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The Funding of Biopharmaceutical Research and Development

The Funding of Biopharmaceutical Research and Development
  • Author : David R Williams
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-31
  • Total pages :284
  • ISBN : 9781908818386
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Summary : The funding of biopharmaceutical research and development provides a comprehensive critical review of the funding of research and development (R&D) in the human biopharmaceutical market sector. It addresses both private and public funding sources available in the US and internationally. The biopharmaceutical market is among the most research-intensive market sectors globally. Clinical researchers face a multitude of public and private funding options with respect to bringing their idea or innovation to market. These funding options are continually changing and complex, and are expected to decrease in the near future. A lack of understanding of the scale, scope, and inner workings of the funding aspects of R&D can, at times, act as a barrier for all involved, and can slow down or even eliminate the R&D process. The book lessens these barriers by describing the theoretical underpinnings, present practice, and trends in R&D funding in this market sector, both in the US and internationally. This includes a review and discussion of public-private partnership activity and their inner-workings, noting the complementary relationship between public and private funding. The book also contains an overview of the inner-workings of strategic alliance activity, including the advantages and disadvantages for each party. It goes on to provide an outline of venture capital activity, detailing the methods by which venture capital firms raise capital and are organized, a description of the venture capital-entrepreneur arrangement, and the effects of this arrangement. The book also presents an overview of the IPO process and the various fates of firms going public. Presents a comprehensive view of the funding issues of R&D in this market sector, adopting a theory-to-practice approach A comprehensive and analytical review of the biopharmaceutical R&D literature and practice An overview of the various and competing/complementary theories of the firm and valuation methods as they apply to biopharmaceutical R&D

Strategies to Leverage Research Funding

Strategies to Leverage Research Funding
  • Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Medical Follow-Up Agency,Committee on Alternative Funding Strategies for DOD's Peer Reviewed Medical Research Programs
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-11-27
  • Total pages :192
  • ISBN : 9780309092777
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Summary : Since 1992 the Department of Defense (DOD), through the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command, has received congressionally earmarked appropriations for programs of biomedical research on prostate, breast, and ovarian cancer; neurofibromatosis; tuberous sclerosis; and other health problems. Appropriations for these Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs are used to support peer reviewed extramural research project, training, and infrastructure grants. Congress has become concerned about funding increases for these programs given current demands on the military budget. At the request of Congress, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) examined possibilities of augmenting program funding from alternative sources. The resulting IOM book, Strategies to Leverage Research Funding: Guiding DOD's Peer Reviewed Medical Research Programs, focuses on nonfederal and private sector contributions that could extend the appropriated funds without biasing the peer review project selection process.

The Role of NIH in Drug Development Innovation and Its Impact on Patient Access

The Role of NIH in Drug Development Innovation and Its Impact on Patient Access
  • Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Board on Health Care Services
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-01-27
  • Total pages :102
  • ISBN : 9780309498517
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Summary : To explore the role of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in innovative drug development and its impact on patient access, the Board on Health Care Services and the Board on Health Sciences Policy of the National Academies jointly hosted a public workshop on July 24â€"25, 2019, in Washington, DC. Workshop speakers and participants discussed the ways in which federal investments in biomedical research are translated into innovative therapies and considered approaches to ensure that the public has affordable access to the resulting new drugs. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Outsourcing Biopharma R&d to India

Outsourcing Biopharma R&d to India
  • Author : Probir Roy Chowdhury
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-05
  • Total pages :134
  • ISBN : 0081017340
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Summary :

The Changing Economics of Medical Technology

The Changing Economics of Medical Technology
  • Author : Institute of Medicine,Committee on Technological Innovation in Medicine
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1991-02-01
  • Total pages :224
  • ISBN : 9780309044912
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Summary : Americans praise medical technology for saving lives and improving health. Yet, new technology is often cited as a key factor in skyrocketing medical costs. This volume, second in the Medical Innovation at the Crossroads series, examines how economic incentives for innovation are changing and what that means for the future of health care. Up-to-date with a wide variety of examples and case studies, this book explores how payment, patent, and regulatory policies--as well as the involvement of numerous government agencies--affect the introduction and use of new pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and surgical procedures. The volume also includes detailed comparisons of policies and patterns of technological innovation in Western Europe and Japan. This fact-filled and practical book will be of interest to economists, policymakers, health administrators, health care practitioners, and the concerned public.

