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The Ancient Indus Valley

The Ancient Indus Valley
  • Author : Jane McIntosh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008
  • Total pages :441
  • ISBN : 9781576079072
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Summary : This work is a revealing study of the enigmatic Indus civilization and how a rich repertoire of archaeological tools is being used to probe its puzzles. * A chronological overview that establishes the important phases of the Indus civilization and places Indus society in the historical context of the development of South Asia * Illustrations showing speculative reconstructions of the Indus civilization's magnificent cities and photographs of artifacts from exquisite jewelry to beautiful carved seals

Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization

Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization
  • Author : Jonathan M. Kenoyer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1998
  • Total pages :260
  • ISBN : UOM:39015048843364
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Summary : Offers a variety of perspectives on the Indus Valley civilization, covering important objects recovered during recent excavations at Harappa, and recent archaeological discoveries on South Asian societies and ancient technologies.

Life in the Ancient Indus River Valley

Life in the Ancient Indus River Valley
  • Author : Hazel Richardson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005
  • Total pages :32
  • ISBN : 0778720403
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Summary : Describes the social development and organization of the early inhabitants of present-day Pakistan, including overland and sea trade, the caste system, and religious beliefs.

Harappa

Harappa
  • Author : Charles River Editors
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-11-29
  • Total pages :46
  • ISBN : 171330399X
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Summary : *Includes pictures *Includes a bibliography for further reading When one thinks of the world's first cities, Sumer, Memphis, and Babylon are some of the first to come to mind, but if the focus then shifts to India, then Harappa and Mohenjo-daro will likely come up. These cities owe their existence to India's oldest civilization, known as the Indus Valley Civilization or the Harappan Civilization, which was contemporary with ancient Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt and had extensive contacts with the former, making it one of the most important early civilizations in the world. Spread out along the rivers of the Indus River Valley, hundreds of settlements began forming around 3300 BCE, eventually coalescing into a society that had all of the hallmarks of a true civilization, including writing, well-developed cities, a complex social structure, and long-distance trade. The fact that the ancient Indus Valley Civilization is also often referred to as the Harappan Civilization demonstrates how important the discovery of Harappa is. As archaeologists and historians began to uncover more of the ancient Harappa site in the 19th and early 20th centuries, a more complete picture of the city emerged, namely its importance. Research has shown that Harappa was one of the three most important Indus Valley cities, if not the most important, with several mounds of settlements uncovered that indicate building activities took place there for over 1,000 years. At its height, Harappa was a booming city of up to 50,000 people who were divided into neighborhoods by walls and who went about their daily lives in well-built, orderly streets. Harappa also had drainage systems, markets, public baths, and other large structures that may have been used for public ceremonies. Ancient Harappa was truly a thriving and vibrant city that was on par with contemporary cities in Mesopotamia such as Ur and Memphis in Egypt. The research that has been done at Harappa over the last several decades has helped scholars understand various aspects of life there, and it has provided answers to many of the questions that had previously bewildered people about the Indus Valley Civilization. Work at Harappa has revealed that settlement was quite orderly, suggesting a strong leadership structure, but at the same time details about the ancient Harappan government itself are absent. Other discoveries show that Harappa was a very active city, where neighborhoods were subject to movement and outsiders visited regularly for trade. A series of well-built streets and walls separated the neighborhoods within Harappa and moved trade traffic in and out of the city in an orderly manner. Perhaps most interestingly, Harappa became depopulated in the early 2nd millennium BCE as all Indus Valley cities did, but there are no signs of violent struggle, which make its collapse a mystery that remains to be solved. Harappa: The History of the Ancient Indus Valley Civilization's Most Famous City examines the region, the civilization that built it, and what life was like there thousands of years ago. Along with pictures and a bibliography, you will learn about Harappa like never before.

