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Sustainable Biofuels

Sustainable Biofuels
  • Author : Ramesh C. Ray
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-04-05
  • Total pages :502
  • ISBN : 9780128223925
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Summary : Sustainable Biofuels: Opportunities and challenges, a volume in the “Applied Biotechnology Reviews” series, explores the state-of-the-art in research and applied technology for the conversion of all types of biofuels. Its chapters span a broad spectrum of knowledge, from fundamentals and technical aspects to optimization, combinations, economics, and environmental aspects. They cover various facets of research, production, and commercialization of bioethanol, biodiesel, biomethane, biohydrogen, biobutanol, and biojet fuel. This book discusses biochemical, thermochemical, and hydrothermal conversion of unconventional feedstocks, including the role of biotechnology applications to achieve efficiency and competitiveness. Through case studies, techno-economic analysis and sustainability assessment, including life cycle assessment, it goes beyond technical aspects to provides actual resources for better decision-making during the development of commercially viable technology by researchers, PhD students, and practitioners in the field of bioenergy. It is also a useful resource for those in adjacent areas, such as biotechnology, industrial microbiology, chemical engineering, environmental engineering, and sustainability science, who are working on solutions for the bioeconomy. The ability to compare different technologies and their outcome that this book provides is also beneficial for energy analysts, consultants, planners, and policy-makers. The “Applied Biotechnology Reviews” series highlights current development and research in biotechnology-related fields, combining in single-volume works the theoretical aspects and real-world applications for better decision-making. Covers current technologies and advancements in biochemical, thermochemical, and hydrothermal conversion methods for production of various types of biofuels from conventional and nonconventional feedstock Examines biotechnology processes, including genetic engineering of microorganisms and substrates, applied to biofuel production Bridges the gap between technology development and prospects of commercialization of bioprocesses, including policy and economics of biofuel production, biofuel value chains, and how to accomplish cost-competitive results and sustainable development

Sustainable Biofuel and Biomass

Sustainable Biofuel and Biomass
  • Author : Arindam Kuila
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-06-14
  • Total pages :340
  • ISBN : 9780429555640
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Summary : Biofuel production from waste biomass is increasingly being focused on due to due to several advantages of lignocellulosic biomass, such as availability in abundance from several sources, cost-effectiveness, little competition with food sources, etc. This new volume, Sustainable Biofuel and Biomass: Advances and Impacts, provides an abundance of in-depth information on many types of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass and also describes biomass sources and their availability for biofuel production. This compiled book features 17 chapters that discuss the different aspects of biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass. Chapters deal with different types lipase-mediated biofuel production, biohydrogen production from lignocellulosic biomass, triacylglycrol biosynthetic pathways in plants for biofuel applications, the industrial prospects of lignocellulosic bioethanol production, biofuel cell production, potential feedstocks availability for bioethanol production, biofuel production from algal biomass, and many other important topics.

Biofuels for a More Sustainable Future

Biofuels for a More Sustainable Future
  • Author : Jingzheng Ren,Antonio Scipioni,Alessandro Manzardo,Hanwei Liang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-08-20
  • Total pages :414
  • ISBN : 9780128155820
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Summary : Biofuels for a More Sustainable Future: Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment and Multi-criteria Decision Making provides a comprehensive sustainability analysis of biofuels based on life cycle thinking and develops various multi-dimensional decision-making techniques for prioritizing biofuel production technologies. Taking a transversal approach, the book combines life cycle sustainability assessment, life cycle assessment, life cycle costing analysis, social life cycle assessment, sustainability metrics, triple bottom line, operations research methods, and supply chain design for investigating the critical factors and key enablers that influence the sustainable development of biofuel industry. This book will equip researchers and policymakers in the energy sector with the scientific methodology and metrics needed to develop strategies for viable sustainability transition. It will be a key resource for students, researchers and practitioners seeking to deepen their knowledge on energy planning and current and future trends of biofuel as an alternative fuel. Provides an innovative approach to promoting sustainable development in biofuel production by linking supply chain design and decision support with the life cycle perspective Features case studies and examples that illustrate the theory and methods developed Includes material on corporate social responsibility and economic analysis of biofuels that is highly useful to policy-makers and administrators in both government and enterprise sectors

