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The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology

The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-10-20
  • Total pages :352
  • ISBN : 9780128136980
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Summary : The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology uses a chronological approach to demonstrate how the use of alternative methods has evolved from their conception as adjuncts to traditional animal toxicity tests to replacements for them. This volume in the History of Toxicology and Environmental Health series explores the history of alternative test development, validation, and use, with an emphasis on humanity and good science, in line with the Three Rs (Replacement,Reduction, Refinement) concept expounded by William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 in their now classic volume, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The book describes the historical development of technologies that have influenced the application of alternatives in toxicology and safety testing. These range from single cell monocultures to sophisticated, miniaturised and microfluidic organism-on-a-chip devices, and also include molecular modelling, chemoinformatics and QSAR analysis, and the use of stem cells, tissue engineering and hollow fibre bioreactors. This has been facilitated by the wider availability of human tissues, advances in tissue culture, analytical and diagnostic methods, increases in computational processing, capabilities, and a greater understanding of cell biology and molecular mechanisms of toxicity. These technological developments have enhanced the range and information content of the toxicity endpoints detected, and therefore the relevance of test systems and data interpretation, while new techniques for non-invasive diagnostic imaging and high resolution detection methods have permitted an increased role for human studies. Several key examples of how these technologies are being harnessed to meet 21st century safety assessment challenges are provided, including their deployment in integrated testing schemes in conjunction with kinetic modelling, and in specialized areas, such as inhalation toxicity studies. The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology uses a chronological approach to demonstrate how the use of alternative methods has evolved from their conception as adjuncts to traditional animal toxicity tests to replacements for them. This volume in the History of Toxicology and Environmental Health series explores the history of alternative test development, validation, and use, with an emphasis on humanity and good science, in line with the Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) concept expounded by William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 in their now-classic volume, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The book describes the historical development of technologies that have influenced the application of alternatives in toxicology and safety testing. These range from single cell monocultures to sophisticated miniaturised and microfluidic organism-on-a-chip devices, and also include molecular modelling, chemoinformatics and QSAR analysis, and the use of stem cells, tissue engineering and hollow fibre bioreactors. This has been facilitated by the wider availability of human tissues, advances in tissue culture, analytical and diagnostic methods, increases in computational processing capabilities, and a greater understanding of cell biology and molecular mechanisms of toxicity. These technological developments have enhanced the range and information content of the toxicity endpoints detected, and therefore the relevance of test systems and data interpretation, while new techniques for non-invasive diagnostic imaging and high resolution detection methods have permitted an increased role for human studies. Several key examples of how these technologies are being harnessed to meet 21st century safety assessment challenges are provided, including their deployment in integrated testing schemes in conjunction with kinetic modelling, and in specialised areas, such as inhalation toxicity studies.

Alternative Toxicological Methods

Alternative Toxicological Methods
  • Author : Harry Salem,Sidney A. Katz
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003-03-26
  • Total pages :616
  • ISBN : 0203008790
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Summary : Bringing together the recent and relevant contributions of over 125 scientists from industry, government, and academia in North America and Western Europe, Alternative Toxicological Methods explores the development and validation of replacement, reduction, and refinement alternatives (the 3Rs) to animal testing. Internationally recognized scientist

Validation of Alternative Methods for Toxicity Testing

Validation of Alternative Methods for Toxicity Testing
  • Author : Chantra Eskes,Maurice Whelan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-09-26
  • Total pages :407
  • ISBN : 9783319338262
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Summary : This book provides information on best practices and new thinking regarding the validation of alternative methods for toxicity testing. It covers the validation of experimental and computational methods and integrated approaches to testing and assessment. Validation strategies are discussed for methods employing the latest technologies such as tissue-on-a-chip systems, stem cells and transcriptomics, and for methods derived from pathway-based concepts in toxicology. Validation of Alternative Methods for Toxicity Testing is divided into two sections, in the first, practical insights are given on the state-of-the-art and on approaches that have resulted in successfully validated and accepted alternative methods. The second section focuses on the evolution of validation principles and practice that are necessary to ensure fit-for-purpose validation that has the greatest impact on international regulatory acceptance of alternative methods. In this context validation needs to keep pace with the considerable scientific advancements being made in toxicology, the availability of sophisticated tools and techniques that can be applied in a variety of ways, and the increasing societal and regulatory demands for better safety assessment. This book will be a useful resource for scientists in the field of toxicology, both from industry and academia, developing new test methods, strategies or techniques, as well as Governmental and regulatory authorities interested in understanding the principles and practicalities of validation of alternative methods for toxicity testing.

