Download Surface Modification Of Magnesium And Its Alloys For Biomedical Applications Book PDF

Download full Surface Modification Of Magnesium And Its Alloys For Biomedical Applications books PDF, EPUB, Tuebl, Textbook, Mobi or read online Surface Modification Of Magnesium And Its Alloys For Biomedical Applications anytime and anywhere on any device. Get free access to the library by create an account, fast download and ads free. We cannot guarantee that every book is in the library.

Surface Modification of Magnesium and its Alloys for Biomedical Applications

Surface Modification of Magnesium and its Alloys for Biomedical Applications
  • Author : T.S.N. Sankara Narayanan,Il-Song Park,Min-Ho Lee
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-01-30
  • Total pages :460
  • ISBN : 9781782420835
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : The development of biodegradable implants which can remain in the human body to fix a problem and subsequently dissolve, or be absorbed, consumed or excreted, without warranting a secondary surgery, is very appealing to scientists. Due to their excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability, magnesium implants provide a viable option many problems associated with permanent metallic implants such as, restenosis, thrombosis, permanent physical irritation, and inability to adapt to growth and changes in human body. Volume 2 of this important new book explores practical issues of magnesium and magnesium alloys, physical and mechanical modification and coatings to enhance this material for biomedical applications. Includes expert analysis on chemical solution deposition of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and octacalcium (OCP) phosphate coatings for magnesium Comprehensive coverage of biomimetic modifications, surface functionalization of biomolecules, natural, conducting and biodegradable polymeric coatings Lucid dissection of chemical, physical, mechanical and electromechanical modifications of magnesium and its alloys for biomedical applications

Magnesium Alloys as Degradable Biomaterials

Magnesium Alloys as Degradable Biomaterials
  • Author : Yufeng Zheng
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-10-09
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : 9781498766630
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Magnesium Alloys as Degradable Biomaterials provides a comprehensive review of the biomedical applications of biodegradable magnesium and its alloys. Magnesium has seen increasing use in orthopedic and cardiovascular applications over the last decade, particularly for coronary stents and bone implants.The book discusses the basic concepts of biodeg

Surface Engineering of Light Alloys

Surface Engineering of Light Alloys
  • Author : Hanshan Dong
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-05-24
  • Total pages :680
  • ISBN : 9781845699451
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : The growing use of light alloys in industries such as aerospace, sports equipment and biomedical devices is driving research into surface engineering technologies to enhance their properties for the desired end use. Surface engineering of light alloys: Aluminium, magnesium and titanium alloys provides a comprehensive review of the latest technologies for modifying the surfaces of light alloys to improve their corrosion, wear and tribological properties. Part one discusses surface degradation of light alloys with chapters on corrosion behaviour of magnesium alloys and protection techniques, wear properties of aluminium-based alloys and tribological behaviour of titanium alloys. Part two reviews surface engineering technologies for light alloys including anodising, plasma electrolytic oxidation, thermal spraying, cold spraying, physical vapour deposition, plasma assisted surface treatment, PIII/PSII treatments, laser surface modification, ceramic conversion and duplex treatments. Part three covers applications for surface engineered light alloys including sports equipment, biomedical devices and plasma electrolytic oxidation and anodised aluminium alloys for spacecraft applications. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Surface engineering of light alloys: Aluminium, magnesium and titanium alloys is a standard reference for engineers, metallurgists and materials scientists looking for a comprehensive source of information on surface engineering of aluminium, magnesium and titanium alloys. Discusses surface degradation of light alloys considering corrosion behaviour and wear and tribological properties Examines surface engineering technologies and modification featuring plasma electrolytic oxidation treatments and both thermal and cold spraying Reviews applications for engineered light alloys in sports equipment, biomedical devices and spacecraft

Magnesium Technology 2016

Magnesium Technology 2016
  • Author : Alok Singh,Kiran Solanki,Michele Manuel,Neale Neelameggham
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-12-12
  • Total pages :402
  • ISBN : 9783319481142
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : The Magnesium Technology Symposium, the event on which this collection is based, is one of the largest yearly gatherings of magnesium specialists in the world. Papers represent all aspects of the field, ranging from primary production to applications to recycling. Moreover, papers explore everything from basic research findings to industrialization. Magnesium Technology 2016 covers a broad spectrum of current topics, including alloys and their properties; cast products and processing; wrought products and processing; forming, joining, and machining; corrosion and surface finishing; ecology; and structural applications. In addition, there is coverage of new and emerging applications.

