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The Auditory Brain and Age-Related Hearing Impairment

The Auditory Brain and Age-Related Hearing Impairment
  • Author : Jos J. Eggermont
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-01-03
  • Total pages :296
  • ISBN : 9780128155455
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Summary : The Auditory Brain and Age-Related Hearing Impairment provides an overview of the interaction between age-related hearing impairments and cognitive brain function. This monograph elucidates the techniques used in the connectome and other brain-network studies based on electrophysiological methods. Discussions of the manifestations of age-related hearing impairment, the causes of degradation of sound processing, compensatory changes in the human brain, and rehabilitation and intervention are included. There is currently a surge in content on aging and hearing loss, the benefits of hearing aids and implants, and the correlation between hearing loss, cognitive decline and early onset of dementia. Given the changing demographics, treatment of age-related hearing impairment need not just be bottom-up (i.e., by amplification and/or cochlear implantation), but also top-down by addressing the impact of the changing brain on communication. The role of age-related capacity for audio-visual integration and its role in assisting treatment have only recently been investigated, thus this area needs more attention. Relates the techniques used in the connectome and other brain-network studies to the human auditory-cortex and age-related hearing loss research findings Examines the side effects of age-related hearing impairment and their impact on the quality of life for the elderly Evaluates the importance of multi-modal means in the rehabilitation of the elderly with hearing aids and cochlear implants Discusses the role of neurostimulation and various training procedures to halt, or potentially reverse, cognitive decline in the elderly

The Oxford Handbook of the Auditory Brainstem

The Oxford Handbook of the Auditory Brainstem
  • Author : Karl Kandler PhD
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-08-22
  • Total pages :512
  • ISBN : 9780190849085
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Summary : The Oxford Handbook of The Auditory Brainstem provides an introduction as well as an in-depth reference to the organization and function of ascending and descending auditory pathways in the mammalian brainstem. Individual chapters are organized along the auditory pathway beginning with the cochlea and ending with the auditory midbrain. Each chapter provides an introduction to the respective area, and summarizes our current knowledge before discussing disputes and challenges the field currently faces. A major emphasis throughout this book is on the numerous forms of plasticity that are increasingly observed in many areas of the auditory brainstem. Several chapters focus on neuronal modulation of function and synaptic, neuronal, and circuit plasticity, especially under circumstances when they occur most prominently: during development, aging, and following peripheral hearing loss. In addition, the book addresses the role of trauma-induced maladaptive plasticity with respect to its contribution in generating central hearing dysfunction such as hyperacusis and tinnitus. The book is intended for students and postdocs starting in the auditory field, and researchers of related fields who wish to get an authoritative and up-to-date summary of the current state of auditory brainstem research. For clinical practitioners in audiology, otolaryngology, and neurology, the book is a valuable resource of information about the neuronal mechanisms that are major candidates for the generation of central hearing dysfunction.

Aging and Hearing

Aging and Hearing
  • Author : Karen S. Helfer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9783030493677
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Summary :

The Aging Auditory System

The Aging Auditory System
  • Author : Sandra Gordon-Salant,Robert D. Frisina,Richard R. Fay,Arthur Popper
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-05-03
  • Total pages :302
  • ISBN : 9781441909947
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Summary : This volume brings together noted scientists who study presbycusis from the perspective of complementary disciplines, for a review of the current state of knowledge on the aging auditory system. Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is one of the top three most common chronic health conditions affecting individuals aged 65 years and older. The high prevalence of age-related hearing loss compels audiologists, otolaryngologists, and auditory neuroscientists alike to understand the neural, genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying this disorder. A comprehensive understanding of these factors is needed so that effective prevention, intervention, and rehabilitative strategies can be developed to ameliorate the myriad of behavioral manifestations.

