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The Evolution of the Immune System

The Evolution of the Immune System
  • Author : Davide Malagoli
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-07-21
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9780128020135
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Summary : The Evolution of the Immune System: Conservation and Diversification is the first book of its kind that prompts a new perspective when describing and considering the evolution of the immune system. Its unique approach summarizes, updates, and provides new insights on the different immune receptors, soluble factors, and immune cell effectors. Helps the reader gain a modern idea of the evolution of the immune systems in pluricellular organisms Provides a complete overview of the most studied and hot topics in comparative and evolutionary immunology Reflects the organisation of the immune system (cell-based, humoral [innate], humoral [adaptive]) without introducing further and misleading levels of organization Brings concepts and ideas on the evolution of the immune system to a wide readership

Origin and Evolution of the Vertebrate Immune System

Origin and Evolution of the Vertebrate Immune System
  • Author : L. Du Pasquier,G.W. Litman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :326
  • ISBN : 9783642596742
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Summary : The comparative approach to immunology can be traced to the era of Pasteur and Metchnikov in which observations regarding foreign recognition in invertebrates was a factor in the develop ment of the principal concepts that created the foundation of what now is the broad field of immunology. With each major experimental and conceptual breakthrough, the classical, albeit essential, question has been asked "are the immune systems of phylogenetically primitive vertebrates and invertebrates similar to that of mammals?" Somewhat surprisingly for the jawed verte brates, the general answer has been a qualified form of "yes", whereas for agnathans and invertebrate phyla it has been "no" so far. The apparent abruptness in the appearance of the immune system of vertebrates is linked to the introduction of the somatic generation of the diversity of its antigen specific receptors. Therefore the questions regarding the origin and evolution of the specific immune system revolve around this phenomenon. With respect to the origin of the system (aside from the or igin of the rearranging machinery itself, the study of which is still in its infancy) one can ask questions about the cellular and mo lecular contexts in which the mechanism was introduced.

Evolutionary Concepts in Immunology

Evolutionary Concepts in Immunology
  • Author : Robert Jack,Louis Du Pasquier
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-06-13
  • Total pages :145
  • ISBN : 9783030186678
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Summary : Immunology is a nodal subject that links many areas of biology. It permeates the biosciences, and also plays crucial roles in diagnosis and therapy in areas of clinical medicine ranging from the control of infectious and autoimmune diseases to tumour therapy. Monoclonal antibodies and small molecule modulators of immunity are major factors in the pharmaceutical industry and now constitute a multi billion dollar business. Students in these diverse areas are frequently daunted by the complexity of immunology and the astonishing array of unusual mechanisms that go to make it up. Starting from Dobzhansky’s famous slogan, “Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution”, this book will serve to illuminate how evolutionary forces shaped immunity and thus provide an explanation for how many of its counter intuitive oddities arose. By doing so it will provide a conceptual framework on which students may organise the rapidly growing flood of immunological knowledge.

Janeway's Immunobiology

Janeway's Immunobiology
  • Author : Murphy, Kenneth M.,Weaver, Casey
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-03-22
  • Total pages :904
  • ISBN : 9780815345510
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Summary : Explore the premier text for immunology at the advanced undergraduate, graduate, and medical school levels. Beginning students appreciate the bookÕs clear writing and informative illustrations, while advanced students and working immunologists value its comprehensive scope and depth. This edition is thoroughly revised and up to date with significant developments in the field, especially on the topic of innate immunity.