Social Aspects of Drug Discovery, Development and Commercialization

Social Aspects of Drug Discovery, Development and Commercialization
  • Author : Odilia Osakwe,Syed A.A. Rizvi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-02-18
  • Total pages :324
  • ISBN : 9780128024973
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Summary : Social Aspects of Drug Discovery, Development and Commercialization provides an insightful analysis of the drug discovery and development landscape as it relates to society. This book examines the scientific, legal, philosophical, economic, political, ethical and cultural factors that contribute to drug development. The pharmaceutical industry is under scrutiny to develop safer and more effective drugs in a quicker and more affordable manner. Recent criticism and debates have emphasized varying opinions on the issues concerning the drug discovery and development process. This book provides thoughtful and valuable discussions and analysis of the social challenges and potential opportunities through all stages of the pharmaceutical process, from inception through marketing. With a unique focus on the social factors that increasingly play a role in how drug development is planned, structured, and executed throughout the drug product lifecycle, this is an essential resource for students, professors, and researchers who seek a better understanding of the interface between the pharmaceutical industry, health care systems, and society. Organized in a sequence of interrelated theories and principles that provide the foundation for increased understanding of the relevant social aspects Includes analysis of important new advances, key scientific and strategic issues, and overviews of recent progress in drug development Provides a global perspective with examples from developed areas, such as the US, Japan, Canada and Europe, as well as faster-growing and emerging economies including Brazil, Russia, India, and China Serves as an essential resource for students, professors, and researchers who seek a better understanding of the interface between the pharmaceutical industry, health care systems, and society

Optimization of Pharmaceutical R&D Programs and Portfolios

Optimization of Pharmaceutical R&D Programs and Portfolios
  • Author : Zoran Antonijevic
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-10-10
  • Total pages :202
  • ISBN : 9783319090757
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Summary : Very little has been published on optimization of pharmaceutical portfolios. Moreover, most of published literature is coming from the commercial side, where probability of technical success (PoS) is treated as fixed, and not as a consequence of development strategy or design. In this book there is a strong focus on impact of study design on PoS and ultimately on the value of portfolio. Design options that are discussed in different chapters are dose-selection strategies, adaptive design and enrichment. Some development strategies that are discussed are indication sequencing, optimal number of programs and optimal decision criteria. This book includes chapters written by authors with very broad backgrounds including financial, clinical, statistical, decision sciences, commercial and regulatory. Many authors have long held executive positions and have been involved with decision making at a product or at a portfolio level. As such, it is expected that this book will attract a very broad audience, including decision makers in pharmaceutical R&D, commercial and financial departments. The intended audience also includes portfolio planners and managers, statisticians, decision scientists and clinicians. Early chapters describe approaches to portfolio optimization from big Pharma and Venture Capital standpoints. They have stronger focus on finances and processes. Later chapters present selected statistical and decision analysis methods for optimizing drug development programs and portfolios. Some methodological chapters are technical; however, with a few exceptions they require a relatively basic knowledge of statistics by a reader.

PAREXEL's Pharmaceutical R & D Statistical Sourcebook

PAREXEL's Pharmaceutical R & D Statistical Sourcebook
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UOM:39015056546677
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Summary :

Outsourcing Biopharma R&D to India

Outsourcing Biopharma R&D to India
  • Author : P R Chowdhury
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-05-05
  • Total pages :130
  • ISBN : 9781908818010
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Summary : The trend of outsourcing to India for research and development is catching on fast. Over the last decade, worldwide pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies have made India their choice for a research destination. Initially R&D was inclined more towards developing products for the Indian market within the country. This led to several multinational companies opening up production plants in India, primarily due to the globalization of the Indian economy and offshoring jobs to India. Alongside, several global pharma-biotech majors ascertained large market requirements within the country and capitalized on the advantage of serving Indian customers. Strategies were devised to optimize operational expenses with the setting up of on-site R&D to develop products for local requirements. In view of this, this book seeks to explore various nuances of the outsourcing sector with respect to biopharma in India. Constitutes the first ever comprehensive insight on the Indian biopharma sector Provides a perspective based on practical hands-on legal experience Simply structured, clearly presented and free from excessive legal jargon