Sustainable Development of Biofuels in Latin America and the Caribbean

Sustainable Development of Biofuels in Latin America and the Caribbean
  • Author : Barry D. Solomon,Robert Bailis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-30
  • Total pages :252
  • ISBN : 9781461492757
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Summary : This book examines recent developments in Latin American biofuel production. Taking “sustainable development” as a central theme, each chapter considers one country in the region and explores how biofuel production is evolving given concerns about food sovereignty, trade and other social issues. Environmental conservation, as well as an increasingly complex and globalized economic structure, Is also taken into account. The contributions to this volume critically explore the ways in which biofuel production in Latin America impact social, economic and environmental systems: the so-called “three pillars of sustainability". Numerous stakeholders, drawn from government, industry, civil society and academia have attempted to define “Sustainable Development” in the context of biofuel production and to operationalize it through a series of principles, criteria, and highly specific indicators. Nevertheless, it remains a fluid and contested concept with deep political and social ramifications, which each chapter explores in detail.

Biofuels

Biofuels
  • Author : David M. Mousdale
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-06-04
  • Total pages :424
  • ISBN : 9781420051254
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Summary : Evaluating a wealth of quantitative data, Biofuels: Biotechnology, Chemistry, and Sustainable Development discusses different types of biofuels, the science behind their production, the economics of their introduction to the marketplace, their environmental impacts, and their implications for world agriculture. It broadens the discussion on biofuel

Nanobiotechnology for Sustainable Bioenergy and Biofuel Production

Nanobiotechnology for Sustainable Bioenergy and Biofuel Production
  • Author : Madan L. Verma
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-09-01
  • Total pages :350
  • ISBN : 9780429665639
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Summary : Nanobiotechnology for Sustainable Bioenergy and Biofuel Production provides insights into the most recent innovations, trends, concerns and challenges in the production of biofuels. This book highlights a number of key research topics and practical applications of modern nanomaterials and nanocomposite-driven enzyme biotechnology for biofuels production, including the advances in the nanoscaffolds design (nanomaterials support) for immobilizing bioenergy producing enzymes (nanobiocatalyst system), the recent trends in biomass processing (untreated/treated agriculture and food waste, grasses, algal, etc.) using advanced nanobiocatalysts for biofuels production and the scale-up study of bioenergy production using nanomaterials immobilized enzymes and biofuel harvesting using nanomaterials. At the outset of new nanobiotechnology applications in biofuel production, there is a need for a new resource in the bioenergy field. This book delivers an overview of the contributions of biofuel production and the most up-to-date advances in nanobiotechnology to a diverse audience ranging from post-graduate students to researchers in biochemical engineering, biotechnology, bioremediation and environmental studies and pharmaceutical professionals. Key Features • Outlines the most recent nanobiotechnological advances in biofuels and bioenergy for biofuels productions • Covers biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethane, biohydrogen, biorefineries and biofuel harvesting using nanomaterials • Explains the scale-up nanobiotechnological study of biofuel production at the bioreactor level

Biodiesel Science and Technology

Biodiesel Science and Technology
  • Author : Jan C.J. Bart,N Palmeri,Stefano Cavallaro
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-02-19
  • Total pages :864
  • ISBN : 9781845697761
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Summary : Biodiesel production is a rapidly advancing field worldwide, with biodiesel fuel increasingly being used in compression ignition (diesel) engines. Biodiesel has been extensively studied and utilised in developed countries, and it is increasingly being introduced in developing countries, especially in regions with high potential for sustainable biodiesel production. Initial sections systematically review feedstock resources and vegetable oil formulations, including the economics of vegetable oil conversion to diesel fuel, with additional coverage of emerging energy crops for biodiesel production. Further sections review the transesterification process, including chemical (catalysis) and biochemical (biocatalysis) processes, with extended coverage of industrial process technology and control methods, and standards for biodiesel fuel quality assurance. Final chapters cover the sustainability, performance and environmental issues of biodiesel production, as well as routes to improve glycerol by-product usage and the development of next-generation products. Biodiesel science and technology: From soil to oil provides a comprehensive reference to fuel engineers, researchers and academics on the technological developments involved in improving biodiesel quality and production capacity that are crucial to the future of the industry. Evaluates biodiesel as a renewable energy source and documents global biodiesel development The outlook for biodiesel science and technology is presented exploring the challenges faced by the global diesel industry Reviews feedstock resources and vegetable oil formation including emerging crops and the agronomic potential of underexploited oil crops