Surface Modification of Magnesium and Its Alloys Using Anodization for Orthopedic Implant Application

Surface Modification of Magnesium and Its Alloys Using Anodization for Orthopedic Implant Application
  • Author : Hamouda M. Mousa
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:1154295152
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Magnesium (Mg) as a biodegradable implant brings a revolution in medical field application, especially in bone implant and stent application. Biodegradability of Mg has attracted attentions of researchers to avoid secondary surgery to remove the implant materials after healing process. Various advantages of Mg make it suitable for medical application such as density, good mechanical properties and biodegradation. However, Mg biodegradability must be controlled to meet tissue-healing period of time because of the high degradation in a physiological environment. Fast corrosion and high alkalinity due to hydrogen release induce tissue inflammation, which limits its clinical applications. Many techniques are applied to the Mg surface to improve surface biocompatibility and control its biodegradability. This chapter focuses on anodization of Mg and its alloys to improve corrosion resistance and biocompatibility for orthopedic application. Mg coating with thin film apatite could enhance the biocompatibility and increase osseointegration formation in the bone fracture side. Evaluation of the required anodized film discussed in the chapter such as chemical composition, biodegradability and biocompatibility.

Magnesium and Its Alloys as Implant Materials

Magnesium and Its Alloys as Implant Materials
  • Author : Mirco Peron,Filippo Berto,Jan Torgersen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-04-13
  • Total pages :180
  • ISBN : 9781000048759
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Despite their tremendous potential, Mg and its alloys are not yet used in biomedical applications. This book aims to provide scientific insights into the challenges of the materials, and give an overview of the research regarding their mechanical properties, corrosion behaviour and biological performances. The authors intend to put the reader into the position to accurate discern the proper Mg-based material for his/her applications and to choose the proper improvement strategy to his/her cause. To this aim, the manuscript is structured as follow: in Section 2, the main challenges hampering the use of magnesium in biomedical applications and the common improvement strategies are listed. In Section 3, the most investigated Mg alloys are reported in separate sub-sections, detailing their mechanical properties, corrosion behaviour and biotoxicity. High-pure and ultra-high-pure Mg, Al-based Mg alloys, Zn-based Mg alloys, Ca-based alloys and RE-based Mg alloys have been considered. In Section 4, the alloys’ performances with respect to the challenges is summarized providing the reader with useful information and suggestions on the potentially most suited choice. Finally, in Section 5, an outlook portraying the authors’ opinion of the future development of the field will be provided. This book will allow biomedical engineers, surface scientists, material scientists, implant manufacturers and companies working on implant approval an overview of the state-of-the-art technologies adopted so far to overcome the drawbacks of Mg for biomedical applications. Particular emphasis is put on explaining the link between mechanical, corrosion and biocompatible properties of Mg and its alloys as well as their pros and cons. In doing so, the authors intend to put the reader into the position to accurate discern the proper Mg-based material for his/her applications and to choose the proper improvement strategy to his/her cause.