Formulation tools for Pharmaceutical Development

Formulation tools for Pharmaceutical Development
  • Author : J E Aguilar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-30
  • Total pages :304
  • ISBN : 9781908818508
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Summary : A range of new and innovative tools used for preformulation and formulation of medicines help optimize pharmaceutical development projects. Such tools also assist with the performance evaluation of the pharmaceutical process, allowing any potential gaps to be identified. These tools can be applied in both basic research and industrial environment. Formulation tools for pharmaceutical development considers these key research and industrial tools. Nine chapters by leading contributors cover: Artificial neural networks technology to model, understand, and optimize drug formulations; ME_expert 2.0: a heuristic decision support system for microemulsions formulation development; Expert system for the development and formulation of push-pull osmotic pump tablets containing poorly water-soluble drugs; SeDeM Diagram: an expert system for preformulation, characterization and optimization of tables obtained by direct compression; New SeDeM-ODT expert system: an expert system for formulation of orodispersible tablets obtained by direct compression; and 3D-cellular automata in computer-aided design of pharmaceutical formulations: mathematical concept and F-CAD software. Coverage of artificial intelligence tools, new expert systems, understanding of pharmaceutical processes, robust development of medicines, and new ways to develop medicines Development of drugs and medicines using mathematical tools Compilation of expert system developed around the world

Rare Diseases and Orphan Products

Rare Diseases and Orphan Products
  • Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Committee on Accelerating Rare Diseases Research and Orphan Product Development
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-04-03
  • Total pages :442
  • ISBN : 9780309158060
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Summary : Rare diseases collectively affect millions of Americans of all ages, but developing drugs and medical devices to prevent, diagnose, and treat these conditions is challenging. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommends implementing an integrated national strategy to promote rare diseases research and product development.

Value Creation in the Pharmaceutical Industry

Value Creation in the Pharmaceutical Industry
  • Author : Alexander Schuhmacher,Markus Hinder,Oliver Gassmann
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-04-11
  • Total pages :508
  • ISBN : 9783527339136
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Summary : This practical guide for advanced students and decision-makers in the pharma and biotech industry presents key success factors in R&D along with value creators in pharmaceutical innovation. A team of editors and authors with extensive experience in academia and industry and at some of the most prestigious business schools in Europe discusses in detail the innovation process in pharma as well as common and new research and innovation strategies. In doing so, they cover collaboration and partnerships, open innovation, biopharmaceuticals, translational medicine, good manufacturing practice, regulatory affairs, and portfolio management. Each chapter covers controversial aspects of recent developments in the pharmaceutical industry, with the aim of stimulating productive debates on the most effective and efficient innovation processes. A must-have for young professionals and MBA students preparing to enter R&D in pharma or biotech as well as for students on a combined BA/biomedical and natural sciences program.

Financing Vaccines in the 21st Century

Financing Vaccines in the 21st Century
  • Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Care Services,Committee on the Evaluation of Vaccine Purchase Financing in the United States
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-01-10
  • Total pages :264
  • ISBN : 9780309089791
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Summary : The national immunization system has achieved high levels of immunization, particularly for children. However, this system faces difficult challenges for the future. Significant disparities remain in assuring access to recommended vaccines across geographic and demographic populations. These disparities result, in part, from fragmented publicâ€"private financing in which a large number of children and adults face limited access to immunization services. Access for adults lags well behind that of children, and rates of immunizations for those who are especially vulnerable because of chronic health conditions such as diabetes or heart and lung disease, remain low. Financing Vaccines in the 21st Century: Assuring Access and Availability addresses these challenges by proposing new strategies for assuring access to vaccines and sustaining the supply of current and future vaccines. The book recommends changes to the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)-the entity that currently recommends vaccines-and calls for a series of public meetings, a post-implementation evaluation study, and development of a research agenda to facilitate implementation of the plan.

Making Medicines Affordable

Making Medicines Affordable
  • Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Health Care Services,Committee on Ensuring Patient Access to Affordable Drug Therapies
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-03-01
  • Total pages :234
  • ISBN : 9780309468084
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Summary : Thanks to remarkable advances in modern health care attributable to science, engineering, and medicine, it is now possible to cure or manage illnesses that were long deemed untreatable. At the same time, however, the United States is facing the vexing challenge of a seemingly uncontrolled rise in the cost of health care. Total medical expenditures are rapidly approaching 20 percent of the gross domestic product and are crowding out other priorities of national importance. The use of increasingly expensive prescription drugs is a significant part of this problem, making the cost of biopharmaceuticals a serious national concern with broad political implications. Especially with the highly visible and very large price increases for prescription drugs that have occurred in recent years, finding a way to make prescription medicinesâ€"and health care at largeâ€"more affordable for everyone has become a socioeconomic imperative. Affordability is a complex function of factors, including not just the prices of the drugs themselves, but also the details of an individual's insurance coverage and the number of medical conditions that an individual or family confronts. Therefore, any solution to the affordability issue will require considering all of these factors together. The current high and increasing costs of prescription drugsâ€"coupled with the broader trends in overall health care costsâ€"is unsustainable to society as a whole. Making Medicines Affordable examines patient access to affordable and effective therapies, with emphasis on drug pricing, inflation in the cost of drugs, and insurance design. This report explores structural and policy factors influencing drug pricing, drug access programs, the emerging role of comparative effectiveness assessments in payment policies, changing finances of medical practice with regard to drug costs and reimbursement, and measures to prevent drug shortages and foster continued innovation in drug development. It makes recommendations for policy actions that could address drug price trends, improve patient access to affordable and effective treatments, and encourage innovations that address significant needs in health care.