Efficiency and Sustainability in Biofuel Production

Efficiency and Sustainability in Biofuel Production
  • Author : Barnabas Gikonyo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-05-08
  • Total pages :346
  • ISBN : 9781498728867
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Summary : This title includes a number of Open Access chapters. The world's interest in reducing petroleum use has led to the rapid development of the biofuel industry over the past decade or so. However, there is increasing concern over how current food-based biofuels affect both food security and the environment. Second-generation biofuels, however, use widely available sources such as non-food lignocellulosic-based biomass and fats, oils, and greases. They make practical consideration of how land use can simultaneously support both the world's food needs and some of its energy needs. This volume consolidates some of the most recent investigations into these issues. The chapters focus on these categories of research: The problems currently connected with biofuels relating to land use and the environment Investigations into the potential for land use to be managed more effectively and sustainably Research that focuses on new and developing options for second-generation biofuels This volume is recommended for all biofuel researchers, from the PhD student to the experienced scientist. It also offers an essential foundation to anyone interested in how biofuels relate to the future of our world.

Sustainable Biofuels Development in India

Sustainable Biofuels Development in India
  • Author : Anuj K. Chandel,Rajeev K. Sukumaran
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-03-14
  • Total pages :557
  • ISBN : 9783319502199
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Summary : This book will provide assistance to the broad range of readers involved in the crude oil import and production; renewable energy production; biomass analysis and bioconversion; greenhouse gas emissions; techno-economic analysis and government policies for implementing biofuels in India. This book presents important aspects on the large scale production of biofuels following a bio-refinery concept and its commercialization and sustainability issues. Hence, it is a useful resource to policy makers, policy analysts, techno-economic analysts and business managers who deal with commercialization and implementation of bio-based energy and other value-added products. The following features of this book attribute its distinctiveness: As a first uniquely focused scientific and technical literature on bioenergy production in the context of India. To its coverage of technological updates on biomass collection, storage and use, biomass processing, microbial fermentation, catalysis, regeneration, solar energy and monitoring of renewable energy and recovery process. To the technical, policy analysis, climate change, geo-political analysis of bioenergy and green transportation fuels at industrial scale.

Biodiesel Production

Biodiesel Production
  • Author : Biodiesel Production Technologies Challenges and Future Prospects Task Committee
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019
  • Total pages :848
  • ISBN : 078441534X
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Summary : Biodiesel Production: Technologies, Challenges, and Future Prospects provides in-depth information on fundamentals, approaches, technologies, source materials and associated socio-economic and political impacts of biodiesel production.

Advanced Biofuels

Advanced Biofuels
  • Author : Kalam Abul Azad,Mohammad Rasul
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-06-09
  • Total pages :502
  • ISBN : 9780081027929
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Summary : Advanced Biofuels: Applications, Technologies, and Environmental Sustainability presents recent developments and applications of biofuels in the field of internal combustion engines, with a primary focus on the recent approaches of biodiesel applications, low emission alternative fuels, and environmental sustainability. Editors Dr. Azad and Dr. Rasul, along with their team of expert contributors, combine a collection of extensive experimental investigations on engine performance and emissions and combustion phenomena using different types of oxygenated fuel with in-depth research on fuel applications, an analysis of available technologies and resources, energy efficiency improvement methods, and applications of oxygenated fuel for the sustainable environment. Academics, researchers, engineers and technologists will develop a greater understanding of the relevant concepts and solutions to the global issues related to achieving alternative energy application for future energy security, as well as environmental sustainability in medium and large-scale industries. Fills a gap in the literature on alternative fuel applications with in-depth research and experimental investigations of different approaches, technologies and applications Considers the important issue of sustainability using case studies to deepen understanding Includes energy security within various industries, including aviation and transport