The Ancient Indus Valley Civilization's Biggest Cities

The Ancient Indus Valley Civilization's Biggest Cities
  • Author : Charles River Editors
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-12-20
  • Total pages :180
  • ISBN : 1678562955
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Summary : *Includes pictures *Includes excerpts of ancient accounts *Includes a bibliography for further reading When one thinks of the world's first cities, Sumer, Memphis, and Babylon are some of the first to come to mind, but if the focus then shifts to India, then Harappa and Mohenjo-daro will likely come up. These cities owe their existence to India's oldest civilization, known as the Indus Valley Civilization or the Harappan Civilization, which was contemporary with ancient Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt and had extensive contacts with the former, making it one of the most important early civilizations in the world. Spread out along the rivers of the Indus River Valley, hundreds of settlements began forming around 3300 BCE, eventually coalescing into a society that had all of the hallmarks of a true civilization, including writing, well-developed cities, a complex social structure, and long-distance trade. Mohenjo-daro was the largest city of the Indus Valley Civilization, one of the most advanced civilizations to have ever existed, and the best-known and most ancient prehistoric urban site on the Indian subcontinent. It was a metropolis of great cultural, economic, and political importance that dates from the beginning of the 3rd millennium BCE. Although it primarily flourished between approximately 2500 and 1500 BCE, the city had longer lasting influences on the urbanization of the Indian subcontinent for centuries after its abandonment. It is believed to have been one of two capital cities of the Indus Civilization, its twin being Harappa located further north in Punjab, Pakistan. The fact that the ancient Indus Valley Civilization is also often referred to as the Harappan Civilization demonstrates how important the discovery of Harappa is. As archaeologists and historians began to uncover more of the ancient Harappa site in the 19th and early 20th centuries, a more complete picture of the city emerged, namely its importance. Research has shown that Harappa was one of the three most important Indus Valley cities, if not the most important, with several mounds of settlements uncovered that indicate building activities took place there for over 1,000 years. At its height, Harappa was a booming city of up to 50,000 people who were divided into neighborhoods by walls and who went about their daily lives in well-built, orderly streets. Harappa also had drainage systems, markets, public baths, and other large structures that may have been used for public ceremonies. Ancient Harappa was truly a thriving and vibrant city that was on par with contemporary cities in Mesopotamia such as Ur and Memphis in Egypt. Among the many cities that formed in the region was a site known today as Kalibangan, which was unknown to the modern world until archaeologists began uncovering its secrets in excavations during the 1960s. They uncovered a city that was not as large or important as the better-known sites of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, but one that was still relatively large and the most important of all Indus cities along the now extinct Saraswati River. Excavations at Kalibangan have revealed that the city had two phases of settlement which corresponded with the two major phases of Indus Valley Civilization, and that it influenced the smaller settlements along the Saraswati River. Archaeological work at Kalibangan has also shown that although it followed some of the patterns of larger Indus cities such as Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, it was also a unique city in many ways. Kalibangan was located on a different river from the other major Indus Valley Civilization cities, and its river suffered a fate that led to the end of the city. The city of Kalibangan also presented modern archaeologists with a treasure trove of findings because it was one of the best preserved Harappan sites, giving scholars a chance to see not only how the people of Kalibangan lived, but possibly how the city died.

The Indus Civilization

The Indus Civilization
  • Author : Mortimer Wheeler,Sir Mortimer Wheeler
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1968-09-02
  • Total pages :143
  • ISBN : 0521069580
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Summary : This book discusses climate and dating of the Indus Valley civilization and Sir Mortimer Wheeler summarizes other contributions to the study.

Novelizing the Ancient Indus Valley

Novelizing the Ancient Indus Valley
  • Author : Vasant Davé
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9788192250618
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Summary :

Indus Valley Civilization

Indus Valley Civilization
  • Author : Hourly History
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-05-14
  • Total pages :50
  • ISBN : 1098650093
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Summary : Indus Valley CivilizationIn the late 1800s, British engineers building some of the first railways in the Dominion of India discovered large numbers of bricks buried in the dusty plains of the Punjab. This was odd because historians were not aware of any cities or civilizations which might have constructed buildings in this area. It wasn't until archeological expeditions in the 1920s that it was finally realized that these bricks were the remains of mighty cities built by a previously unknown ancient civilization. Inside you will read about...✓ Discovery ✓ Excavation of Harappa ✓ Origins ✓ Life and Death in the Indus Valley ✓ Downfall of the Indus Valley Civilization And much more! This culture has become known as the Indus Valley Civilization or sometimes the Harappan Civilization, after Harappa, the first city to be discovered. It has proved to be one of the largest ancient cultures, having a population of over five million people at its height and covering an area of one and a half million square kilometers. It also created very large cities, carefully planned and laid out where almost every house had its own bath and flush toilet, thousands of years before such things became common in other parts of the world. Somehow, the Harappans seem to have controlled this vast territory without having a large army or by conquering other weaker cultures, and they did not seem to have a single ruler such as a king or emperor. Then, for reasons that still aren't understood, this culture declined and then vanished so completely that all that was left were piles of bricks in the plains of present-day India and Pakistan. We are still learning about these people, but this is what we know so far about the mysterious Indus Valley Civilization.