Genetics of Deafness

Genetics of Deafness
  • Author : B. Vona,T. Haaf
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-04-21
  • Total pages :146
  • ISBN : 9783318058567
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Summary : Genetics of Deafness offers a journey through areas crucial for understanding the causes and effects of hearing loss. It covers such topics as the latest approaches in diagnostics and deafness research and the current status and future promise of gene therapy for hearing restoration. The book begins by bringing attention to how hearing loss affects the individual and society. Methods of hearing loss detection and management throughout the lifespan are highlighted as is a particularly new development in newborn hearing screening. The challenges of hearing loss, an extremely heterogeneous impairment, are addressed. Additional topics include current research interests, ranging from novel gene identification to their functional validation in the mouse and zebrafish. The book ends with a chapter on the state of the art of gene therapy—an area that is certain to gain increasing attention as molecular mechanisms of deafness are better understood. Genetics of Deafness, written by leading authors in the field, is a must read for clinicians, researchers, and students. It provides much needed insight into the diagnosis and research of hereditary hearing loss.

Advances in Clinical Audiology

Advances in Clinical Audiology
  • Author : Stavros Hatzopoulos
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-03-29
  • Total pages :260
  • ISBN : 9789535130437
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Summary : Advances in Clinical Audiology is an excursus on the latest findings in clinical audiology with a strong emphasis in new emerging technologies which facilitate and optimize a better assessment of the human patient. The book has been edited with a strong educational perspective (all chapters include an extensive introduction to their corresponding topic and an extensive glossary of terms). The book contains material suitable for graduate students in audiology, ENT, hearing science, and neuroscience.

Gerontology

Gerontology
  • Author : Grazia D’Onofrio,Daniele Sancarlo,Antonio Greco
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-07-04
  • Total pages :276
  • ISBN : 9781789232523
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Summary : Aging well and actively is the real objective of human being. This book is an up-to-date and realistic view on physiopathological mechanisms of aging and age-related diseases. The book includes topical contributions from multiple disciplines to support the fundamental goals of extending active life and enhancing its quality.

Hearing Loss

Hearing Loss
  • Author : Jos J. Eggermont
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-02-22
  • Total pages :426
  • ISBN : 9780128093498
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Summary : Hearing Loss: Causes, Prevention, and Treatment covers hearing loss, causes and prevention, treatments, and future directions in the field, also looking at the cognitive problems that can develop. To avoid the “silent epidemic of hearing loss, it is necessary to promote early screening, use hearing protection, and change public attitudes toward noise. Successful treatments of hearing loss deal with restoring hearing sensitivity via hearing aids, including cochlear, brainstem, or midbrain implants. Both the technical aspects and effects on the quality of life of these devices are discussed. The integration of all aspects of hearing, hearing loss, prevention, and treatment make this a perfect one-volume course in audiology at the graduate student level. However, it is also a great reference for established audiologists, ear surgeons, neurologists, and pediatric and geriatric professionals. Presents an in-depth overview of hearing loss, causes and prevention, treatments, and future directions in the field Written for researchers and clinicians, such as auditory neuroscientists, audiologists, neurologists, speech pathologists, pediatricians, and geriatricians Presents the benefits and problems with hearing aids and cochlear implants Includes important quality of life issues

Auditory Trauma, Protection, and Repair

Auditory Trauma, Protection, and Repair
  • Author : Jochen Schacht,Richard R. Fay
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-02-10
  • Total pages :352
  • ISBN : 038772561X
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Summary : The past decade has brought great advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying auditory pathologies. This volume presents recent developments in research and their potential translation to the clinical setting. It brings together the basic and clinical sciences very nicely in that while most chapters are written by basic scientists, each topic has a pretty direct clinical application or implication.