Sustainable Development of Algal Biofuels in the United States

Sustainable Development of Algal Biofuels in the United States
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Committee on the Sustainable Development of Algal Biofuels
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-01-18
  • Total pages :246
  • ISBN : 9780309260329
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Summary : Biofuels made from algae are gaining attention as a domestic source of renewable fuel. However, with current technologies, scaling up production of algal biofuels to meet even 5 percent of U.S. transportation fuel needs could create unsustainable demands for energy, water, and nutrient resources. Continued research and development could yield innovations to address these challenges, but determining if algal biofuel is a viable fuel alternative will involve comparing the environmental, economic and social impacts of algal biofuel production and use to those associated with petroleum-based fuels and other fuel sources. Sustainable Development of Algal Biofuels was produced at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy.

Biofuels for Aviation

Biofuels for Aviation
  • Author : Christopher Chuck
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-06-02
  • Total pages :390
  • ISBN : 9780128032152
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Summary : Biofuels for Aviation: Feedstocks, Technology and Implementation presents the issues surrounding the research and use of biofuels for aviation, such as policy, markets, certification and performance requirements, life cycle assessment, and the economic and technical barriers to their full implementation. Readers involved in bioenergy and aviation sectors—research, planning, or policy making activities—will benefit from this thorough overview. The aviation industry’s commitment to reducing GHG emissions along with increasing oil prices have sparked the need for renewable and affordable energy sources tailored to this sector’s very specific needs. As jet engines cannot be readily electrified, turning to biofuels is the most viable option. However, aviation is a type of transportation for which traditional biofuels, such as bioethanol and biodiesel, do not fulfill key fuel requirements. Therefore, different solutions to this situation are being researched and tested around the globe, which makes navigating this scenario particularly challenging. This book guides readers through this intricate subject, bringing them up to speed with its current status and future prospects both from the academic and the industry point of view. Science and technology chapters delve into the technical aspects of the currently tested and the most promising technology in development, as well as their respective feedstocks and the use of additives as a way of adapting them to meet certain specifications. Conversion processes such as hydrotreatment, synthetic biology, pyrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction and Fisher-Tropsch are explored and their results are assessed for current and future viability. Presents the current status of biofuels for the aviation sector, including technologies that are currently in use and the most promising future technologies, their production processes and viability Explains the requirements for certification and performance of aviation fuels and how that can be achieved by biofuels Explores the economic and policy issues, as well as life cycle assessment, a comparative techno-economic analysis of promising technologies and a roadmap to the future Explores conversion processes such as hydrotreatment, synthetic biology, pyrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction and Fisher-Tropsch

Biotechnology for Biofuels: A Sustainable Green Energy Solution

Biotechnology for Biofuels: A Sustainable Green Energy Solution
  • Author : Nitish Kumar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-05-16
  • Total pages :288
  • ISBN : 9789811537615
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Summary : The depletion of petroleum-derived fuel and environmental concerns have prompted many millennials to consider biofuels as alternative fuel sources. But completely replacing petroleum-derived fuels with biofuels is currently impossible in terms of production capacity and engine compatibility. Nevertheless, the marginal replacement of diesel with biofuel could delay the depletion of petroleum resources and abate the radical climate change caused by automotive pollutants. Energy security and climate change are the two major driving forces for worldwide biofuel development, and also have the potential to stimulate the agro-industry. The development of biofuels as alternative and renewable sources of energy has become critical in national efforts towards maximum self-reliance, the cornerstone of our energy security strategy. At the same time, the production of biofuels from various types of biomass such as plants, microbes, algae and fungi is now an ecologically viable and sustainable option. This book describes the biotechnological advances in biofuel production from various sources, while also providing essential information on the genetic improvement of biofuel sources at both the conventional and genomic level. These innovations and the corresponding methodologies are explained in detail.