The Past and the Future of Human Immunity Under Viral Evolutionary Pressure

The Past and the Future of Human Immunity Under Viral Evolutionary Pressure
  • Author : Gkikas Magiorkinis,Tara P. Hurst
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-12-04
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889632299
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Summary : There is a long-standing evolutionary battle between viruses and their hosts that continues to be waged. The evidence of this conflict can be found on both sides, with the human immune system being responsive to new viral challenges and viruses having developed often sophisticated countermeasures. The “arms race” between viruses and hosts can be thought as an example of the “Red Queen” race, an evolutionary hypothesis inspired from the dialogue of Alice with the Red Queen in Lewis Carroll’s “Through the Looking-Glass”. At the same time, viruses have a minimal genomic content as they have evolved to hitchhike biological machinery of their hosts (or other co-infecting viruses). The minimalistic viral genome could be thought as the result of a “Black Queen” evolution, a theory inspired from the card game Heart, where the winner is the one with the fewest points at the end. The effects of this arms race are evident in the evolution of the human immune system. This system is capable of responding to diverse viral challenges, utilizing both the ancient innate immune system and the more recently evolved adaptive immune system of jawed vertebrates. It is now well-known that the two systems are linked, with innate immunity hypothesized to have provided raw material for the emergence of the adaptive immune response. The adaptive immune response comprises several protein families (including B and T cell receptors, MHC and KIR proteins, for example) that are encoded by complex and variable genomic regions. This complexity enables for responsive genetic changes to occur in immune cells, such as the ability of genomic hypervariable regions in B cells to recombine in order to produce more specific antibodies. Indeed, the human immune system is thought to be continually evolving via various mechanisms such as changes in the genes encoding immune receptors and the regulatory sequences that control their expression. For example, there is some evidence that exogenous viral infections can alter the expression of endogenous retroviruses, some of which contribute to the immune response. Viral countermeasures can include encoding decoy receptors for the signalling molecules of the immune response, altering the gene expression of adaptive immune cells during chronic infection or using host enzymes to facilitate viral immune escape. As the articles herein show, the immune system continues to be challenged by viral infections and these challenges continue to shape how the immune system combats pathogens, thus viruses and human immunity are continuously part of “Red and Black Queen” evolutionary dynamics. We had the pleasure of working with Jonas Blomberg as a reviewer during the course of the Research Topic and his untimely passing was a great loss. Prof. Blomberg made significant contributions, including to the nomenclature of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), the evolution and characterization of specific human ERV (HERV) and the contribution of ERVs to diseases such as cancer. It is with great respect for his contributions to the ERV field that we dedicate this eBook to his memory.

Self and Nonself

Self and Nonself
  • Author : Carlos López-Larrea
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-03-07
  • Total pages :320
  • ISBN : 9781461416807
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Summary : In 1960 Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet received the Noble Prize in Physiology and Medicine. He titled his Nobel Lecture “Immunological Recognition of Self” emphasizing the central argument of immunological tolerance in “How does the vertebrate organism recognize self from nonself in this the immunological sense—and how did the capacity evolve.” The concept of self is linked to the concept of biological self identity. All organisms, from bacteria to higher animals, possess recognition systems to defend themselves from nonself. Even in the context of the limited number of metazoan phyla that have been studied in detail, we can now describe many of the alternative mechanism of immune recognition that have emerged at varying points in phylogeny. Two different arms—the innate and adaptive immune system—have emerged at different moments in evolution, and they are conceptually different. The ultimate goals of immune biology include reconstructing the molecular networks underlying immune processes.

Amphioxus Immunity

Amphioxus Immunity
  • Author : An-Long Xu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-12-31
  • Total pages :304
  • ISBN : 9780128096475
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Summary : Amphioxus Immunity: Tracing the Origin of Human Immunity covers a remarkable range of information about Amphioxus and its evolutionary context. This compilation of what is currently known about Amphioxus, with a sharp focus on its immune system, includes 13 topics, such as: Amphioxus as a model for understanding the evolution of vertebrates basic knowledge of immunology immune organs and cells of amphioxus a genomic and transcriptomic view of the Amphioxus immunity pattern recognition system in Amphioxus transcription factors in Amphioxus the complement system of Amphioxus the oxidative burst system in Amphioxus immune effectors in Amphioxus lipid signaling of immune response in Amphioxus apoptosis in amphioxus; primitive adaptive immune system of Amphioxus and future research directions This valuable reference book is loaded with information that will be useful for anyone who wishes to learn more about the origin of vertebrates and adaptive immunity. Provides new evidence on the origin of the adaptive immune system, the evolution of innate immunity, and evolution-stage specific immune defense mechanisms Not only presents the cells and molecules involved in the adaptive immune response in Amphioxus, but also characterizes the origination and evolution of the gene families and pathways involved in innate immunity Includes much pioneering work, from the molecular, genomic, and cellular to the individual level