Hearing Loss and Healthy Aging

Hearing Loss and Healthy Aging
  • Author : National Research Council,Institute of Medicine,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Forum on Aging, Disability, and Independence
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-07-30
  • Total pages :128
  • ISBN : 9780309302296
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Summary : Being able to communicate is a cornerstone of healthy aging. People need to make themselves understood and to understand others to remain cognitively and socially engaged with families, friends, and other individuals. When they are unable to communicate, people with hearing impairments can become socially isolated, and social isolation can be an important driver of morbidity and mortality in older adults. Despite the critical importance of communication, many older adults have hearing loss that interferes with their social interactions and enjoyment of life. People may turn up the volume on their televisions or stereos, miss words in a conversation, go to fewer public places where it is difficult to hear, or worry about missing an alarm or notification. In other cases, hearing loss is much more severe, and people may retreat into a hard-to-reach shell. Yet fewer than one in seven older Americans with hearing loss use hearing aids, despite rapidly advancing technologies and innovative approaches to hearing health care. In addition, there may not be an adequate number of professionals trained to address the growing need for hearing health care for older adults. Further, Medicare does not cover routine hearing exams, hearing aids, or exams for fitting hearing aids, which can be prohibitively expensive for many older adults. Hearing Loss and Healthy Aging is the summary of a workshop convened by the Forum on Aging, Disability, and Independence in January 2014 on age-related hearing loss. Researchers, advocates, policy makers, entrepreneurs, regulators, and others discussed this pressing social and public health issue. This report examines the ways in which age-related hearing loss affects healthy aging, and how the spectrum of public and private stakeholders can work together to address hearing loss in older adults as a public health issue.

The Oxford Handbook of Auditory Science: The Auditory Brain

The Oxford Handbook of Auditory Science: The Auditory Brain
  • Author : Adrian Rees,Alan Palmer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-01-21
  • Total pages :580
  • ISBN : 9780199233281
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Summary : Volume 1: The Ear (edited by Paul Fuchs) Volume 2: The Auditory Brain (edited by Alan Palmer and Adrian Rees) Volume 3: Hearing (edited by Chris Plack) Auditory science is one of the fastest growing areas of biomedical research. There are now around 10,000 researchers in auditory science, and ten times that number working in allied professions. This growth is attributable to several major developments: Research on the inner ear has shown that elaborate systems of mechanical, transduction and neural processes serve to improve sensitivity, sharpen frequency tuning, and modulate response of the ear to sound. Most recently, the molecular machinery underlying these phenomena has been explored and described in detail. The development, maintenance, and repair of the ear are also subjects of contemporary interest at the molecular level, as is the genetics of hearing disorders due to cochlear malfunctions.

Music and the Aging Brain

Music and the Aging Brain
  • Author : Lola Cuddy,Sylvie Belleville,Aline Moussard
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-05-28
  • Total pages :474
  • ISBN : 9780128174234
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Summary : Music and the Aging Brain describes brain functioning in aging and addresses the power of music to protect the brain from loss of function and how to cope with the ravages of brain diseases that accompany aging. By studying the power of music in aging through the lens of neuroscience, behavioral, and clinical science, the book explains brain organization and function. Written for those researching the brain and aging, the book provides solid examples of research fundamentals, including rigorous standards for sample selection, control groups, description of intervention activities, measures of health outcomes, statistical methods, and logically stated conclusions. Summarizes brain structures supporting music perception and cognition Examines and explains music as neuroprotective in normal aging Addresses the association of hearing loss to dementia Promotes a neurological approach for research in music as therapy Proposes questions for future research in music and aging