Advances in Wrought Magnesium Alloys

Advances in Wrought Magnesium Alloys
  • Author : Colleen Bettles,Matthew Barnett
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-04-25
  • Total pages :480
  • ISBN : 9780857093844
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : This important book summarises the wealth of recent research on our understanding of process-property relationships in wrought magnesium alloys and the way this understanding can be used to develop a new generation of alloys for high-performance applications. After an introductory overview of current developments in wrought magnesium alloys, part one reviews fundamental aspects of deformation behaviour. These chapters are the building blocks for the optimisation of processing steps covered in part two, which discusses casting, extrusion, rolling and forging technologies. The concluding chapters cover applications of wrought magnesium alloys in automotive and biomedical engineering. With its distinguished editors, and drawing on the work of leading experts in the field, Advances in wrought magnesium alloys is a standard reference for those researching, manufacturing and using these alloys. Summarises recent research on our understanding of process-property relationships in wrought magnesium alloys Discusses the way this understanding can be used to develop a new generation of alloys for high-performance applications Reviews casting, extrusion, rolling and forging technologies, fundamental aspects of deformation behaviour, and applications of wrought magnesium alloys in automotive and biomedical engineering

Corrosion of Magnesium Alloys

Corrosion of Magnesium Alloys
  • Author : G L Song
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-03-25
  • Total pages :656
  • ISBN : 9780857091413
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : The use of magnesium alloys is increasing in a range of applications, and their popularity is growing wherever lightweight materials are needed. This book provides a comprehensive account of the corrosion of magnesium alloys. It covers not only the corrosion performances and mechanisms of Mg alloys in conventional environments, such as sodium chloride solutions, but also looks at their corrosion behaviours in special media, like engine coolants and simulated body fluids. Part one covers fundamentals such as the corrosion electrochemistry, activity and passivity of magnesium and its alloys. Part two then considers the metallurgical effect in relation to the corrosion of magnesium alloys, including the role of micro-structure and earth-rare elements, the corrosion behaviour of magnesium-based bulk metallic glasses, and the corrosion of innovative magnesium alloys. Part three goes on to describe environmental influences on the corrosion of magnesium alloys, such as atmospheric corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, creep and fatigue behaviour, and galvanic corrosion. Finally, part four is concerned with various means of protecting magnesium alloys against corrosion through the use of aluminium electrodeposition, conversion and electrophoretic coatings, and anodisation. With its distinguished editor and team of contributors, this book is an invaluable resource for metallurgists, engineers and designers working with magnesium and its alloys, as well as professionals in the aerospace and automotive industries. Provides a comprehensive account of the corrosion of magnesium alloys covering fundamentals such as the corrosion electrochemistry, activity and passivity Reviews the metallurgical effect in relation to the corrosion of magnesium alloys, including the role of micro-structure and earth-rare elements Assesses environmental influences such as atmospheric corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, creep and fatigue behaviour, and galvanic corrosion

Magnesium Alloys

Magnesium Alloys
  • Author : Mahmood Aliofkhazraei
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-02-01
  • Total pages :250
  • ISBN : 9789535128977
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Magnesium alloys usually have desirable properties including high chemical stability, easy processing and manufacturing, and also lightweight. Magnesium alloys weigh about 70% of aluminum alloy weight and 30% of iron and steel weight. Most of these alloys are used for fabrication of structures in aerospace industries. Magnesium belongs to the second main group of the periodic table of elements (alkaline earth metal) and therefore can't be found in pure state in nature and only exists as a chemical composition. This book collects new developments about magnesium alloys and their use in different industries.

Biodegradation

Biodegradation
  • Author : Rolando Chamy
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-14
  • Total pages :486
  • ISBN : 9789535111535
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : This book contains a collection of different research activities where several technologies have been applied to the optimization of biodegradation processes. The book has three main sections: A) Hydrocarbons biodegradation, B) Biodegradation and anaerobic digestion, and C) Biodegradation and sustainability.