The Indus Civilization

The Indus Civilization
  • Author : Gregory L. Possehl
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002
  • Total pages :276
  • ISBN : 0759101728
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Summary : A brief introduction to the history, archaeology, art, language, and culture of the Indus Valley civilization, written by the leading North American Indus archaeologist.

Gujarat

Gujarat
  • Author : Charles River Editors
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-12-24
  • Total pages :62
  • ISBN : 1792654901
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Summary : *Includes pictures *Includes online resources and a bibliography for further reading "Placed as if by Nature in a locality which gives it a crowning position and serving as a gateway to India, every invader from the North has, by its possession, sought the road to fame." - Syed Mohammad Latif Gujarat is one of the most storied sites in a storied area. Many groups and empires ruled India or tried to, and Gujarat was the power center for the region's oldest of all, the Indus Valley Civilization. Gujarat also played an instrumental role in India's greatest ancient empire. During the last centuries of the first millennium BCE, most of the Mediterranean basin and the Near East were either directly or indirectly under the influence of Hellenism. The Greeks spread their ideas to Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Persia and attempted to unify all of the peoples of those regions under one government. Although some of the Hellenistic kingdoms proved to be powerful in their own rights - especially Ptolemaic Egypt and the Seleucid Empire, which encompassed all of Mesopotamia, most of the Levant, and much of Persia during its height - no single kingdom ever proved to be dominant. The Hellenic kingdoms battled each other for supremacy and even attempted to claim new lands, especially to the east, past the Indus River in lands that the Greeks referred to generally as India. But as the Hellenistic Greeks turned their eyes to the riches of India, a dynasty came to power that put most of the Indian subcontinent under the rule of one king. The dynasty that came to power in the late fourth century BCE is known today as the Mauryan Dynasty, and although the ruling family was short-lived and their power was ephemeral, its influence resonated for several subsequent centuries and spread as far east as China and into the Hellenistic west. Through relentless warfare and violent machinations, the Mauryans were able to take a land that was full of disparate and often warring ethnic groups, religions, and castes and meld it into a reasonably cohesive empire. After establishing the empire, subsequent kings were able to focus their attentions on raising the living standards of their people. One particular Mauryan king, Ashoka, embarked on several ambitious public works projects and promoted the tenets of Buddhism. Due to its influence on religion and what many believe was the world's first attempt by a government to legitimately acknowledge human rights, the Maurya Empire continues to be a source of interest and inspiration today. From there, Gujarat's history is similar to much of the rest of the subcontinent, which witnessed the rise and fall of various conquerors, from the Islamic era in the Middle Ages to the British Empire. In that time, the ethnic and religious divides brought about by time and the movements of people hardened, and by the time Gujarat was part of an independent India again, there were numerous separatist and independence movements. To this day, Gujarat has a highly charged political environment, situated as it is on the volatile border between India and Pakistan. Gujarat: The History of the Indian State from the Ancient Indus Valley Civilization to Today looks at the region, the various civilizations that lived there, and what took place there over the last 5,000 years. Along with pictures and a bibliography, you will learn about Gujarat like never before.

Daily Life in the Indus Valley Civilization

Daily Life in the Indus Valley Civilization
  • Author : Brian Williams
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-08-01
  • Total pages :48
  • ISBN : 9781484625828
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Summary : This book explores what life was really like for everyday people in the Indus Valley civilization. Using primary sources and information from archeological discoveries, it uncovers some fascinating insights and explodes some myths. Supported by timelines, maps, and references to important events and people, children will really feel they are on a time-traveling journey when reading this book.

