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Surfactant Formulation Engineering using HLD and NAC

Surfactant Formulation Engineering using HLD and NAC
  • Author : Edgar Acosta
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-09-15
  • Total pages :335
  • ISBN : 0128214813
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Summary : Surfactants are molecules that contain groups that are water-loving (hydrophilic) and oil-loving (lipophilic). The central question in formulations is often which of the two portions dominate the behavior of the surfactant. For many years that question was answered in terms of the surfactant structure only. However, the modern view is that the hydrophilic-lipophilic nature of the surfactant is the result of surfactant structure and formulation conditions (nature of the oil, temperature, aqueous phase composition) as captured by a semi-empirical equation called the hydrophilic-lipophilic difference (HLD). The HLD is a dimensionless number that indicate the approach to the point where the surfactant inverts its solubility from being water-soluble (negative HLD) to oil-soluble (positive HLD). The HLD alone is a good indicator of how the formulation could behave but it does not produce any formulation property that can be used to predict product performance. The net-average curvature (NAC) are a set of equations that take the value of HLD to predict the properties of the formulation, such as oil (and/or water) solubilization capacity, interfacial tension, phase diagrams, contact angle and others. The book will not only introduce the reader to HLD-NAC but also to the practical use of these concepts in numerous applications ranging from application in the petroleum industry, to environmental remediation, to food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications, and even nanotechnology. The last part of the book will look at the molecular origins of the empirical terms in HLD via the Integrated Free Energy Model (IFEM). Concentrates on the HLD and NAC, providing industrially-relevant examples Provides the only single depository for HLD parameters Balances theory and application, with insights from both academic and industrial authors Includes examples relevant to a wide range of fields, with practical guides on how to go from the formulation objective(s) to an actual formulation design

Oil Spill Remediation

Oil Spill Remediation
  • Author : Ponisseril Somasundaran,Partha Patra,Raymond S. Farinato,Kyriakos Papadopoulos
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-04-10
  • Total pages :392
  • ISBN : 9781118825648
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Summary : This book provides a comprehensive overview of oil spillremediation from the perspectives of policy makers, scientists, andengineers, generally focusing on colloid chemistry phenomena andsolutions involved in oil spills and their cleanup. • First book to address oil spill remediation from theperspective of physicochemical and colloidal science • Discusses current and emerging detergents used inclean-ups • Includes chapters from leading scientists,researchers, engineers, and policy makers • Presents new insights into the possible impact of oilspills on ecosystems as well as preventive measures

Surfactant Science and Technology

Surfactant Science and Technology
  • Author : Laurence S. Romsted
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-05-05
  • Total pages :593
  • ISBN : 9781439882962
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Summary : Surfactant research explores the forces responsible for surfactant assembly and the critical industrial, medical, and personal applications, including viscosity control, microelectronics, drug stabilization, drug delivery, cosmetics, enhanced oil recovery, and foods. Surfactant Science and Technology: Retrospects and Prospects, "a Festschrift in honor of Dr. Kash Mittal," provides a broad perspective with chapters contributed by leaders in the fields of surfactant-based physical, organic, and materials chemistries. Many of the authors participated in a special symposium in Melbourne, Australia, honoring Kash Mittal’s 100th edited book at the 18th Surfactants in Solution (SIS) meeting. Each chapter provides an overview of a specific research area, with discussions on past, present, and future directions. The book is divided into six parts. Part I reviews the evolution of theoretical models for surfactant self-assembly, and introduces a model for interpreting ion-specific effects on aggregate properties. Part II focuses on interactions of surfactant solutions with solid supports; uses contact angles to understand hydrophobic/hydrophilic changes in a lipid layer; uses surface tension to understand molecular arrangements at interfaces; reviews spreading phenomena; discusses pattern formation on solid surfaces; and applies tensiometry to probe flavor components of espresso. Part III discusses novel DNA-based materials, multifunctional poly(amino acid)s–based graft polymers for drug delivery, and polymeric surfactants for stabilizing suspensions and emulsions. Part IV introduces farm-based biosurfactants from natural products and "greener" biosurfactants from bacteria. Part V explores lyotropic liquid crystals and their applications in triggered drug release; microemulsion properties and controlled drug release; the role of hydrotopes in formulations and in enhancing solubilization in liquid crystals; the potential of ionic liquids to generate tunable and selective reaction media; and provides an overview of stimuli-responsive surfactants. Focusing on emulsions, Part VI reviews the design of emulsion properties for various commercial applications, the role of surfactants in the oil and gas industries, and surfactant mechanisms for soil removal via microemulsions and emulsification.