Corrosion Prevention of Magnesium Alloys

Corrosion Prevention of Magnesium Alloys
  • Author : Guang-Ling Song
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-02-22
  • Total pages :582
  • ISBN : 9780857098962
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Magnesium (Mg) alloys are receiving increasing attention due to their abundance, light weight, castability, formability, mechanical properties and corrosion performance. By selecting the appropriate combination of materials, coatings and surface modifications, their corrosion resistance can be greatly enhanced. Corrosion prevention of magnesium alloys is a comprehensive guide to the effective prevention of corrosion in these important light metals. Part one discusses alloying, inhibition and prevention strategies for magnesium alloys as well as corrosion and prevention principles. Part two reviews surface treatment and conversion. Beginning with an overview of surface cleaning and pre-conditioning, the book goes on to discuss the use of surface processing and alloying, laser treatments, chemical conversion and electrochemical anodization to improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys. Coatings are then the focus of part three, including varied plating techniques, cold spray coatings, gel and electroless electrophoresis coatings. Finally, the book concludes in part four with a selection of case studies investigating the application of preventative techniques for both automotive and medical applications. With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Corrosion prevention of magnesium alloys is a key reference tool for all those working with magnesium and its alloys, including scientists, engineers, metallurgists, aerospace and automotive professionals, and academics interested in this field. Chapters provide an overview of surface cleaning and pre-conditioning Examines processes to improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys, including laser treatments and chemical conversion and electrochemical anodization Discusses cold spray, sol-gel and electrophoretic coatings

Surface Coating and Modification of Metallic Biomaterials

Surface Coating and Modification of Metallic Biomaterials
  • Author : Cuie Wen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-03-31
  • Total pages :448
  • ISBN : 9781782423164
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Despite advances in alternative materials, metals are still the biomaterial of choice for a number of clinical applications such as dental, orthopedic and cardiac implants. However, there are a number of intrinsic problems associated with implanting metal in the biological environment, such as wear, corrosion, biocompatibility and toxicity, which must be addressed. Modern technology has enabled scientists to modify metal surfaces or apply special coatings to metals to improve their performance safety. Surface Coating and Modification of Metallic Biomaterials will discuss the most important modification techniques and coatings for metals, first covering the fundamentals of metals as a biomaterial and then exploring surface modification techniques and coatings. An expansive overview of surface modification techniques for biomedical use In-depth exploration of issues arising from metal biomaterial use Includes examples of applications in a clinical setting

Biodegradable Metals

Biodegradable Metals
  • Author : Eli Aghion
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-12-06
  • Total pages :200
  • ISBN : 9783038973867
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Biodegradable Metals" that was published in Metals

Magnesium Alloys

Magnesium Alloys
  • Author : Alano Riley
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-08-01
  • Total pages :290
  • ISBN : 1681175258
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Metallic materials continue to play an essential role as biomaterials to assist with the repair or replacement of bone tissue that has become diseased or damaged. Metals are more suitable for load-bearing applications compared with ceramics or polymeric materials due to their combination of high mechanical strength and fracture toughness. Currently approved and commonly used metallic biomaterials include stainless steels, titanium, and cobalt-chromium-based alloys. A limitation of these current metallic biomaterials is the possible release of toxic metallic ions and/or particles through corrosion or wear processes that lead to inflammatory cascades which reduce biocompatibility and cause tissue loss. A resistance of magnesium alloys to surface degradation is paramount for their applications in automotive, aerospace, consumer electronics and general-purpose markets. The book places emphasis on oxidation, corrosion and surface modifications, designed to enhance the alloy surface stability. It covers a nature of oxides grown at elevated temperatures and oxidation characteristics of selected alloys in consort with elements of general and electrochemical corrosion. Medical applications are reflected that explore biocompatibility of magnesium alloys. Also techniques of surface modifications, designed to improve not only corrosion resistance but also corrosion fatigue, wear and other behaviors, are described. It will be a valuable resource for scientists and engineers from academia and industry. Magnesium is most commonly alloyed with other metals when being used in structural applications. Magnesium and its alloys which are chemically active can degrade naturally in the physiological environment by corrosion and are potential candidates in biodegradable hard-tissue implants. Magnesium alloys are mixtures of magnesium with other metals (called an alloy), often aluminum, zinc, manganese, silicon, copper, rare earths and zirconium. Magnesium is the lightest structural metal. Magnesium alloys have a hexagonal lattice structure, which affects the fundamental properties of these alloys.