Immunity

Immunity
  • Author : Alfred I. Tauber
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017
  • Total pages :303
  • ISBN : 9780190651244
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Summary : " Senior scholar Alfred Tauber argues in this bold account that common approaches to the study of immunology are inherently flawed in its strict dichotomy of the self and non-self, or external invaders. The relationship between what is self and what is non-self is in reality a complex, dymanic, relational one. Autonomous agents are constantly in the midst of dialectical exchanges in which immunity mediates both noxious and benign encounters. Namely: rather than serving to defend an independent entity, immunity participates in an eco-system. Contemporary transplantation biology and autoimmunity have demonstrated phenomena that upset rigid adherence to the self/non-self dichotomy. Placing tolerant immune mechanisms within a broad ecological context has highlighted the balance of co-operative and competitive relationships in which immunity functions. By understanding immunity this way, as a 'symbiotic turn, ' we come to see that immune reactivity (rejection or tolerance) is a second-order response to the cognitive functions of the immune system. Organisms have a complex capacity to respond to environment, and, through Tauber's insignts, we appreciate them more fully when we grasp the flexibility of the borders of organisms. After first providing an overview of the history of immunology, and explaining why the dominant understanding of it is incomplete and limiting, Tauber argues for this new approach to immunology and explains how it will usher in a new biology in which symbiosis is the rule, not the exception. "--

Immunology and Evolution of Infectious Disease

Immunology and Evolution of Infectious Disease
  • Author : Steven A. Frank
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002-07-21
  • Total pages :348
  • ISBN : 0691095957
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Immune System Accessory Cells

Immune System Accessory Cells
  • Author : Lubor Fornusek,Vaclav Vetvicka
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1992-06-26
  • Total pages :448
  • ISBN : 0849359821
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Summary : Immune System Accessory Cells provides a comprehensive survey of all types of antigen-presenting and accessory cells. Macrophages are emphasized through descriptions of different types of endocytosis, other major properties, and all basic and new information concerning macrophages as antigen-presenting cells. Other topics covered include the impact of the immunodeficient state on accessory functions, the evolutionary emergence of accessory functions, and the role of various cell types in defense reactions in major assemblages of Metazoa. The book also presents a chapter describing the phylogenetic aspects of accessory functions, which traces the first accessory cells during the evolution of living matter. Immune System Accessory Cells is an excellent reference for immunologists, cell biologists, and others interested in developing an understanding of the roles of accessory cells in all facets of immune reactions.

Molecular Evolution on Rugged Landscapes

Molecular Evolution on Rugged Landscapes
  • Author : Alan S. Perelson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-03-08
  • Total pages :328
  • ISBN : 9780429978500
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Summary : Rugged fitness landscapes, and emerging area of biological science, underline both molecular and morphological evolution. Mathematical descriptions of such landscapes can be expected to lead to new experimental studies that actually test and establish their structure. In addition, current experimental techniques now allow one to carry out applied molecular evolution in the laboratory, opening up the possibility of evolving biomolecules for medical and industrial use. Molecular Evolution on Rugged Fitness Landscapes, based on a Santa Fe Institute workshop, is the first book to serve as a comprehensive introduction to these tools that permit researchers to study the structures of complex, rugged, multipeaked fitness landscapes.The first section of the book outlines a number of the general issues concerning the structure of rugged fitness landscapes. The second section examines both the history and status of experimental work on somatic mutation and the maturation of the immune response, and discusses the hypercycle model of the origin of life. This proceedings volume is an excellent reference for graduate students and professionals in immunology, population biology, physics and molecular biology.

Molecular Biology of the Cell

Molecular Biology of the Cell
  • Author : Bruce Alberts
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 0815332181
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Summary :

Primates, Pathogens, and Evolution

Primates, Pathogens, and Evolution
  • Author : Jessica F. Brinkworth,Kate Pechenkina
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-08-30
  • Total pages :428
  • ISBN : 9781461471813
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Summary : The immune systems of human and non-human primates have diverged over time, such that some species differ considerably in their susceptibility, symptoms, and survival of particular infectious diseases. Variation in primate immunity is such that major human pathogens - such as immunodeficiency viruses, herpesviruses and malaria-inducing species of Plasmodium - elicit striking differences in immune response between closely related species and within primate populations. These differences in immunity are the outcome of complex evolutionary processes that include interactions between the host, its pathogens and symbiont/commensal organisms. The success of some pathogens in establishing persistent infections in humans and other primates has been determined not just by the molecular evolution of the pathogen and its interactions with the host, but also by the evolution of primate behavior and ecology, microflora, immune factors and the evolution of other biological systems. To explore how interactions between primates and their pathogens have shaped their mutual molecular evolution, Primates, Pathogens and Evolution brings together research that explores comparative primate immune function, the emergence of major and neglected primate diseases, primate-microorganism molecular interactions, and related topics. This book will be of interest to anyone curious as to why infectious diseases manifest differently in humans and their closest relatives. It will be of particular interest to scholars specializing in human and non-human primate evolution, epidemiology and immunology, and disease ecology. Primates, Pathogens and Evolution offers an overview and discussion of current findings on differences in the molecular mechanics of primate immune response, as well as on pathogen-mediated primate evolution and human and non-human primate health.

