendations on SCWO systemization testing inclusive of durability testing and discusses systemization testing objectives and concepts.

Safety Analysis for a Fuel Qualification Test with Supercritical Water

Safety Analysis for a Fuel Qualification Test with Supercritical Water
  • Author : Raqué, Manuel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-01-07
  • Total pages :146
  • ISBN : 9783731502777
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Summary :

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications
  • Author : Vladimir Anikeev,Maohong Fan I
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-12-21
  • Total pages :284
  • ISBN : 9780444626974
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Summary : Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications covers the fundamental principles involved in the preparation and characterization of supercritical fluids (SCFs) used in the energy production and other environmental applications. Energy production from diversified resources — including renewable materials — using clean processes can be accomplished using technologies like SCFs. This book is focused on critical issues scientists and engineers face in applying SCFs to energy production and environmental protection, the innovative solutions they have found, and the challenges they need to overcome. The book also covers the basics of sub- and supercritical fluids, like the thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations. A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. At this state the compound demonstrates unique properties, which can be "fine-tuned," making them suitable as organic solvents in a range of industrial and laboratory processes. This volume enables readers to select the most appropriate medium for a specific situation. It helps instructors prepare course material for graduate and postgraduate courses in the area of chemistry, chemical engineering, and environmental engineering. And it helps professional engineers learn supercritical fluid-based technologies and use them in solving the increasingly challenging environmental issues. Relates theory, chemical characteristics, and properties of the particular supercritical fluid to its various applications Covers the fundamentals of supercritical fluids, like thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations Includes the most recent applications of supercritical fluids, including energy generation, materials synthesis, and environmental protection

Practical Supercritical Fluid Chromatography and Extraction

Practical Supercritical Fluid Chromatography and Extraction
  • Author : Thomas Caudell
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1999-03-08
  • Total pages :456
  • ISBN : 9057024098
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Summary : This book explores the fundamental and practical aspects of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and extraction. It discusses packed columns in SFC; detection in SFC; supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectroscopy; and evaporative light scattering detection in SFC.

Supercritical Fluid Technology in Materials Science and Engineering

Supercritical Fluid Technology in Materials Science and Engineering
  • Author : Ya-Ping Sun
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002-03-26
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : 9780824744717
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Summary : This title analyzes the chemical reactions, structures and fundamental properties of supercritical fluid systems for the production of new compounds, nanomaterials, fibers, and films. It complies contemporary research and technological advances for increased selectivity and reduced waste in chemical, industrial, pharmaceutical, and biomedical applications. Topics include fluid dynamics, catalysis, hydrothermal synthesis, surfactants, conducting polymers, crystal growth, and other aspects and applications of supercritical fluids.

Subcritical and Supercritical Water Oxidation Of...

Subcritical and Supercritical Water Oxidation Of...
  • Author : A.M. Shanableh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1990
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:1181488161
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Summary :

Supercritical-Pressure Light Water Cooled Reactors

Supercritical-Pressure Light Water Cooled Reactors
  • Author : Yoshiaki Oka,Hideo Mori
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-10-21
  • Total pages :380
  • ISBN : 9784431550259
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Summary : This book focuses on the latest reactor concepts, single pass core and experimental findings in thermal hydraulics, materials, corrosion, and water chemistry. It highlights research on supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactors (SCWRs), one of the Generation IV reactors that are studied around the world. This book includes cladding material development and experimental findings on heat transfer, corrosion and water chemistry. The work presented here will help readers to understand the fundamental elements of reactor design and analysis methods, thermal hydraulics, materials and water chemistry of supercritical water used as a coolant in nuclear power reactors. It will also help readers to broaden their understanding of fundamental elements of light water cooled reactor technologies and the evolution of reactor concepts.

Polymer Processing with Supercritical Fluids

Polymer Processing with Supercritical Fluids
  • Author : Vannessa Goodship,Erich Okoth Ogur
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005
  • Total pages :138
  • ISBN : 1859574947
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Summary : SCFs are currently the subjects of intense research and commercial interest. Applications such as the RESS (rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions) process are part of standard industrial practice. In view of their ever-growing importance in the polymer industry there is a need to fully comprehend how supercritical fluids interrelate with polymeric materials to realise the potential that can be gained from their use. The authors review the basic principles of SCFs and their application within the polymer industry: characteristics and properties, extraction of unwanted residual products, polymerisation solvents, and polymer impregnation. Processing applications such as plasticisation, foaming and blending are also considered. There is discussion of the potential within the polymer recycling industry for use of SCFs as cleaning agents or within supercritical oxidation processes. Around 400 references with abstracts from recent global literature accompany this review, sourced from the Polymer Library, to facilitate further reading. A subject index and a company index are included.