Biobased Surfactants

Biobased Surfactants
  • Author : Douglas G. Hayes,Daniel K. Solaiman,Richard D. Ashby
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-04-30
  • Total pages :541
  • ISBN : 9780128127063
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Summary : Biobased Surfactants: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications, Second Edition, covers biosurfactant synthesis and applications and demonstrates how to reduce manufacturing and purification costs, impurities, and by-products. Fully updated, this book covers surfactants in biomedical applications, detergents, personal care, food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and nanotechnology. It reflects on the latest developments in biobased surfactant science and provides case scenarios to guide readers in efficient and effective biobased surfactant application, along with strategies for research into new applications. This book is written from a biorefinery-based perspective by an international team of experts and acts as a key text for researchers and practitioners involved in the synthesis, utilization, and development of biobased surfactants. Describes new and emerging biobased surfactants and their synthesis and development Showcases an interdisciplinary approach to the topic, featuring applications to chemistry, biotechnology, biomedicine, and other areas Presents the entire lifecycle of biobased surfactants in detail

Microemulsions and Related Systems

Microemulsions and Related Systems
  • Author : Maurice Bourrel,Robert Samuel Schechter
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010
  • Total pages :393
  • ISBN : 2710809567
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Summary : Beginning with P.A. Winsor's fundamental hypothesis on a natural interfacial curvature depending on the values of the formulation variables, this unique book shows scientists how to understand the intrinsic structure of these complex systems and their corresponding physical properties... predict how a change in one formulation variable (surfactant structure, oil structure, aqueous phase composition, temperature, etc.) will modify the microemulsion... and systematically formulate microemulsions for individual applications.This book provides a thermodynamic analysis supporting the existence of natural interfacial curvature... compares the behavior of commercial surfactant mixtures and pure isomeric surfactant molecules in order to point out differences and similarities highly significant for various uses... explains how micelles can evolve smoothly and continuously toward solutions containing large quantities of oil and water... gives procedures for fixing quantitative relationships among formulation variables... plus much more.Illustrated with more than 200 diagrams, tables, and photographs, and completely referenced, this superb volume is essential reading for surfactant, colloid, and physical chemists in both academe and industry, as well as chemical engineers, biotechnologists, and petroleum engineers.Contents: 1. The R-Ratio. 2. Aqueous solutions containing amphiphiles. 3. Nonpolar solutions containing amphiphiles. 4. The phase behavior and properties of solutions containing amphiphiles, organic liquids, and water: micellar solutions. 5. Methods for promoting phase changes. 6. Compensating changes between formulation variables. 7. Solubilization. 8. Thermodynamics of solubilized systems.

SURFACTANT SCIENCE

SURFACTANT SCIENCE
  • Author : Steven Abbott
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-11-28
  • Total pages :198
  • ISBN : 1605954845
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Summary : A concise and practical reference for understanding surfactant systems Offers original formulas and phase diagrams for improved surfactant design and performance¿ Equations related to online computer apps allow readers to test their own data Written in a conversational form, with a focus on real-world problems and troubleshooting Applications to detergents, coatings, cosmetics, soil and water remediation, and biosurfactants Full chapter included on foam and anti-foam science

Handbook of Microemulsion Science and Technology

Handbook of Microemulsion Science and Technology
  • Author : K.L. Mittal
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-05-02
  • Total pages :864
  • ISBN : 9781351442336
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Summary : Demonstrating methods for overcoming stability issues in paints, wax dispersions, cosmetics, food products, and other industrial applications, this reference probes theoretical and practical issues surrounding microemulsion science and technology. Featuring the work of 51 international experts and containing almost 1000 instructive tables, equations, and illustrations, this book reviews the performance of, and prospects for, experimental methods such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), light scattering, small angle neutron scattering, viscosimetry, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to characterize various aspects of the dispersed phase of microemulsions.

