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The Human Microbiome in Early Life

The Human Microbiome in Early Life
  • Author : Omry Koren,Samuli Rautava
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-09-18
  • Total pages :326
  • ISBN : 9780128180983
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Summary : The Human Microbiome in Early Life: Implications to Health and Disease presents recent research advances that have highlighted the significance of early life, possibly beginning before birth, in the establishment of both the microbiome and its role in health and disease. The book reviews current knowledge on the origins of the human microbiota in early life, presents exposures which may disturb normal microbial colonization, and covers their implications to the risk of disease. Finally, emerging means to modify the early human microbiome to improve health are discussed. Examines the timeline of the human microbiome, from before conception to infancy, with an emphasis on clinical implications Evaluates the effort to understand not only the composition but also the origin of the microbiome Proves the emerging means to modify the human microbiome and particularly ‘the first 1000 days of life’ improve human health and prevent disease Generates resources to facilitate characterization of the human microbiota to further our understanding of how the microbiome impacts human health and disease

The Developing Microbiome

The Developing Microbiome
  • Author : Erika Chiong Claud
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-05-23
  • Total pages :240
  • ISBN : 9780128206171
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Summary : The Developing Microbiome: Lessons from Early Life focuses on the establishment of the microbiome in early life, exposing it as a key mediator of diseases and health throughout the lifecycle. The content presents a comprehensive view of the status of the field and draws real-world correlations to health and disease states. It collates the significant research being done in the pediatric microbiome research space and bridges the knowledge gap showing the factors that impact health and disease states throughout the lifecycle. Finally, it offers knowledge on how the microbiome is and can be manipulated to promote change. This is a perfect reference for both researchers and clinical scientists who are interested in the role of the infant microbiome in health and disease, as well as gastroenterologists and pediatricians looking to affect change in their patients. Provides comprehensive coverage of the factors that influence microbiome development Links research in pediatric patients to later life stages Examines increasing evidence on the impact of the microbiome beyond the gut

The Human Microbiome, Diet, and Health

The Human Microbiome, Diet, and Health
  • Author : Food Forum,Food and Nutrition Board,Institute of Medicine
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-02-27
  • Total pages :161
  • ISBN : 9780309265867
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Summary : The Food Forum convened a public workshop on February 22-23, 2012, to explore current and emerging knowledge of the human microbiome, its role in human health, its interaction with the diet, and the translation of new research findings into tools and products that improve the nutritional quality of the food supply. The Human Microbiome, Diet, and Health: Workshop Summary summarizes the presentations and discussions that took place during the workshop. Over the two day workshop, several themes covered included: The microbiome is integral to human physiology, health, and disease. The microbiome is arguably the most intimate connection that humans have with their external environment, mostly through diet. Given the emerging nature of research on the microbiome, some important methodology issues might still have to be resolved with respect to undersampling and a lack of causal and mechanistic studies. Dietary interventions intended to have an impact on host biology via their impact on the microbiome are being developed, and the market for these products is seeing tremendous success. However, the current regulatory framework poses challenges to industry interest and investment.

The Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease

The Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease
  • Author : Dirk Haller
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-07-27
  • Total pages :356
  • ISBN : 9783319905457
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Summary : The book provides an overview on how the gut microbiome contributes to human health. The readers will get profound knowledge on the connection between intestinal microbiota and immune defense systems. The tools of choice to study the ecology of these highly-specialized microorganism communities such as high-throughput sequencing and metagenomic mining will be presented. In addition the most common diseases associated to the composition of the gut flora are discussed in detail. The book will address researchers, clinicians and advanced students working in biomedicine, microbiology and immunology.