Metallic Foam Bone

Metallic Foam Bone
  • Author : Cuie Wen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-11-14
  • Total pages :260
  • ISBN : 9780081012901
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Metallic Foam Bone: Processing, Modification and Characterization and Properties examines the use of porous metals as novel bone replacement materials. With a strong focus on materials science and clinical applications, the book also examines the modification of metals to ensure their biocompatibility and efficacy in vivo. Initial chapters discuss processing and production methods of metals for tissue engineering and biomedical applications that are followed by topics on practical applications in orthopedics and dentistry. Finally, the book addresses the surface science of metallic foam and how it can be tailored for medical applications. This book is a valuable resource for materials scientists, biomedical engineers, and clinicians with an interest in innovative biomaterials for orthopedic and bone restoration. Introduces biomaterials researchers to a promising, rapidly developing technology for replacing hard tissue Increases familiarity with a range of technologies, enabling materials scientists and engineers to improve the material properties of porous metals Explores the clinical applications of metal foams in orthopedics and dentistry

Electrophoretic Deposition: Fundamentals and Applications IV

Electrophoretic Deposition: Fundamentals and Applications IV
  • Author : A.R. Boccaccini,Omer Van der Biest,Rolf Clasen,James H. Dickerson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-03-15
  • Total pages :260
  • ISBN : 9783038136927
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Volume is indexed by Thomson Reuters CPCI-S (WoS). The contributions to this special collection cover a wide range of subject areas related to EPD and reflect the impressive versatility of that technique for materials processing. The topics discussed range from theoretical studies of the fundamental mechanisms of EPD, to novel techniques which exploit EPD for the efficient and cost-effective fabrication of a variety of advanced materials.

Degradation of Implant Materials

Degradation of Implant Materials
  • Author : Noam Eliaz
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-08-21
  • Total pages :516
  • ISBN : 9781461439424
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : This book reviews the current understanding of the mechanical, chemical and biological processes that are responsible for the degradation of a variety of implant materials. All 18 chapters will be written by internationally renowned experts to address both fundamental and practical aspects of research into the field. Different failure mechanisms such as corrosion, fatigue, and wear will be reviewed, together with experimental techniques for monitoring them, either in vitro or in vivo. Procedures for implant retrieval and analysis will be presented. A variety of biomaterials (stainless steels, titanium and its alloys, nitinol, magnesium alloys, polyethylene, biodegradable polymers, silicone gel, hydrogels, calcium phosphates) and medical devices (orthopedic and dental implants, stents, heart valves, breast implants) will be analyzed in detail. The book will serve as a broad reference source for graduate students and researchers studying biomedicine, corrosion, surface science, and electrochemistry.

Fundamental Biomaterials: Metals

Fundamental Biomaterials: Metals
  • Author : Sabu Thomas,Preetha Balakrishnan,M.S. Sreekala
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-07-19
  • Total pages :438
  • ISBN : 9780081022061
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Fundamental Biomaterials: Metals provides current information on the development of metals and their conversion from base materials to medical devices. Chapters analyze the properties of metals and discuss a range of biomedical applications, with a focus on orthopedics. While the book will be of great use to researchers and professionals in the development stages of design for more appropriate target materials, it will also help medical researchers understand, and more effectively communicate, the requirements for a specific application. With the recent introduction of a number of interdisciplinary bio-related undergraduate and graduate programs, this book will be an appropriate reference volume for students. It represents the second volume in a three volume set, each of which reviews the most important and commonly used classes of biomaterials, providing comprehensive information on materials properties, behavior, biocompatibility and applications. Provides current information on metals and their conversion from base materials to medical devices Includes analyses of types of metals, discussion of a range of biomedical applications, and essential information on corrosion, degradation and wear and lifetime prediction of metal biomaterials Explores both theoretical and practical aspects of metals in biomaterials