Mohenjo-daro

Mohenjo-daro
  • Author : Charles River Charles River Editors,Charles River
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-03-23
  • Total pages :58
  • ISBN : 154487555X
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Summary : *Includes pictures *Includes online resources and a bibliography for further reading ..".the ever present menace of inundation." - Sir John Marshall, 1931 What is a city? A simple definition is a "largely constructed landscape," and through inferences and comparisons with modern states, a successful ancient city is generally said to have a number of defining characteristics: evidence of political hierarchies; a centralized authority that is simultaneously dependent on the accumulation of resources and the suppression of competitors; the maintenance of continuous negotiation, alliance building, and occasionally costly and risky investments such as warfare; specialized crafts; a hinterland supplying food; and monumental statements of central planning and communal effort, such as the Mesopotamian ziggurats. Mohenjo-daro was the largest city of the Indus Valley Civilization, one of the most advanced civilizations to have ever existed, and the best-known and most ancient prehistoric urban site on the Indian subcontinent. It was a metropolis of great cultural, economic, and political importance that dates from the beginning of the 3rd millennium BCE. Although it primarily flourished between approximately 2500 and 1500 BCE, the city had longer lasting influences on the urbanization of the Indian subcontinent for centuries after its abandonment. It is believed to have been one of two capital cities of the Indus Civilization, its twin being Harappa located further north in Punjab, Pakistan. Mohenjo-daro is an enigmatic settlement, which confuses simple definitions of what a city consists of. It has revealed little evidence of palaces, contains few definite religious buildings, and appears to have never been involved in any external or internal military conflict. The inhabitants' writing has not been deciphered, and little is known about their religious and post-mortuary beliefs. Nonetheless, the city's importance is epitomized by its monumental buildings and walls, enormous manmade platforms, innovative architectural techniques, and evidence that they engaged in trade over vast distances, with high-quality artifacts sent from the Indus Valley as far as Mesopotamia and even Africa. Of particular note was their ingenious drainage system -one of the earliest means by which sewage was drained out of the city. No other urban site of similar size had a hydraulic network as complex and effective as that of Mohenjo-daro, and it would only be surpassed thousands of years later by the network of aqueducts in Rome during the third century CE. For centuries this city was believed to have sprung into existence suddenly and without precedent, with a highly standardized system of urban development, art, and architecture that is emulated in contemporary settlements across the Indus River Valley in a phenomenon known as the "Pan-Indus system." Although this view has changed over the last few decades, there exists no definitive hypothesis as to how they grew such a complex urban society so quickly. Fittingly, the city has an equally intriguing and mysterious narrative that explains its decline and eventual disappearance, a tale that gives the site its name: the "Hill of the Dead." The Indus Valley Civilization was forgotten for millennia, until 20th century archaeologists rediscovered and began excavations at Mohenjo-daro and Harappa. Today only foundations remain, but the site's importance is represented by its UNESCO World Heritage status, awarded in 1980 for being a site of outstanding cultural importance to the common heritage of humanity. Mohenjo-daro: The History and Legacy of the Ancient Settlement of the Indus Valley Civilization looks at the history of the site and the archaeological work on it. Along with pictures depicting important people, places, and events, you will learn about Mohenjo-daro like never before.

Smart Green Civilizations

Smart Green Civilizations
  • Author : Benita Sen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-01-01
  • Total pages :28
  • ISBN : 9788179933282
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Summary : Did you know that as many as 7000 years ago, people who lived in the Indus valley practised rainwater harvesting? Not only that, this smart green civilization also used sun-baked bricks, which was an effective way to use solar energy. Familiarize yourself with the fascinating ways of this ancient civilization as Teri, our time-travelling explorer, goes back in time, to the Indus Valley.

The Indus

The Indus
  • Author : Andrew Robinson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-11-15
  • Total pages :192
  • ISBN : 9781780235417
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Summary : When Alexander the Great invaded the Indus Valley in the fourth century BCE, he was completely unaware that it had once been the center of a civilization that could have challenged ancient Egypt and neighboring Mesopotamia in size and sophistication. In this accessible introduction, Andrew Robinson tells the story—so far as we know it—of this enigmatic people, who lay forgotten for around 4,000 years. Going back to 2600 BCE, Robinson investigates a civilization that flourished over half a millennium, until 1900 BCE, when it mysteriously declined and eventually vanished. Only in the 1920s, did British and Indian archaeologists in search of Alexander stumble upon the ruins of a civilization in what is now northwest India and eastern Pakistan. Robinson surveys a network of settlements—more than 1,000—that covered over 800,000 square kilometers. He examines the technically advanced features of some of the civilization’s ancient cities, such as Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, where archaeologists have found finely crafted gemstone jewelry, an exquisite part-pictographic writing system (still requiring decipherment), apparently Hindu symbolism, plumbing systems that would not be bettered until the Roman empire, and street planning worthy of our modern world. He also notes what is missing: any evidence of warfare, notwithstanding an adventurous maritime trade between the Indus cities and Mesopotamia via the Persian Gulf. A fascinating look at a tantalizingly “lost” civilization, this book is a testament to its artistic excellence, technological progress, economic vigor, and social tolerance, not to mention the Indus legacy to modern South Asia and the wider world.