Human Microbiota in Health and Disease

Human Microbiota in Health and Disease
  • Author : Bryan Tungland
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-05-25
  • Total pages :680
  • ISBN : 9780128146507
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Summary : Human Gut Microbiota in Health and Disease: From Pathogenesis to Therapy is a comprehensive discussion on all the aspects associated with the early colonization of gut microbiota, its development and maintenance, and its symbiotic relationship with the host in promoting health. Chapters illustrate the complex mechanisms and metabolic signaling pathways related to how the gut microbiota maintain proper regulation of glucose, lipid and energy homeostasis and immune response, all while mediating inflammatory processes involved in the etiology of many chronic disease conditions. With today's common use of pharmaceutical medicine in treating symptoms and frequent overuse of antibiotics in chronic disease within mainstream medical practice, our understanding of the etiological mechanisms of dysbiosis-induced chronic disease and natural approaches to prevention and potential cures for these diseases is of vital importance to overall human health. Details the complex relationship between human microbiota in the gut, oral cavity and skin as well as their colonization, development and impact of factors that influence the relationship Illustrates the mechanisms associated with dysbiosis-associated inflammation and its role in the onset and progression in chronic disease Provides the primary mechanisms and comprehensive scientific evidence for the use of dietary modification and pro- and prebiotics in preventing chronic disease

Microbiota in health and disease: from pregnancy to childhood

Microbiota in health and disease: from pregnancy to childhood
  • Author : Pamela D. Browne,Eric Claassen,Michael D. Cabana
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-07-20
  • Total pages :344
  • ISBN : 9789086868391
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : This book offers a state-of-the-art overview of the vital relationship between human microbiota and infant and child health. Renowned clinical-experimental experts in this field discuss the development of microbiota during early life and review the environmental inputs that affect the developing infant’s gut microbiota, such as early diet and (postnatal) medical interventions. They further describe the interplay between gut microbiota and functional systems of the body, from the immune system to the central nervous system. The book discusses a range of infant and childhood diseases that are associated with microbial changes or dysbiosis, such as gastrointestinal disorders, allergic diseases, autoimmune disorders and respiratory disorders. Additionally mechanisms by which microbial dysbiosis may influence behaviour in infants are discussed. Other topics include the use of current tools in molecular microbiology for microbiota-related research and clinical practice. In the management of particular paediatric disorders, the potential of microbial manipulation with pre- and probiotics during infancy and childhood is increasingly being investigated. This book presents the evidence supporting their use in practice and reviews safety aspects. Microbiota in health and disease: from pregnancy to childhood has the ambition to provide the reader with an overview of the most recent and stunning advances in the field of infant and child microbiota and their role in health, disease and prevention. As such, it is an excellent resource for health care professionals, students and researchers in the field of life sciences.

Let Them Eat Dirt

Let Them Eat Dirt
  • Author : B. Brett Finlay,Marie-Claire Arrietta
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-09-06
  • Total pages :999
  • ISBN : 9781771642552
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Summary : Our over-sanitized world threatens children’s health, but parents can change their environment into one where they’ll thrive. Babies and young kids are being raised in surroundings that are increasingly cleaner, more hyper hygienic, and more disinfected than ever before. As a result, the beneficial bacteria in their bodies is being altered, promoting conditions and diseases such as obesity, diabetes, asthma, allergies, and autism. As Let Them Eat Dirt shows, there is much that parents can do about this, including breastfeeding if possible, getting a dog, and avoiding antibiotics unless necessary—and yes, it is OK to let kids get a bit dirty.