Alternatives for Dermal Toxicity Testing

Alternatives for Dermal Toxicity Testing
  • Author : Chantra Eskes,Erwin van Vliet,Howard I. Maibach
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-11-21
  • Total pages :592
  • ISBN : 9783319503530
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Summary : This book provides comprehensive information on the alternative (non-animal) dermal toxicity test methods currently available for industrial, regulatory, and academic use and also explores potential future developments. It encompasses all areas of dermal toxicity, including skin irritation, skin corrosion, skin sensitization, UV-induced effects, and skin genotoxicity. An individual chapter is devoted to each test method, with coverage of the scientific basis, validation status and regulatory acceptance, applications and limitations, available protocols, and potential role within testing strategies. In addition, perspectives from the test developer are presented, for example regarding critical steps in the protocol. The closing section addresses areas that may be of relevance for the future of dermal toxicity safety testing, including the validation and regulatory acceptance of integrated testing strategies, novel complex skin models, and high-throughput screening techniques.

Animal Experimentation

Animal Experimentation
  • Author : Kathrin Herrmann,Kimberley Jayne
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019
  • Total pages :714
  • ISBN : 9004356185
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Summary : Animal Experimentation: Working Towards a Paradigm Change critically appraises current animal use in science and discusses ways in which we can contribute to a paradigm change towards human-biology based approaches.

Science, Medicine, and Animals

Science, Medicine, and Animals
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Institute for Laboratory Animal Research
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006-01-19
  • Total pages :23
  • ISBN : 0309181992
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Summary : Science, Medicine, and Animals explains the role that animals play in biomedical research and the ways in which scientists, governments, and citizens have tried to balance the experimental use of animals with a concern for all living creatures. An accompanying Teacher’s Guide is available to help teachers of middle and high school students use Science, Medicine, and Animals in the classroom. As students examine the issues in Science, Medicine, and Animals, they will gain a greater understanding of the goals of biomedical research and the real-world practice of the scientific method in general. Science, Medicine, and Animals and the Teacher’s Guide were written by the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research and published by the National Research Council of the National Academies. The report was reviewed by a committee made up of experts and scholars with diverse perspectives, including members of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Institutes of Health, the Humane Society of the United States, and the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. The Teacher’s Guide was reviewed by members of the National Academies’ Teacher Associates Network. Science, Medicine, and Animals is recommended by the National Science Teacher’s Association NSTA Recommends.

Departments of Labor, and Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations

Departments of Labor, and Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations
  • Author : United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Appropriations
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : PSU:000055819718
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Summary :

Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2002

Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2002
  • Author : United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002
  • Total pages :704
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105050250104
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Summary :

Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2006

Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2006
  • Author : United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006
  • Total pages :677
  • ISBN : LOC:00150573002
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Summary :

Acute Toxicology Testing

Acute Toxicology Testing
  • Author : Shayne C. Gad,Christopher P. Chengelis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1997-10-27
  • Total pages :534
  • ISBN : 008052592X
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Summary : Acute toxicology testing provides the first line of defense against potentially dangerous chemicals. This book is a complete and practical guide to conducting and interpreting all regulatory required and commonly used acute toxicity tests. It presents detailed protocols for all of the common test designs and reviews their development and objectives. Acute Toxicology Testing, Second Edition will interest not only workers in the pharmaceutical industry, but also researchers and students in toxicology and public health. Key Features * Over 100 tables summarizing and interpreting results * Complete coverage of all major test designs and their limitations and advantages * Current status of alternative test designs and models

Alternatives to Animal Testing

Alternatives to Animal Testing
  • Author : Hajime Kojima,Troy Seidle,Horst Spielmann
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-01-28
  • Total pages :130
  • ISBN : 9789811324475
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Summary : This open access book presents recent advances in the pure sciences that are of significance in the quest for alternatives to the use of animals in research and describes a variety of practical applications of the three key guiding principles for the more ethical use of animals in experiments – replacement, reduction, and refinement, collectively known as the 3Rs. Important examples from across the world of implementation of the 3Rs in the testing of cosmetics, chemicals, pesticides, and biologics, including vaccines, are described, with additional information on relevant regulations. The coverage also encompasses emerging approaches to alternative tests and the 3Rs. The book is based on the most informative contributions delivered at the Asian Congress 2016 on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences. It will be of value for those working in R&D, for graduate students, and for educators in various fields, including the pharmaceutical and cosmetic sciences, pharmacology, toxicology, and animal welfare. The free, open access distribution of Alternatives to Animal Testing is enabled by the Creative Commons Attribution license in International version 4: CC BY 4.0.

Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2008

Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2008
  • Author : United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008
  • Total pages :881
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105050484786
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Summary :

Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century

Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Institute for Laboratory Animal Research,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on Toxicity Testing and Assessment of Environmental Agents
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-11-05
  • Total pages :216
  • ISBN : 9780309151733
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Summary : Advances in molecular biology and toxicology are paving the way for major improvements in the evaluation of the hazards posed by the large number of chemicals found at low levels in the environment. The National Research Council was asked by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to review the state of the science and create a far-reaching vision for the future of toxicity testing. The book finds that developing, improving, and validating new laboratory tools based on recent scientific advances could significantly improve our ability to understand the hazards and risks posed by chemicals. This new knowledge would lead to much more informed environmental regulations and dramatically reduce the need for animal testing because the new tests would be based on human cells and cell components. Substantial scientific efforts and resources will be required to leverage these new technologies to realize the vision, but the result will be a more efficient, informative and less costly system for assessing the hazards posed by industrial chemicals and pesticides.

Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy

Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy
  • Author : Indian National Science Academy
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UVA:X004696991
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Summary :

Introduction to In Vitro Cytotoxicology

Introduction to In Vitro Cytotoxicology
  • Author : Frank A. Barile
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-06-04
  • Total pages :240
  • ISBN : 9781000012910
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Summary : First Published in 1994, Introduction to In Vitro Cytotoxicology examines in vitro cytotoxicology, which offers new methodologies to toxicity testing. This important new discipline of modern toxicology is gaining increased acceptance as a viable alternative to traditional testing methods. The text discusses the application of in vitro cytotoxicology to toxicity testing and human risk assessment, and it analyzes the advantages and limitations of the tests performed under scientific and regulatory conditions. The book also reviews the optimum utilization of certain tests for specific groups of chemicals relevant to validation programs currently in progress. This book is a useful reference tool for students, researchers, and practitioners interested in academic, industrial, and regulatory toxicology; environmental health; cell biology; pharmacology; dentistry; or human and veterinary medicine.

A Comprehensive Guide to Toxicology in Nonclinical Drug Development

A Comprehensive Guide to Toxicology in Nonclinical Drug Development
  • Author : Ali S. Faqi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-11-03
  • Total pages :986
  • ISBN : 9780128036211
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Summary : A Comprehensive Guide to Toxicology in Nonclinical Drug Development, Second Edition, is a valuable reference designed to provide a complete understanding of all aspects of nonclinical toxicology in the development of small molecules and biologics. This updated edition has been reorganized and expanded to include important topics such as stem cells in nonclinical toxicology, inhalation and dermal toxicology, pitfalls in drug development, biomarkers in toxicology, and more. Thoroughly updated to reflect the latest scientific advances and with increased coverage of international regulatory guidelines, this second edition is an essential and practical resource for all toxicologists involved in nonclinical testing in industry, academic, and regulatory settings. Provides unique content that is not always covered together in one comprehensive resource, including chapters on stem cells, abuse liability, biomarkers, inhalation toxicology, biostatistics, and more Updated with the latest international guidelines for nonclinical toxicology in both small and large molecules Incorporates practical examples in order to illustrate day-to-day activities and the expectations associated with working in nonclinical toxicology

Principles and Methods of Toxicology, Fifth Edition

Principles and Methods of Toxicology, Fifth Edition
  • Author : A. Wallace Hayes
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-09-25
  • Total pages :2296
  • ISBN : 9781420005424
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Summary : Founded on the paradox that all things are poisons and the difference between poison and remedy is quantity, the determination of safe dosage forms the base and focus of modern toxicology. In order to make a sound determination there must be a working knowledge of the biologic mechanisms involved and of the methods employed to define these mechanisms. While the vastness of the field and the rapid accumulation of data may preclude the possibility of absorbing and retaining more than a fraction of the available information, a solid understanding of the underlying principles is essential. Extensively revised and updated with four new chapters and an expanded glossary, this fifth edition of the classic text, Principles and Methods of Toxicology provides comprehensive coverage in a manageable and accessible format. New topics include 'toxicopanomics', plant and animal poisons, information resources, and non-animal testing alternatives. Emphasizing the cornerstones of toxicology-people differ, dose matters, and things change, the book begins with a review of the history of toxicology and followed by an explanation of basic toxicological principles, agents that cause toxicity, target organ toxicity, and toxicological testing methods including many of the test protocols required to meet regulatory needs worldwide. The book examines each method or procedure from the standpoint of technique and interpretation of data and discusses problems and pitfalls that may be associated with each. The addition of several new authors allow for a broader and more diverse treatment of the ever-changing and expanding field of toxicology. Maintaining the high-quality information and organizational framework that made the previous editions so successful, Principles and Methods of Toxicology, Fifth Edition continues to be a valuable resource for the advanced practitioner as well as the new disciple of toxicology.