The Oxford Handbook of the Economics of the Biopharmaceutical Industry

The Oxford Handbook of the Economics of the Biopharmaceutical Industry
  • Author : Patricia M. Danzon,Sean Nicholson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-04-12
  • Total pages :624
  • ISBN : 9780199909261
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Summary : The biopharmaceutical industry has been a major driver of technological change in health care, producing unprecedented benefits for patients, cost challenges for payers, and profits for shareholders. As consumers and companies benefit from access to new drugs, policymakers around the globe seek mechanisms to control prices and expenditures commensurate with value. More recently the 1990s productivity boom of new products has turned into a productivity bust, with fewer and more modest innovations, and flat or declining revenues for innovative firms as generics replace their former blockbuster products. This timely volume examines the economics of the biopharmaceutical industry, with eighteen chapters by leading academic health economists. Part one examines the economics of biopharmaceutical innovation including determinants of the costs and returns to new drug development; how capital markets finance R&D and how costs of financing the biopharmaceutical industry compare to financing costs for other industries; the effects of safety and efficacy regulation by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and of price and reimbursement regulation on incentives for innovation; and the role of patents and regulatory exclusivities. Part two examines the market for biopharmaceuticals with chapters on prices and reimbursement in the US, the EU, and other industrialized countries, and in developing countries. It looks at the optimal design of insurance for drugs and the effects of cost sharing on spending and on health outcomes; how to measure the value of pharmaceuticals using pharmacoeconomics, including theory, practical challenges, and policy issues; how to measure pharmaceutical price growth over time and recent evidence; empirical evidence on the value of pharmaceuticals in terms of health outcomes; promotion of pharmaceuticals to physicians and consumers; the economics of vaccines; and a review of the evidence on effects of mergers, acquisitions and alliances. Each chapter summarizes the latest insights from theory and recent empirical evidence, and outlines important unanswered questions and areas for future research. Based on solid economics, it is nevertheless written in terms accessible to the general reader. The book is thus recommended reading for academic economists and non-economists, and for those in industry and policy who wish to understand the economics of this fascinating industry.

Business Development for the Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Industry

Business Development for the Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Industry
  • Author : Martin Austin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008
  • Total pages :186
  • ISBN : 0566087812
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Summary : In recognition of the sparse information available to practitioners in the field of business development, Martin Austin has drawn on his 30 years of experience in the pharmaceutical industry to provide this highly practical guide spanning the complete process. Based on the well-established training programme he has developed and delivers to pharmaceutical executives from across the world, this book will help expand your knowledge in this immense area.

Computer-Aided Applications in Pharmaceutical Technology

Computer-Aided Applications in Pharmaceutical Technology
  • Author : Jelena Djuris
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-04-10
  • Total pages :300
  • ISBN : 9781908818324
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Summary : Research and development in the pharmaceutical industry is a time-consuming and expensive process, making it difficult for newly developed drugs to be formulated into commercially available products. Both formulation and process development can be optimized by means of statistically organized experiments, artificial intelligence and other computational methods. Simultaneous development and investigation of pharmaceutical products and processes enables application of quality by design concept that is being promoted by the regulatory authorities worldwide. Computer-aided applications in pharmaceutical technology covers the fundamentals of experimental design application and interpretation in pharmaceutical technology, chemometric methods with emphasis of their application in process control, neural computing (artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic and decision trees, evolutionary computing and genetic algorithms, self-organizing maps), computer-aided biopharmaceutical characterization as well as application of computational fluid dynamics in pharmaceutical technology. All of these techniques are essential tools for successful building of quality into pharmaceutical products and processes from the early stage of their development to selection of the optimal ones. In addition to theoretical aspects of various methods, the book provides numerous examples of their application in the field of pharmaceutical technology. A comprehensive review of the current state of the art on various computer aided applications in pharmaceutical technology Case studies are presented in order to facilitate understanding of various concepts in computer-aided applications