Metallic Biomaterials Processing and Medical Device Manufacturing

Metallic Biomaterials Processing and Medical Device Manufacturing
  • Author : Cuie Wen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-08-20
  • Total pages :604
  • ISBN : 9780081029664
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Metallic Biomaterials Processing and Medical Device Manufacturing details the principles and practices of the technologies used in biomaterials processing and medical device manufacturing. The book reviews the main categories of metallic biomaterials and the essential considerations in design and manufacturing of medical devices. It bridges the gap between the designing of biomaterials and manufacturing of medical devices including requirements and standards. Main themes of the book include, manufacturing, coatings and surface modifications of medical devices, metallic biomaterials and their mechanical behaviour, degradation, testing and characterization, and quality controls, standards and FDA regulations of medical devices. The leading experts in the filed discuss the requirements, challenges, recent progresses and future research directions in the processing of materials and manufacturing of medical devices. Metallic Biomaterials Processing and Medical Device Manufacturing is ideal for those working in the disciplines of materials science, manufacturing, biomedical engineering, and mechanical engineering. Reviews key topics of biomaterials processing for medical device applications including metallic biomaterials and their mechanical behavior, degradation, testing and characterization Bridges the gap between biomaterials design and medical device manufacturing Discusses the quality controls, standards, and FDA requirements for biomaterials and medical devices

Magnesium Biomaterials

Magnesium Biomaterials
  • Author : Nicholas Travis Kirkland,Nick Birbilis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-12
  • Total pages :132
  • ISBN : 9783319021232
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Magnesium Biomaterials provides a succinct up-to-date overview of Magnesium biomaterial development, critically examines the types of in vitro experiments that may be performed, and investigates the numerous variables that affect Magnesium biodegradation when undertaking these experiments. This work also discusses the direction in which current Magnesium biomaterial development is heading and the necessary steps for future development of this field. Information is drawn from numerous multi-disciplinary sources to provide a coherent and critical overview. Magnesium Biomaterials is ideal for researchers in the area of bio-Mg, companies interested in exploring their own alloys, and for researchers working with other biodegradable materials who are seeking a cross-platform understanding of material performance.

Surface Modification of Biomaterials

Surface Modification of Biomaterials
  • Author : Rachel Williams
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-11-25
  • Total pages :432
  • ISBN : 9780857090768
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : The surface modification of biomaterials plays a significant role in determining the outcome of biological-material interactions. With the appropriate modification a material’s surface can be tailored to improve biocompatibility, adhesion and cell interactions. Consequently surface modification is vital in the development and design of new biomaterials and medical devices. Surface modification of biomaterials reviews both established surface modifications and those still in the early stages of research and discusses how they can be used to optimise biological interactions and enhance clinical performance. Part one begins with chapters looking at various types and techniques of surface modification including plasma polymerisation, covalent binding of poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG), heparinisation, peptide functionalisation and calcium phosphate deposition before going on to examine metal surface oxidation and biomaterial surface topography to control cellular response with particular reference to technologies, cell behaviour and biomedical applications. Part two studies the analytical techniques and applications of surface modification with chapters on analysing biomaterial surface chemistry, surface structure, morphology and topography before moving onto discuss modifying biomaterial surfaces to optimise interactions with blood, control infection, optimise interactions with soft tissues, repair and regenerate nerve cells, control stem cell growth and differentiation and to optimise interactions with bone. The distinguished editor and international team of contributors to Surface modification of biomaterials have produced a unique overview and detailed chapters on a range of surface modification techniques which will provide an excellent resource for biomaterials researchers and scientists and engineers concerned with improving the properties of biomaterials. It will also be beneficial for academics researching surface modification. Reviews both established surface modifications and those still in the early stages of research and how they can be used to optimise biological interactions and enhance clinical performance Studies analytical techniques and applications of surface modification with chapters assessing biomaterial surface chemistry, surface structure, morphology and topography Discusses modifying biomaterial surfaces to optimise interactions with blood and soft tissues and also to repair and regenerate nerve cells and control infection