The Recalibrating Brain

The Recalibrating Brain
  • Author : James Ryan Engall
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 1267023406
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Summary : Age-related hearing loss is a complex auditory disorder that is associated with a gradual decline of auditory perceptions. Sound localization is one of many auditory perceptions that get impaired in the aged. While sound localization has been studied in great detail at the behavioral level in a variety of young and middle aged animals, little is known about how the neuronal processing breaks down in the aged to impair our perception acoustic space. The current set of studies presented in the forthcoming chapters is part of a series of experiments to develop a primate model of age-related hearing loss that are designed to further our understanding of both the structural and functional changes that accompany aging. In the present series of experiments, several anatomical and electrophysiological studies were designed to characterize and correlate age-related hearing loss in the rhesus macaque monkey (Macaca mulatta) to determine if the auditory system compensates for a reduction in drive from the periphery. A requisite was first to determine if rhesus monkeys experience age-related hearing loss. This was accomplished by linking changes in hearing level to distinct histopathologies in the cochlea. Age-related hearing loss was assessed by the auditory brainstem response (ABR) to clicks and pure tones across a population of rhesus macaque monkeys at the California National Primate Research Center at the University of California of Davis. Histological specimens were then randomly collected and examined for distinct histopathological changes in the cochlea. Multiple regression was used to tease apart the contributions of the observed histopathologies on ABR thresholds. Consistent with findings in humans, rhesus monkeys were found to experience progressive age-related hearing loss with a concomitant increase in the number of histopathologies in the cochlea. We found that spiral ganglion cell loss and outer hair cells loss made significant contributions to ABR threshold increases across the spectrum. At the level of the midbrain, the density of parvalbumin neurons in the inferior colliculus was found to increase with age. Interestingly, there was no direct relationship between the densities of parvalbumin cells in the inferior colliculus with the hearing ability of the monkeys. One explanation for this result is that the increase in the density of parvalbumin neurons produced a functional advantage in the processing of simple stimuli. Lastly, we collected and examined neuronal responses in A1 and CL of young and aged rhesus monkeys to investigate the role of age-related hearing loss on auditory cortical responses to spatial stimuli in azimuth. Interestingly, we found a differential increase in driven firing rates and a decrease in the efficacy of inhibition across defined periods of the neuronal response that contributed to broader spatial tuning properties in both A1 and CL of aged rhesus monkeys. These results suggest that spatial tuning may reflect a maladaptive compensatory mechanism within the central auditory system that overcompensation for changes in the periphery. Overall, the combined results of these studies suggest that the decline of auditory perceptions associated with age-related hearing loss maybe generated by the central nervous systems own mechanisms to adapt to changes in peripheral drive. It is proposed that this process is a major contributor to age-related cognitive decline.

Late-Life Depression

Late-Life Depression
  • Author : Steven P. Roose M.D.,Harold A. Sackeim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-07-15
  • Total pages :420
  • ISBN : 0198034849
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Summary : We live in an aging world. Illnesses that are prevalent and cause significant morbidity and mortality in older people will consume an increasing share of health care resources. One such illness is depression. This illness has a particularly devastating impact in the elderly because it is often undiagnosed or inadequately treated. Depression not only has a profound impact on quality of life but it is associated with an increased risk of mortality from suicide and vascular disease. In fact for every medical illness studied, e.g. heart disease, diabetes, cancer, individuals who are depressed have a worse prognosis. Research has illuminated the physiological and behavioral effects of depression that accounts for these poor outcomes. The deleterious relationship between depression and other illnesses has changed the concept of late-life depression from a "psychiatric disorder" that is diagnosed and treated by a psychiatrist to a common and serious disorder that is the responsibility of all physicians who care for patients over the age of 60. This is the first volume devoted to the epidemiology, phenomenology, psychobiology, treatment and consequences of late-life depression. Although much has been written about depressive disorders, the focus has been primarily on the illness as experienced in younger adults. The effects of aging on the brain, the physiological and behavioral consequences of recurrent depression, and the impact of other diseases common in the elderly, make late-life depression a distinct entity. There is a compelling need for a separate research program, specialized treatments, and a book dedicated to this disorder. This book will be invaluable to psychiatrists, gerontologists, clinical psychologists, social workers, students, trainees, and others who care for individuals over the age of sixty.

Update On Hearing Loss

Update On Hearing Loss
  • Author : Fayez Bahmad
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-12-02
  • Total pages :206
  • ISBN : 9789535121954
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Summary : Update on Hearing Loss encompasses both the theoretical background on the different forms of hearing loss and a detailed knowledge on state-of-the-art treatment for hearing loss, written for clinicians by specialists and researchers. Realizing the complexity of hearing loss has highlighted the importance of interdisciplinary research. Therefore, all the authors contributing to this book were chosen from many different specialties of medicine, including surgery, psychology, and neuroscience, and came from diverse areas of expertise, such as neurology, otolaryngology, psychiatry, and clinical and experimental audiology.