Avian Immunology

Avian Immunology
  • Author : Karel A. Schat,Bernd Kaspers,Pete Kaiser
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-02
  • Total pages :456
  • ISBN : 9780123972729
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Summary : The second edition of Avian Immunology provides an up-to-date overview of the current knowledge of avian immunology. From the ontogeny of the avian immune system to practical application in vaccinology, the book encompasses all aspects of innate and adaptive immunity in chickens. In addition, chapters are devoted to the immunology of other commercially important species such as turkeys and ducks, and to ecoimmunology summarizing the knowledge of immune responses in free-living birds often in relation to reproductive success. The book contains a detailed description of the avian innate immune system, encompassing the mucosal, enteric, respiratory and reproductive systems. The diseases and disorders it covers include immunodepressive diseases and immune evasion, autoimmune diseases, and tumors of the immune system. Practical aspects of vaccination are examined as well. Extensive appendices summarize resources for scientists including cell lines, inbred chicken lines, cytokines, chemokines, and monoclonal antibodies. The world-wide importance of poultry protein for the human diet, as well as the threat of avian influenza pandemics like H5N1 and heavy reliance on vaccination to protect commercial flocks makes this book a vital resource. This book provides crucial information not only for poultry health professionals and avian biologists, but also for comparative and veterinary immunologists, graduate students and veterinary students with an interest in avian immunology. With contributions from 33 of the foremost international experts in the field, this book provides the most up-to-date review of avian immunology so far Contains a detailed description of the avian innate immune system reviewing constitutive barriers, chemical and cellular responses; it includes a comprehensive review of avian Toll-like receptors Contains a wide-ranging review of the "ecoimmunology" of free-living avian species, as applied to studies of population dynamics, and reviews methods and resources available for carrying out such research

A Historical Perspective on Evidence-Based Immunology

A Historical Perspective on Evidence-Based Immunology
  • Author : Edward J. Moticka
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-11-25
  • Total pages :394
  • ISBN : 9780123983756
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Summary : A Historical Perspective on Evidence-Based Immunology focuses on the results of hypothesis-driven, controlled scientific experiments that have led to the current understanding of immunological principles. The text helps beginning students in biomedical disciplines understand the basis of immunologic knowledge, while also helping more advanced students gain further insights. The book serves as a crucial reference for researchers studying the evolution of ideas and scientific methods, including fundamental insights on immunologic tolerance, interactions of lymphocytes with antigen TCR and BCR, the generation of diversity and mechanism of tolerance of T cells and B cells, the first cytokines, the concept of autoimmunity, the identification of NK cells as a unique cell type, the structure of antibody molecules and identification of Fab and Fc regions, and dendritic cells. Provides a complete review of the hypothesis-driven, controlled scientific experiments that have led to our current understanding of immunological principles Explains the types of experiments that were performed and how the interpretation of the experiments altered the understanding of immunology Presents concepts such as the division of lymphocytes into functionally different populations in their historical context Includes fundamental insights on immunologic tolerance, interactions of lymphocytes with antigen TCR and BCR, and the generation of diversity and mechanism of tolerance of T and B cells

Understanding Immunology

Understanding Immunology
  • Author : Alastair J. Cunningham
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-02
  • Total pages :268
  • ISBN : 9780323139076
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Summary : Understanding Immunology deals with immunology and its unifying principles, based on the view that the immune system has evolved to combat infectious disease. This book describes the phylogenetic emergence of the immune system; immune reactions in invertebrates and vertebrates; antibody-antigen reactions and the induction of the antibody response; the development of the immune repertoire and self-tolerance; and memory and tolerance in T-cells. This text is organized into 15 chapters and begins with an overview of the immune system, paying particular attention to its basic requirements and properties. This book then discusses antibodies and antigens; the molecular biology of antibody formation; and the role of lymphocytes, lymphoid tissue, and antibody forming cells in the immune response. The following chapters focus on immunocompetent cells and the mechanisms of cell cooperation in the induction of the antibody response, properties of the cells responsible for memory, and the genetic basis of antibody diversity. The reader is also introduced to allelic exclusion and the ontogeny of the immune repertoire; differentiation of T-cells; and cancer and transplantation immunology. The remaining chapters explore aberrations of the immune system and immunity to infectious disease. A comparison of the strategies of vertebrates and invertebrates in adapting to unexpected changes in the environment concludes the book. This book will prove useful as an introduction to immunology to those with some background in biology, particularly, undergraduate or graduate students as well as established researchers in other fields.