Adhesion Science

Adhesion Science
  • Author : Steven Abbott
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-06-29
  • Total pages :328
  • ISBN : 9781605951782
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Summary : Explains the physics and chemistry of adhesion, surface preparation and testsPresents new strategies for formulating superior strong, weak and pressure-sensitive adhesivesIncludes access to unique electronic apps that enable numerical modeling of adhesives This technical bound book explains the basic principles of adhesion and shows how they are used to formulate and improve adhesives. The volume starts by laying out key physical and chemical concepts underlying adhesion and adhesives, including strong and weak bonds plus pressure-sensitive (PSA) across multiple polymer, metal and ceramic adherends. The ideas are expressed in clear and easily understood mathematical formulas that explain surface properties as well as "good" and "bad" adhesion, with the latter covering multiple types of adhesive failure. In this context, the book presents a detailed explanation of methods to predict, test and formulate adhesives and critically analyzes test results and traditionally accepted rules for adhesive formulation. The eBook version includes online access to a unique set of applied computer programs or "apps" that automate a wide range of adhesive formulas and enable readers to input their own data and numerically model adhesion properties in conjunction with, or prior to, chemical compounding and empirical testing. This volume constitutes a lucid and practical introduction to adhesion and adhesives appropriate for specialists at all levels.

The Role of Biofilms in Device-Related Infections

The Role of Biofilms in Device-Related Infections
  • Author : Mark Shirtliff,Jeff G. Leid
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-12-19
  • Total pages :272
  • ISBN : 9783540681199
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Summary : Approximately 60% of all hospital-associated infections, over one million cases per year, are due to biofilms that have formed on indwelling medical devices. Device-related biofilm infections increase hospital stays and add over one billion dollars/year to U.S. hospitalization costs. Since the use and the types of indwelling medical devices commonly used in modern healthcare are continuously expanding, especially with an aging population, the incidence of biofilm infections will also continue to rise. The central problem with microbial biofilm infections of foreign bodies is their propensity to resist clearance by the host immune system and all antimicrobial agents tested to date. In fact, compared to their free floating, planktonic counterparts, microbes within a biofilm are 50 – 500 times more resistant to antimicrobial agents. Therefore, achieving therapeutic and non-lethal dosing regimens within the human host is impossible. The end result is a conversion from an acute infection to one that is persistent, chronic, and recurrent, most often requiring device removal in order to eliminate the infection. This text will describe the major types of device-related infections, and will explain the host, pathogen, and the unique properties of their interactions in order to gain a better understanding of these recalcitrant infections.

Advancing Frontiers in Mycology & Mycotechnology

Advancing Frontiers in Mycology & Mycotechnology
  • Author : Tulasi Satyanarayana,Sunil Kumar Deshmukh,Mukund V. Deshpande
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-10-12
  • Total pages :675
  • ISBN : 9789811393495
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Summary : The book provides an introduction to the basics of fungi, discussing various types ranging from edible mushrooms to Neurospora – a model system for genetics and epigenetics. After addressing the classification and biodiversity of fungi, and fungi in different ecological niches, it describes the latest applications of fungi, their role in sustainable environments and in alleviating stress in plants, as well as their role in causing plant and animal diseases. Further chapters explore the advances in fungal interactions research and their implications for various systems, and discuss plant-pathogen interactions. The book also features a section on bioprospecting, and is an extremely interesting and informative read for anybody involved in the field of mycology, microbiology and biotechnology teaching and research.

Silicone Surfactants

Silicone Surfactants
  • Author : Randall M. Hill
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-07-16
  • Total pages :376
  • ISBN : 9781351416627
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Summary : The book offers a good summary of the field for all scientists who are interested in synthesis, properties, and the application of silicone surfactants." ---Molecular Chemistry and Physics. "Serves as a comprehensive introduction to the preparation, uses, and physical chemistry of silicone surfactants--focusing on silicone polyoxyalkylene copolymers that are surface active in both aqueous and nonaqueous systems. Covers applications in the manufacture of polyurethane foam, coatings, wetting agents, fabric finishes, and polymer surface modifiers."

Surfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery Applications

Surfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery Applications
  • Author : Muhammad Sagir,Muhammad Mushtaq,M. Suleman Tahir,Muhammad Bilal Tahir,Abdul Ravoof Shaik
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-01-29
  • Total pages :129
  • ISBN : 9783030187859
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Summary : This book provides a concise treatise on the use of surfactants in enhanced oil recovery (EOR), including information on key types of surfactants and their respective applications in the wider petroleum industry. The authors discuss carbon dioxide EOR, alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding strategies, and the use of surfactants as a means of reducing interfacial tension, while also paying special attention to the challenges involved in using surfactants for enhanced oil recovery, such as the difficult issue of surfactant adsorption on reservoir rock. All chapters highlight and are based on the authors’ own laboratory-scale case studies. Given its content, the book offers a valuable asset for graduate students of petroleum and chemical engineering, as well as researchers in the field of chemical enhanced oil recovery. It will also be of interest to professionals involved in enhanced industrial oil recovery.

Nanoemulsions

Nanoemulsions
  • Author : Seid Mahdi Jafari,D. Julian McClements
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-02-24
  • Total pages :664
  • ISBN : 9780128118399
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Summary : Nanoemulsions: Formulation, Applications, and Characterization provides detailed information on the production, application and characterization of food nanoemulsion as presented by experts who share a wealth of experience. Those involved in the nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries will find this a useful reference as it addresses findings related to different preparation and formulation methods of nanoemulsions and their application in different fields and products. As the last decade has seen a major shift from conventional emulsification processes towards nanoemulsions that both increase the efficiency and stability of emulsions and improve targeted drug and nutraceutical delivery, this book is a timely resource. Summarizes general aspects of food nanoemulsions and their formulation Provides detailed information on the production, application, and characterization of food nanoemulsion Reveals the potential of nanoemulsions, as well as their novel applications in functional foods, nutraceutical products, delivery systems, and cosmetic formulations Explains preparation of nanoemulsions by both low- and high-energy methods

Catastrophic Perioperative Complications and Management

Catastrophic Perioperative Complications and Management
  • Author : Charles J. Fox, III,Elyse M. Cornett,G. E. Ghali
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-03-19
  • Total pages :418
  • ISBN : 9783319961255
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Summary : For years the administrative of anesthesia was extremely dangerous and risky. Because of this the surgeon and anesthesiologist had to balance the risks and benefits for each patient before proceeding with surgery. In the last two decades the care of the surgical patient has changed dramatically. New equipment, monitors and pharmacologic agents have transformed surgical technique and improved outcomes. Patients once deemed “too sick” for the operating room are found frequently on operating room schedules nationwide. Today, anesthesiology for the healthy patient in most developed countries is extremely safe. However, perioperative complications still occur. These events can be catastrophic for patients and may have serious implications for residents, surgical and anesthesiology staff and nurses. Prompt recognition and management of these incidents may reduce or negate complications. This is based on a fundamental base of knowledge acquired through several avenues and practiced with other team members to maximize outcomes. Engagement of all caregivers impacts outcomes. Many organizations do not have the structural components or education to recognize or manage these catastrophic events. This textbook will provide educational material for the many students, as well as nurses, residents or attending physicians who participate in perioperative medicine. It will focus on the most serious perioperative complications and include a discussion of the pathophysiologic and pharmacologic implications unique to each. Additionally, it will provide medicolegal information pertinent to those providing care to these patients. All chapters will be written with the most current and relevant information by leading experts in each field.The layout and format is designed to be purposeful, logical and visually effective. Other features include review questions and answers, chapter summaries and shaded call-out boxes to facilitate learning. Catastrophic Perioperative Complications and Management will be of great utility for medical and nursing students, anesthesiology residents, student nurse anesthestists, surgical residents, nurses involved in perioperative medicine as well as surgical and anesthesiology attending physicians.