When the Brain Can't Hear

When the Brain Can't Hear
  • Author : Teri James Bellis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003-07-22
  • Total pages :368
  • ISBN : 0743428641
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Summary : Profiles and explores APD, a hearing form of dyslexia in which the brain cannot process sound, delineating its symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment for child and adult sufferers while noting the prevalence of the condition's misdiagnosis. Reprint.

Auditory Processing of Temporal Fine Structure

Auditory Processing of Temporal Fine Structure
  • Author : Brian C J Moore
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-02-28
  • Total pages :196
  • ISBN : 9789814579674
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Summary : The book is concerned with changes in the perception of sound that are associated with hearing loss and aging. Hearing loss affects about 7% of the population in developed countries, and the proportion is increasing as the average age of the population increases. The audiogram is the most widely used diagnostic tool in audiology clinics around the world. The audiogram involves measuring the threshold for detecting sounds of different frequencies. Sometimes the audiogram is the only diagnostic tool that is used. However, hearing problems are not completely characterized by the audiogram. Two individuals with similar audiograms may show very different abilities in the detection and discrimination of sounds at above-threshold levels. Also, a person may have hearing difficulties despite having an audiogram that is within the range conventionally considered as ‘normal’. One factor that may influence the discrimination of sounds, especially the ability to understand speech in background sounds, is sensitivity to temporal fine structure (TFS). This monograph reviews the role played by TFS in masking, pitch perception, speech perception, and spatial hearing, and concludes that cues derived from TFS play an important role in all of these. Evidence is reviewed suggesting that cochlear hearing loss reduces the ability to use TFS cues. Also, the ability to use TFS declines with increasing age even when the audiogram remains normal. This provides a new dimension to the changes in hearing associated with aging, a topic that is currently of great interest in view of the increasing proportion of older people in the population. The study of the role of TFS in auditory processing has been a hot topic in recent years. While there have been many research papers on this topic in specialized journals, there has been no overall review that pulls together the different research findings and presents and interprets them within a coherent framework. This monograph fills this gap. Contents:Processing of Sound in the Auditory System and Neural Representation of Temporal Fine StructureThe Role of TFS in MaskingThe Role of TFS in Pitch PerceptionThe Role of TFS in Speech PerceptionThe Influence of Hearing Loss and Age on the Binaural Processing of TFSOverview, Conclusions and Practical Implications Readership: Medical professionals, academics and clinicians in hearing, life science students and biomedical researchers. Key Features:Sensitivity to temporal fine structure (TFS) in sound is currently a hot topic, but no other book focuses on this topicThe book provides a critical review and interpretation of data on sensitivity to TFS and how sensitivity is affected by hearing loss and ageThe author has published extensively in this areaKeywords:Hearing;Hearing Loss;Age;Temporal Fine Structure;Envelope;Hearing Impairment

Sensory Hair Cell Death and Regeneration

Sensory Hair Cell Death and Regeneration
  • Author : Michael E. Smith,Andrew K. Groves,Allison B. Coffin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-12-13
  • Total pages :266
  • ISBN : 9782889450008
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Summary : Sensory hair cells are the specialized mechanosensory receptors found in vertebrate auditory, vestibular, and lateral line organs that transduce vibratory and acoustic stimuli into the sensations of hearing and balance. Hair cells can be damaged due to such factors as aging, ototoxic chemicals, acoustic trauma, infection, or genetic factors. Loss of these hair cells lead to deficits in hearing and balance, and in mammals, such deficits are permanent. In contrast, non-mammalian vertebrates exhibit the capability to regenerate missing hair cells. Researchers have been examining the process of hair cell death and regeneration in animal models in an attempt to find ways of either preventing hair cell loss or stimulating the production of new hair cells in mammals, with the ultimate goal of finding new therapeutics for human sensorineural hearing and balance deficits. This has led to a wide array of research on sensory hair cells- such as understanding the factors that cause hair cell loss and finding agents that protect them from damage, elucidating the cell signaling pathways activated during hair cell death, examining the genes and cellular pathways that are regulated during the process of hair cell death and regeneration, and characterizing the functional sensory loss and recovery following acoustic or ototoxic insults to the inner ear. This research has involved cell and developmental biologists, physiologists, geneticists, bioinformaticians, and otolaryngologists. In this Research Topic, we have collated reviews of the past progress of hair cell death and regeneration studies and original research articles advancing sensory hair cell death and regeneration research into the future.