Insect Immunology

Insect Immunology
  • Author : Nancy E. Beckage
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-04-28
  • Total pages :360
  • ISBN : 0080556337
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Summary : This work is the first book-length publication on the topic of insect immunology since 1991, complementing earlier works by offering a fresh perspective on current research. Interactions of host immune systems with both parasites and pathogens are presented in detail, as well as the genomics and proteomics, approaches which have been lacking in other publications. Beckage provides comprehensive coverage of topics important to medical researchers, including Drosophila as a model for studying cellular and humoral immune mechanisms, biochemical mediators of immunity, and insect blood cells and their functions. Encompasses the most important topics of insect immunology including mechanisms, genes, proteins, evolution and phylogeny Provides comprehensive coverage of topics important to medical researchers including Drosophila as a model for studying cellular and humoral immune mechanisms, biochemical mediators of immunity, and insect blood cells and their functions Most up-to-date information published with contributions from international leaders in the field

Innate Immunity of Plants, Animals and Humans

Innate Immunity of Plants, Animals and Humans
  • Author : Holger Heine
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-12-07
  • Total pages :241
  • ISBN : 9783540739302
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Summary : This book has been cunningly designed to provide an overview of our current knowledge about the innate immune systems of these three types of organisms. It not only covers the innate immune mechanisms and responses of such diverse organisms as plants, Cnidaria, Drosophila, urochordates and zebrafish, but also the major receptor systems in mammalians and humans. It delves too into the central defense mechanisms, antimicrobial peptides and the complement system.

Fundamentals of Inflammation

Fundamentals of Inflammation
  • Author : Charles N. Serhan,Peter A. Ward,Derek W. Gilroy
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-04-26
  • Total pages :473
  • ISBN : 9780521887298
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Summary : The acute inflammatory response is the body's first system of alarm signals that are directed toward containment and elimination of microbial invaders. Uncontrolled inflammation has emerged as a pathophysiologic basis for many widely occurring diseases in the general population. This book provides an introduction to the cell types, chemical mediators, and general mechanisms of the host's first response to invasion.

The Immune System in Space: Are we prepared?

The Immune System in Space: Are we prepared?
  • Author : Alexander Choukèr,Oliver Ullrich
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-10-21
  • Total pages :127
  • ISBN : 9783319414669
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Summary : This book gives insight into the mechanism of the immune system and the influence of the environment on earth. Further, the book explains the changes that occur in our immune system in the absence of gravity and their fundamental consequences. Several limiting factors for human health and performance in microgravity have been clearly identified as an unacceptable risk for long-term and interplanetary flights. Serious concerns arose whether spaceflight-associated immune system dysfunction ultimately precludes the expansion of human presence beyond Earth's orbit. The immune system has undergone many evolutionary steps to cope with a new and changing environment, but `space` has not been evolutionary experienced before. Through endocrine orchestration of cell functions, cell to cell communications and intracellular mechanisms the human body and his immune system have an enormous capacity to adapt and react to altered environmental conditions. Thus, the special sensitivity to altered gravity renders the immune system an ideal biological model system to understand if and how gravity on Earth is required for the normal function of cells and cellular networks. It is one of the most fundamental challenges to find out, if our organism and our cellular machinery are able to live and to adequately perform without the gravity field of Earth. The book is written for immunologists and researchers in human physiology under normal and stressfull conditions.

Lessons in Immunity

Lessons in Immunity
  • Author : Loriano Ballarin,Matteo Cammarata
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-04-08
  • Total pages :324
  • ISBN : 9780128032534
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Summary : Lessons in Immunity: From Single-cell Organisms to Mammals stems from the activity of the Italian Association of Developmental and Comparative Immunobiology (IADCI), represented by the editors. This book is presented as a series of short overviews that report on the current state of various relevant fields of immunobiology from an evolutionary perspective. The overviews are written by authors directly involved in the research, and most are members of the IADCI or have otherwise been involved in the related research for their respective overview. This publication offers scientists and teachers an easy and updated reference tool. Provides simple and updated reviews on the immunobiology of a wide spectrum of organisms, considered in an evolutionary context Focuses on both cells and humoral components of a variety of non-classical model organisms Offers in a single volume many contributions which can help with understanding the evolution of immune responses and the main adaptations in animal phyla Presents a valuable holistic cross-sectional approach for teaching immunology and its applications