Sugarcane as Biofuel Feedstock

Sugarcane as Biofuel Feedstock
  • Author : Taylor & Francis Group
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-03-31
  • Total pages :342
  • ISBN : 177463550X
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Summary : This title includes a number of Open Access chapters. As the world's energy hunger grows ever larger, fossil fuel reserves are diminishing--and concerns about climate change remind us that our love affair with fossil fuels cannot continue much longer. This has inspired intense research into sustainable energy sources. Biofuels seemed initially promising, but the world soon realized that food-based biofuel has its own dangers. Second-generation biofuels, however, use biomass from crops' inedible parts--such as the stalks and leaves of sugarcane--offering a far more practical, sustainable, and commercially viable solution. In this book, researchers from around the world review some of the most important and timely topics related to using sugarcane feedstock for biofuel. After a basic overview, topics such as these are included: Pretreatment methods The use of various microbial technologies, including bacteria and yeast, to enhance biofuel production Environmental impacts Economic feasibility The viability of electricity being produced side by side with biofuel Essential reading for graduate students and research scientists investigating second-generation biofuels, this book is also recommended for environmentalists, environmental engineers, and microbiologists.

Renewable Fuel Standard

Renewable Fuel Standard
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Committee on Economic and Environmental Impacts of Increasing Biofuels Production
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-01-29
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9780309187510
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Summary : In the United States, we have come to depend on plentiful and inexpensive energy to support our economy and lifestyles. In recent years, many questions have been raised regarding the sustainability of our current pattern of high consumption of nonrenewable energy and its environmental consequences. Further, because the United States imports about 55 percent of the nation's consumption of crude oil, there are additional concerns about the security of supply. Hence, efforts are being made to find alternatives to our current pathway, including greater energy efficiency and use of energy sources that could lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions such as nuclear and renewable sources, including solar, wind, geothermal, and biofuels. The United States has a long history with biofuels and the nation is on a course charted to achieve a substantial increase in biofuels. Renewable Fuel Standard evaluates the economic and environmental consequences of increasing biofuels production as a result of Renewable Fuels Standard, as amended by EISA (RFS2). The report describes biofuels produced in 2010 and those projected to be produced and consumed by 2022, reviews model projections and other estimates of the relative impact on the prices of land, and discusses the potential environmental harm and benefits of biofuels production and the barriers to achieving the RFS2 consumption mandate. Policy makers, investors, leaders in the transportation sector, and others with concerns for the environment, economy, and energy security can rely on the recommendations provided in this report.

Biofuels

Biofuels
  • Author : Krzysztof Biernat
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-09-30
  • Total pages :582
  • ISBN : 9789535121770
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Summary : The edited volume presents the progress of first and second generation biofuel production technology in selected countries. Possibility of producing alternative fuels containing biocomponents and selected research methods of biofuels exploitation characteristics (also aviation fuels) was characterized. The book shows also some aspects of the environmental impact of the production and biofuels using, and describes perspectives of biofuel production technology development. It provides the review of biorefinery processes with a particular focus on pretreatment methods of selected primary and secondary raw materials. The discussion includes also a possibility of sustainable development of presented advanced biorefinery processes.

Bioenergy and Biofuel from Biowastes and Biomass

Bioenergy and Biofuel from Biowastes and Biomass
  • Author : Samir Kumar Khanal
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010
  • Total pages :505
  • ISBN : 0784410895
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Summary : Biofuel and bioenergy produced from biowastes and biomass is a clean energy source which can be produced renewably. The 21 chapters of this book provide state-of-the-art reviews, current research, and technology developments with respect to 1st, 2nd, and 3rd generation biofuels and bioenergy. The book focuses on the biological/ biochemical pathway, as this option has been reported to be the most cost-effective method for biofuel/bioenergy production. The opening chapter covers the overview of the current status of biofuel and bioenergy production. The rest of the chapters are grouped into seven categories; they cover biomethane production, microbial fuel cells, feedstock production, preprocessing, biomass pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and syngas fermentation. Algal processes for biofuel production, biobutanol production, bioreactor systems, and value-added processing of biofuel residues are included. This book addresses life cycle analyses (LCA) of 1st and 2nd generation biofuels (from corn, soybean, jatropha, and cellulosic biomass) and the emerging applications of nanotechnology in biofuel/bioenergy production. The book is organized in such a way that each preceding chapter builds a foundation for the following one. At the end of each chapter, current research trends and further research needs are outlined. This is one of the first books in this emerging field of biofuel/bioenergy that provides in-depth technical information on the broad topics of biofuel and bioenergy with extensive illustrations, case studies, summary tables, and up-to-date references. This book will be valuable to researchers, instructors, senior undergraduate and graduate students, decision-makers, professionals, and others interested in the field of biofuel/bioenergy.