The Ancient Indus

The Ancient Indus
  • Author : Rita P. Wright
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-10-26
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 0521572193
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Summary : This early civilization was erased from human memory until 1924, when it was rediscovered and announced in the Illustrated London Times. Our understanding of the Indus has been partially advanced by textual sources from Mesopotamia that contain references to Meluhha, a land identified by cuneiform specialists as the Indus, with which the ancient Mesopotamians traded and engaged in battles. In this volume, Rita P. Wright uses both Mesopotamian texts but principally the results of archaeological excavations and surveys to draw a rich account of the Indus civilization's well-planned cities, its sophisticated alterations to the landscape, and the complexities of its agrarian and craft-producing economy. She focuses principally on the social networks established between city and rural communities; farmers, pastoralists, and craft producers; and Indus merchants and traders and the symbolic imagery that the civilization shared with contemporary cultures in Iran, Mesopotamia, Central Asia, and the Persian Gulf region. Broadly comparative, her study emphasizes the interconnected nature of early societies.

Indus Civilization

Indus Civilization
  • Author : R.K. Pruthi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004
  • Total pages :252
  • ISBN : 8171418651
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Summary : Contents: Introduction, The Indus Civilization, Origin and Development of the Indus Civilization, Extent and Distribution of Sites, Customs and Amusements, Indian Types of Pottery Vessels in Dvaravati Culture, Inscriptions in Mohenjo Daro, Cracking the Indus Valley Code, Extension of the Indus Civilization, Economics of the Indus Valley Civilization, The Decline, Causes of the Ruin, Some New Evidences, Mohenjo-daro and Rigveda, Is Indus Valley Civilization Dravidian s or Aryan s?

Indus Valley Civilization

Indus Valley Civilization
  • Author : Source Wikipedia
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09
  • Total pages :26
  • ISBN : 1230633529
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Summary : Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 25. Chapters: Indus River, Mortimer Wheeler, John Marshall, Ghaggar-Hakra river, Indus script, Jonathan Mark Kenoyer, Ochre Coloured Pottery culture, Periodization of the Indus Valley Civilization, Harappan language, Harappan architecture, Jim G. Shaffer, Ghumali, Ahmuvan, Sanitation of the Indus Valley Civilization, Musikas. Excerpt: The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300-1300 BCE; mature period 2600-1900 BCE) that was located in the northwestern region of the Indian Subcontinent. Flourishing around the Indus River basin, the civilization primarily centered along the Indus and the Punjab region, extending into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab. Geographically, the civilization was spread over an area of some 1,260,000 km, making it the largest ancient civilization in the world. There is an Indus Valley site on the Oxus river at Shortugai and extending towards Alamgirpur on the Hindon river located only 28 km from Delhi, India. The Indus Valley is one of the world's earliest urban civilizations, along with its contemporaries, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of well over five million. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley, developed new techniques in metallurgy and handicraft (carneol products, seal carving), and produced copper, bronze, lead, and tin. The civilization is noted for its cities built of brick, roadside drainage system, and multistoried houses. The mature phase of this civilization is known as the Harappan Civilization, as the first of its cities to be unearthed was the one at Harappa, excavated in the 1920s in what was at the time the Punjab province of British India (now in Pakistan). Excavation of Harappan sites have been ongoing since 1920, with important breakthroughs occurring as...

The Ancient Civilization of the Indus River | Indus Civilization Grade 4 | Children's Ancient History

The Ancient Civilization of the Indus River | Indus Civilization Grade 4 | Children's Ancient History
  • Author : Baby Professor
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-12-31
  • Total pages :84
  • ISBN : 9781541956551
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Summary : The Indus River was an important location in ancient times. Near it, civilizations thrived. In this book, you are going to learn about the ancient civilization of the Indus River, and how such a body of water was instrumental in the people’s survival. Go ahead and grab a copy of this book today.

Inter-regional Interaction and Urbanism in the Ancient Indus Valley

Inter-regional Interaction and Urbanism in the Ancient Indus Valley
  • Author : Randall William Law
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : WISC:89101429843
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Summary :

Evidence of Geometry in Indus Valley Civilization, 2500-1500 B.C.

Evidence of Geometry in Indus Valley Civilization, 2500-1500 B.C.
  • Author : Parveen Talpur
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1995
  • Total pages :139
  • ISBN : UOM:39015041756944
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Summary : This Book Invites The Attention Of Scholars To Study The Origin And Evolution Of Sindhi Art And Their Signs And Symbols Used In The Seals By The Ancient Indus Valley People.

Understanding Collapse

Understanding Collapse
  • Author : Guy D. Middleton
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-06-26
  • Total pages :441
  • ISBN : 9781107151499
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Summary : In this lively survey, Guy D. Middleton critically examines our ideas about collapse - how we explain it and how we have constructed potentially misleading myths around collapses - showing how and why collapse of societies was a much more complex phenomenon than is often admitted.