Free Radicals in ENT Pathology

Free Radicals in ENT Pathology
  • Author : Josef Miller,Colleen G. Le Prell,Leonard Rybak
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-04-30
  • Total pages :507
  • ISBN : 9783319134734
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Summary : This comprehensive volume examines the current state of free radical biology and its impact on otology, laryngology, and head and neck function. The chapters collectively highlight the interrelationship of basic and translational studies in each area, define the challenges to translation, and identify the existing basic issues that demand investigation as well as the opportunities for novel intervention to prevent and treat ENT pathology and impairment. In each chapter, or in some cases pairs of chapters, the author(s) have included or married issues of basic research with translational challenges and research, thus defining the pathway by which new basic insights may lead to interventions to prevent or treat impairment. The final chapter of this book reflects a meeting of all the contributors, culminating in a discussion and “white paper” that identifies the challenges to the field and defines the studies and collaborations that may lead to improved understanding of free radical biology in ENT and, subsequently, new interventions to medically treat ENT pathology.

Noise and the Brain

Noise and the Brain
  • Author : Jos J. Eggermont
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-12
  • Total pages :392
  • ISBN : 9780123914316
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Summary : In our industrialized world, we are surrounded by occupational, recreational, and environmental noise. Very loud noise damages the inner-ear receptors and results in hearing loss, subsequent problems with communication in the presence of background noise, and, potentially, social isolation. There is much less public knowledge about the noise exposure that produces only temporary hearing loss but that in the long term results in hearing problems due to the damage of high-threshold auditory nerve fibers. Early exposures of this kind, such as in neonatal intensive care units, manifest themselves at a later age, sometimes as hearing loss but more often as an auditory processing disorder. There is even less awareness about changes in the auditory brain caused by repetitive daily exposure to the same type of low-level occupational or musical sound. This low-level, but continuous, environmental noise exposure is well known to affect speech understanding, produce non-auditory problems ranging from annoyance and depression to hypertension, and to cause cognitive difficulties. Additionally, internal noise, such as tinnitus, has effects on the brain similar to low-level external noise. Noise and the Brain discusses and provides a synthesis of hte underlying brain mechanisms as well as potential ways to prvent or alleviate these aberrant brain changes caused by noise exposure. Authored by one of the preeminent leaders in the field of hearing research Emphasizes direct and indirect changes in brain function as a result of noise exposure Provides a comprehensive and evidence-based approach Addresses both developmental and adult plasticity Includes coverage of epidemiology, etiology, and genetics of hearing problems; effects of non-damaging sound on both the developing and adult brain; non-auditory effects of noise; noise and the aging brain; and more

An Excursus into Hearing Loss

An Excursus into Hearing Loss
  • Author : Stavros Hatzopoulos,Andrea Ciorba
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-05-30
  • Total pages :206
  • ISBN : 9781789232127
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Summary : The main objective of this volume is to diffuse the latest information related to hearing loss, which is among the most prevalent chronic disabilities worldwide. Nowadays, it is clear that the identification and rehabilitation of hearing impairment, when possible, have to be adequately and promptly managed because hearing loss can seriously interfere with psychosocial development, family dynamics, and social interactions. This book has been edited with a strong educational perspective (all chapters include an extensive introduction to their corresponding topic and an extensive glossary of terms). This book contains various materials suitable for graduate students in audiology, ENT, hearing science, and neurosciences.