Mixed Surfactant Systems

Mixed Surfactant Systems
  • Author : Paul M. Holland,Donn N. Rubingh,Okla.) Colloid and Surface Science Symposium (65th : 1991 : Norman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1992
  • Total pages :451
  • ISBN : UOM:39015025393557
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Summary : Presents a broad survey of the properties, behavior, and modeling of mixed surfactant systems, including mixed micellar solutions, phenomena at interfaces, phase behavior, and mixtures with unusual surfactant types. Covers chemical reactions in mixed micelles, approaches to molecular modeling of mixed surfactant aggregates, and new experimental techniques for studying mixed micelles and adsorption on surfaces. Features contributions from leading specialists in colloid and surface science, including Robert S. Schechter, John F. Scamehorn, Milton J. Rosen, Keizo Ogino, and Denver G. Hall.

Sticking Together

Sticking Together
  • Author : Steven Abbott
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-05-05
  • Total pages :278
  • ISBN : 9781839160158
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Summary : This popular science title will cover adhesion science in an easily accessible entertaining manner. As well as outlining types of adhesion and their importance in everyday life, the book covers interesting future applications of adhesion and inspiration taken from nature. Ideal for students and the scientifically minded reader this book provides a fascinating introduction to the science of what makes things stick.

Encyclopedia of Emulsion Technology

Encyclopedia of Emulsion Technology
  • Author : Daniel Schuster
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1996-06-12
  • Total pages :376
  • ISBN : 0824793803
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Summary : This volume extends the discussions of basic theory and applications featured in volumes 1-3 of this series. It includes details on emulsion stability and emulsification; an examination on the effect of added polymers on emulsion rheology; findings on the role of repulsive forces in aqueous solubility, micelle stability, micro-emulsion formation, and phase separation; and a model for microemulsions.

Handbook of Surface and Colloid Chemistry

Handbook of Surface and Colloid Chemistry
  • Author : K. S. Birdi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-06-25
  • Total pages :708
  • ISBN : 9781466596689
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Summary : This new edition of the Handbook of Surface and Colloid Chemistry informs you of significant recent developments in the field. It highlights new applications and provides revised insight on surface and colloid chemistry's growing role in industrial innovations. The contributors to each chapter are internationally recognized experts. Several chapter

Microbial Bioprospecting for Sustainable Development

Microbial Bioprospecting for Sustainable Development
  • Author : Joginder Singh,Deepansh Sharma,Gaurav Kumar,Neeta Raj Sharma
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-09-18
  • Total pages :397
  • ISBN : 9789811300530
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Summary : This book presents a comprehensive overview of the use of microorganisms and microbial metabolites as a future sustainable basis of agricultural, environmental and industrial developments. It provides a holistic approach to the latest advances in the utilization of various microorganism bioprospecting including their wide range of applications, traditional uses, modern practices, and designing strategies to harness their potential. In addition, it highlights advanced microbial bioremediation approaches, including genetic manipulation, metagenomics analysis and bacteriophage-based sensors for the detection of food-borne pathogens. Lastly, it elaborates on the latest advances regarding the role of microbes in the sustainable development of various industrial products.

Food Additive User's Handbook

Food Additive User's Handbook
  • Author : J. Smith
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-01-15
  • Total pages :304
  • ISBN : 1475752482
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Summary :

Stem Cells Handbook

Stem Cells Handbook
  • Author : Stewart Sell
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-08-16
  • Total pages :534
  • ISBN : 9781461476962
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Summary : This book discusses critical areas of progress in stem cell research, including the most recent research and applications of pluripotent embryonic cells, induced pluripotent cells, oligopotent tissue stem cells and cancer stem cells. The text covers basic knowledge of stem cell biology, stem cell ethics, development of techniques for applying stem cell therapy, the technology of obtaining appropriate cells for transplantation as well as the role of stem cells in cancer and how therapy may be directed to cancer stem cells. This new volume is essential reading for all scientists currently in the field or allied research areas, and those for those graduate students who envision a career in stem cells.