An Introduction to Pharmaceutical Sciences

An Introduction to Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • Author : Jiben Roy
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-07-25
  • Total pages :446
  • ISBN : 9781908818041
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Summary : This textbook is written as a unified approach to various topics, ranging from drug discovery to manufacturing, techniques and technology, regulation and marketing. The key theme of the book is pharmaceuticals - what every student of pharmaceutical sciences should know: from the active pharmaceutical ingredients to the preparation of various dosage forms along with the relevant chemistry, this book makes pharmaceuticals relevant to undergraduate students of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences. This book explains how a particular drug was discovered and then converted from lab-scale to manufacturing scale, to the market. It explains the motivation for drug discovery, the reaction chemistry involved, experimental difficulties, various dosage forms and the reasoning behind them, mechanism of action, quality assurance and role of regulatory agencies. After having a course based on this book, the student will be able to understand: 1) the career prospects in the pharmaceutical industry, 2) the need for interdisciplinary teamwork in science, 3) the techniques and technology involved in making pharmaceuticals starting from bulk drugs, and 4) different dosage forms and critical factors in the development of pharmaceutical formulations in relation to the principles of chemistry. A few blockbuster drugs including atorvastatin, sildanefil, ranitidine, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, and the longest serving drugs such as aspirin and paracetamol are discussed in detail. Finally, the book also covers the important current pharmaceutical issues like quality control, safety, counterfeiting and abuse of drugs, and future prospects for pharmaceutical industry. Unified approach explaining drug discovery, bulk drug manufacturing, formulation of dosage forms, with pharmacological and therapeutic actions Manufacturing processes of representative active pharmaceutical ingredients and their chemistry plus formulation of dosage forms presented in this book are based on actual industrial processes Covers many aspects relevant to students of the pharmaceutical sciences or newly employed pharmaceutical researchers/employees. It contains summary information about regulatory agencies of different countries

Improving and Accelerating Therapeutic Development for Nervous System Disorders

Improving and Accelerating Therapeutic Development for Nervous System Disorders
  • Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-02-06
  • Total pages :118
  • ISBN : 9780309292498
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Summary : Improving and Accelerating Therapeutic Development for Nervous System Disorders is the summary of a workshop convened by the IOM Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders to examine opportunities to accelerate early phases of drug development for nervous system drug discovery. Workshop participants discussed challenges in neuroscience research for enabling faster entry of potential treatments into first-in-human trials, explored how new and emerging tools and technologies may improve the efficiency of research, and considered mechanisms to facilitate a more effective and efficient development pipeline. There are several challenges to the current drug development pipeline for nervous system disorders. The fundamental etiology and pathophysiology of many nervous system disorders are unknown and the brain is inaccessible to study, making it difficult to develop accurate models. Patient heterogeneity is high, disease pathology can occur years to decades before becoming clinically apparent, and diagnostic and treatment biomarkers are lacking. In addition, the lack of validated targets, limitations related to the predictive validity of animal models - the extent to which the model predicts clinical efficacy - and regulatory barriers can also impede translation and drug development for nervous system disorders. Improving and Accelerating Therapeutic Development for Nervous System Disorders identifies avenues for moving directly from cellular models to human trials, minimizing the need for animal models to test efficacy, and discusses the potential benefits and risks of such an approach. This report is a timely discussion of opportunities to improve early drug development with a focus toward preclinical trials.

The Neglected Dimension of Global Security

The Neglected Dimension of Global Security
  • Author : National Academy of Medicine, Secretariat,Commission on a Global Health Risk Framework for the Future
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-05-16
  • Total pages :142
  • ISBN : 9780309390965
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Summary : Since the 2014 Ebola outbreak many public- and private-sector leaders have seen a need for improved management of global public health emergencies. The effects of the Ebola epidemic go well beyond the three hardest-hit countries and beyond the health sector. Education, child protection, commerce, transportation, and human rights have all suffered. The consequences and lethality of Ebola have increased interest in coordinated global response to infectious threats, many of which could disrupt global health and commerce far more than the recent outbreak. In order to explore the potential for improving international management and response to outbreaks the National Academy of Medicine agreed to manage an international, independent, evidence-based, authoritative, multistakeholder expert commission. As part of this effort, the Institute of Medicine convened four workshops in summer of 2015. This commission report considers the evidence supplied by these workshops and offers conclusions and actionable recommendations to guide policy makers, international funders, civil society organizations, and the private sector.

The Bullion

The Bullion
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1999
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105121679521
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Summary :