Advances in Biodiesel Production

Advances in Biodiesel Production
  • Author : R Luque,J A Melero
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-02-22
  • Total pages :304
  • ISBN : 9780857095862
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Summary : Biodiesel is one of the main biofuels capable of substituting fossil fuel usage in compression ignition vehicles, and is used in a variety of fuel blends worldwide. First-generation biodiesel has been used in national markets for some time, with fuel quality standards in place for this purpose. There remain, however, several restrictions to sustainable and long term market development, which is influenced by many factors, including food vs. fuel pressures. The development of new generations of biodiesel, aimed at more sustainable and effective feedstock utilisation alongside improved production efficiency and fuel quality, is critical to the future both of this industry and of the continuing use of biodiesel fuels in transportation. This book provides a timely reference on the advances in the development of biodiesel fuels, production processes and technologies. Part one reviews the life cycle sustainability assessment and socio-economic and environmental policy issues associated with advanced biodiesel production, as well as feedstocks and fuel quality standards. This coverage is extended in Part two, with chapters focussing on the development of methods and catalysts essential to the improvement and optimisation of biodiesel production processes and technologies. With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Advances in biodiesel production a standard reference for chemical, biochemical and industrial process engineers, as well as scientists and researchers in this important field. Provides a timely reference on the advances in the development of biodiesel fuels, production processes and technologies Reviews the life cycle sustainability assessment and socio-economic and environmental policy issues associated with advanced biodiesel production, as well as feedstocks and fuel quality standards Discusses the development of methods and catalysts essential to the improvement and optimisation of biodiesel production processes and technologies

Strategic Planning for the Sustainable Production of Biofuels

Strategic Planning for the Sustainable Production of Biofuels
  • Author : José Maria Ponce-Ortega,José Ezequiel Santibañez-Aguilar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-03-05
  • Total pages :530
  • ISBN : 9780128181799
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Summary : Strategic Planning for the Sustainable Production of Biofuels presents several optimization models for the design and planning of sustainable biorefinery supply chains, including issues surrounding the potential of biomass feedstocks in multiple harvesting sites, availability and seasonality of biomass resources, different potential geographical locations for processing plants that produce multiple products using diverse production technologies, economies of scale for production technologies, demands and prices of multiple products, locations of storage facilities, and a number of transportation modes. Sustainability considerations are incorporated into the proposed models by including simultaneous economic, environmental and social performance in the evaluation of the supply chain designs. Covers different optimization models for the strategic planning of biorefining systems Includes the GAMS and MATLAB codes for solving various problems Considers sustainability criteria in the presented models Presents different approaches for obtained trade-off solutions Provides general software that can be used for solving different problems

Biorefining of Biomass to Biofuels

Biorefining of Biomass to Biofuels
  • Author : Sachin Kumar,Rajesh K. Sani
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-11-06
  • Total pages :372
  • ISBN : 9783319676784
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Summary : This volume focuses on the prospects of the conversion of biomass into biofuels including ethanol, butanol, biogas, biohydrogen, biodiesel, syn-gas and other useful products. Biomass-derived fuels have gained tremendous attention worldwide. However, due to high raw material and processing costs, biofuels produced from lignocelluloses have been found to be more expensive than conventional fuels. Therefore, a concept of biorefining has been introduced, where more than one product or each and every component of biomass may be derived into useful products in a manner of petroleum refinery.