Hazardous Waste & Hazardous Materials

Hazardous Waste & Hazardous Materials
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1988
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UOM:39015012399484
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Summary :

In Silico Toxicology

In Silico Toxicology
  • Author : Mark T. D. Cronin,Judith C. Madden
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010
  • Total pages :669
  • ISBN : 9781849730044
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Summary : In silico methods to predict toxicity are becoming increasingly important, particularly in light of European legislation such as Reach and the Cosmetics Regulation. They are also being used extensively worldwide e.g. in the USA, Canada, Japan and Australia. The objective of In Silico Toxicology: Principles and Applications is to enable the reader to develop new, and use existing, in silico methods to predict the toxicity and fate of chemicals. It develops the theme in a logical sequence leading the use through the retrieval, and assessment of quality, of toxicological data and information; the calculation of descriptors and properties; the basis of statistical techniques for quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARS); the interpretation and validation of models for regulatory use; the mechanistic basis to modelling; as well as chemical grouping approaches and application of the models for risk assessment. The book also addresses other aspects of in silico toxicology including how to predict both external and internal exposure and the role of in silico approaches in integrated testing strategies. The contributions from recognised leaders in each of these areas include evidence of the use and applicability of approaches using real world case studies concerning both environmental and human health effects. The book is relevant to toxicologists and modellers using in silico toxicological approaches to perform risk assessment for regulatory purposes and product development. Series Editors: D Anderson, University of Bradford, Uk MD Waters, ILS, N Carolina, USA TC Marrs, Edentox Associates, Kent, UK The field of toxicological research is continually expanding and diversifying driven by the need to understand the human and ecological risks of exposure to chemicals and other toxicants. This series is devoted to coverage of modern toxicology and assessment of risk and is responding to the resurgence in interest in the of scientific investigation.

Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents

Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents
  • Author : Ramesh C. Gupta
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-04-02
  • Total pages :1168
  • ISBN : 0080922732
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Summary : This groundbreaking book covers every aspect of deadly toxic chemicals used as weapons of mass destruction and employed in conflicts, warfare and terrorism. Including findings from experimental as well as clinical studies, this one-of-a-kind handbook is prepared in a very user- friendly format that can easily be followed by students, teachers and researchers, as well as lay people. Stand-alone chapters on individual chemicals and major topics allow the reader to easily access required information without searching through the entire book. This is the first book that offers in-depth coverage of individual toxicants, target organ toxicity, major incidents, toxic effects in humans, animals and wildlife, biosensors, biomarkers, on-site and laboratory analytical methods, decontamination and detoxification procedures, prophylactic, therapeutic and countermeasures, and the role of homeland security. Presents a comprehensive look at all aspects of chemical warfare toxicology in one reference work. This saves researchers time in quickly accessing the very latest definitive details on toxicity of specific agents used in chemical warfare as opposed to searching through thousands of journal articles. Will include the most agent-specific information on the market Includes detailed coverage of the most exhaustive list of agents possibly used as chemical warfare agents in one source. Section 4: Agents That Can Be Used as Weapons of Mass Destruction ? 25 chapters long. Other books on the market only include a sample selection of specific agents. Offering all possible agents detailed under one cover makes this appealing to a wider audience and saves researchers time The Forward will be written by Dr. Tetsuo Satoh, Chiba University, Japan. He is one of the most respected, recognizable authorities on chemical warfare agents which will set the authoritative tone for the book Covers risk to humans, animals and the environment equally. Researchers involved in assessing the risks involved with a possible chemical warfare attack and those who are developing response plans to such attacks must look at not only the risks to human health but to our wildlife and environment as well. The holistic approach taken in this book ensures that the researchers have ready access to the details no matter which aspect of the effects of CWA's they might be concerned with

Alternatives To Animal Testing

Alternatives To Animal Testing
  • Author : R E Hester,R M Harrison
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-10-31
  • Total pages :136
  • ISBN : 9781847552457
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Summary : Animal experimentation has long been a controversial issue with impassioned arguments on both sides of the debate. Increasingly it has become more expedient and feasible to develop new methods that avoid the use of animals. There is agreement on both sides that reduction and refinement of experiments on animals should be an important goal for the industries involved. Alternatives to Animal Testing, written by leading experts in the field, discusses the issues involved and approaches that can be taken. Topics include; the safety evaluation of chemicals, international validation and barriers to the validation of alternative tests, in vitro testing for endocrine disruptors, intelligent approaches to safety evaluation of chemicals, alternative tests and the regulatory framework. The book provides an up-to-date discussion of the current state of development of alternatives to animal testing and is ideal for professionals and academics in the field. It would also be of use for graduate students wishing to pursue a career in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.