Supercritical Fluid Technology in Oil and Lipid Chemistry

Supercritical Fluid Technology in Oil and Lipid Chemistry
  • Author : Jerry W. King,Gary R. List
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1996
  • Total pages :435
  • ISBN : 0935315713
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Summary : Thermodynamics of supercritical fluids with respect to lipid-containing systems; Solubility measurement of lipid constituents in supercritical fluids; Supercritical fluid extraction of oilseeds/lipids in natural products; Supercritical fractionation of lipids; Oilseed solubility and extraction modeling; Modeling of the supercritical fluid extraction rate of oilseeds; Design and economic analysis of supercritical fluid extraction processes; Supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation of fish oils; Supercritical fluid extraction of egg lipids; Supercritical fluid extraction of Cocoa and Cocoa products; Superctitical CO2 extraction of meat products and edible animal fats for cholesterol reduction; Supercritical fluid extraction of algae; Effect of supercritical fluids on residual meals and protein functionality; Treatment of food materials with supercritical carbon dioxide; Enzymatic synthesis in supercritical fluids; Basic principles and the role of supercritical fluid chromatography in lipid analysis; Supercritical fluid chromatography for the analysis of oleochemicals; Supercritical fluid chromatography of trace components in oils and fats; Analytical supercritical fluid extraction for oil and lipid analysis.

Biohydrogen

Biohydrogen
  • Author : Ayhan Demirbas
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-06-30
  • Total pages :276
  • ISBN : 9781848825116
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Summary : Biohydrogen: For Future Engine Fuel Demands covers the production, purification, storage, pipeline transport, usage, and safety of biohydrogen. Hydrogen promises to be the most significant fuel source of the future, due to its global availability and the fact that water is its only by-product. Biofuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel, bio-oil, and biohydrogen are produced using technologies for thermochemically and biologically converting biomass. Hydrogen fuel production technologies can make use of either non-renewable sources, or renewable sources such as wind, solar, and biorenewable resources. Biohydrogen: For Future Engine Fuel Demands reviews all of the modern biomass-based transportation fuels, including bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas, biohydrogen, and fuel cells. The book also discusses issues of biohydrogen economy, policy and environmental impact. Biohydrogen looks set to be the fuel of choice in the future, replacing both fossil fuels and biorenewable liquid fuels.

Supercritical Fluid Methods and Protocols

Supercritical Fluid Methods and Protocols
  • Author : Tony Clifford
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000
  • Total pages :256
  • ISBN : 9781592590308
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Summary : Because of their unique properties and relatively low environmental impact, supercritical fluids have proven highly useful in the extraction and separation of organic compounds, in particle production, as reaction media, and for the destruction of toxic waste. In Supercritical Fluid Methods and Protocols, experienced practitioners present detailed accounts of a wide variety of techniques using supercritical fluids. These range from the supercritical fluid extraction methods for numerous compounds to the ninhydrin staining of fingerprints on checks and banknotes, and from the detection of impurities in pharmaceuticals to a wide variety of applications throughout environmental and food science, and across analytical, clinical, and medicinal chemistry. Detailed step-by-step instructions enable users to apply these essential techniques successfully the first time, and include modifications that permit their effective adaptation to novel experimental or process conditions. For each application, additional discussions provide needed background information, lists of materials and apparatus, and advice about common pitfalls and how to avoid them. Versatile and comprehensive, Supercritical Methods and Protocols offers both novice and experienced investigators and laboratory analysts powerful tools that will enable successful biological and bioprocess analyses and optimizations today.

2nd IWA Leading-Edge on Water and Wastewater Treatment Technologies

2nd IWA Leading-Edge on Water and Wastewater Treatment Technologies
  • Author : Mark C. M. van Loosdrecht,Jonathan Clement
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-04-30
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 9781843395089
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Summary : Wastewater and drinking water treatment are essential elements of urban infrastructure. In the course of the last century there has been enormous technical development, so successful that for the general public in industrialized countries this infrastructure is hardly noticed. Nevertheless there is ongoing activity to further improve the existing processes. The IWA Leading Edge Technology conference held in Prague helped to stimulate this development and this book helps disseminate the results. A selection of presentations from the conference are included in this volume. Wastewater and drinking-water treatment are normally considered as two separate fields due to the very different boundary conditions that apply. Nevertheless several issues such as membrane processes, removal of micropollutants and water reuse are of crucial importance to both. This potential for cross-fertilization further enhances the value of this collection of high-quality articles that delineate the leading edge of research and development in water and wastewater treatment.

Supercritical Fluid Cleaning

Supercritical Fluid Cleaning
  • Author : Samuel P. Sawan,Samuel P Sawan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1998-12-31
  • Total pages :306
  • ISBN : 9780815519164
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Summary : Although supercritial fluid (SCF) technology is now widely used in extraction and purification processes (in the petrochemical, food and pharmaceuticals industries), this book is the first to address the new application of cleaning. The objective is to provide a roadmap for readers who want to know whether SCF technology can meet their own processing and cleaning needs. It is particularly helpful to those striving to balance the requirements for a clean product and a clean environment. The interdisciplinary subject matter will appeal to scientists and engineers in all specialties ranging from materials and polymer sciences to chemistry and physics. It is also useful to those developing new processes for other applications, and references given at the end of each chapter provide links to the wider body of SCF literature. The book is organized with topics progressing from the fundamental nature of the supercritical state, through process conditions and materials interactions, to economic considerations. Practical examples are included to show how the technology has been successfully applied. The first four chapters consider principles governing SCF processing, detailing issues such as solubility, design for cleanability, and the dynamics of particle removal. The next three chapters discuss surfactants and microemulsions, SCF interaction with polymers, and the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) as a cleaning solvent. The closing chapters focus on more practical considerations such as scaleup, equipment costs, and financial analysis.