Missing Microbes

Missing Microbes
  • Author : Martin Blaser
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-04-08
  • Total pages :288
  • ISBN : 9781443420259
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Summary : A critical call to arms about the harmful effects of some of our most revered modern medical practices. Welcome to the wilds of the microbiome, where for hundreds of thousands of years bacterial and human cells have co-existed in a peaceful symbiosis that is responsible for the equilibrium and health of our bodies. But now this invisible Eden is under assault. Our overreliance on medical advances such as antibiotics and Cesarean sections is threatening the extinction of these irreplaceable microbes and leading to severe health problems. In Missing Microbes, Dr. Martin Blaser goes back to the discovery of antibiotics, which ushered in a golden age of medicine, and traces how our subsequent overuse of these supposed wonder drugs has left its mark on our systems and contributed to the rise of what Blaser calls our modern plagues: obesity, asthma, allergies, diabetes and certain forms of cancer. Blaser's studies suggest that antibiotic use during early childhood poses the greatest risk to long-term health; alarmingly, American children receive on average seventeen courses of antibiotics before they are twenty years old. His studies also suggest that C-sections deprive babies of important contact with their mothers' microbiomes. Taking us into the lab to explain his groundbreaking studies, Blaser not only provides elegant support for his theories but guides us toward avoiding even more catastrophic health problems in the future.

Adiposity

Adiposity
  • Author : Jan Gordeladze
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-03-22
  • Total pages :296
  • ISBN : 9789535129974
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Summary : This book is the second in a series of two, featuring the Adiposity - Omics and Molecular Understanding, serving as an introduction to modern views on how the adipocytes are reciprocally interacting with organ systems in order to explain the biology of the body's fat cells and how they are integrated with other organ systems, like muscle cells and the liver, in order to control the lipid metabolism in our bodies, to finally preserve a positive balance between white and brown/beige adipocyte tissues (WAT and BAT). The understanding of the "omics" of obesity will therefore enable clinicians and researchers to better pursue the untoward incidents of metabolic deviations from a defined and health-bringing homeostasis, with fully responding WAT and BAT, being able to preserve a healthy balance between fat-producing and fat-metabolizing tissues for the benefit of the host, and thus longevity (optimal health with healthy, well-functioning organ systems) throughout a lifetime.

Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk

Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk
  • Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Life Sciences,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on Advancing Understanding of the Implications of Environmental-Chemical Interactions with the Human Microbiome
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-03-01
  • Total pages :122
  • ISBN : 9780309468695
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Summary : A great number of diverse microorganisms inhabit the human body and are collectively referred to as the human microbiome. Until recently, the role of the human microbiome in maintaining human health was not fully appreciated. Today, however, research is beginning to elucidate associations between perturbations in the human microbiome and human disease and the factors that might be responsible for the perturbations. Studies have indicated that the human microbiome could be affected by environmental chemicals or could modulate exposure to environmental chemicals. Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk presents a research strategy to improve our understanding of the interactions between environmental chemicals and the human microbiome and the implications of those interactions for human health risk. This report identifies barriers to such research and opportunities for collaboration, highlights key aspects of the human microbiome and its relation to health, describes potential interactions between environmental chemicals and the human microbiome, reviews the risk-assessment framework and reasons for incorporating chemicalâ€"microbiome interactions.

The Nature of Man

The Nature of Man
  • Author : Elie Metchnikoff,P Chalmers Mitchell
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-10-13
  • Total pages :352
  • ISBN : 0342742116
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Summary : This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. To ensure a quality reading experience, this work has been proofread and republished using a format that seamlessly blends the original graphical elements with text in an easy-to-read typeface. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.

The Microbiome in Early Life: Self‐Completion and Microbiota Protection as Health Priorities

The Microbiome in Early Life: Self‐Completion and Microbiota Protection as Health Priorities
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:1051368865
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Summary : Abstract This minireview considers the benefits of refocusing attention away from treating the patient as a mammalian human to managing the complete patient: a majority microbial superorganism. Under the "completed self" model for formation of the human‐microbial superorganism, the single, most pivotal sign in distinguishing a life course of health versus that filled with disease is self‐completion (i.e., seeding of the minority mammalian human by the majority microbial portion of the symbiont). From a disease prevention perspective, microbial seeding at birth and subsequent nurturing of the microbiota are significant steps to reduce the risk of both noncommunicable diseases (e.g., type 1 diabetes) and certain infectious diseases. Management of the microbiome during pregnancy, birth, and shortly thereafter appears to be the most significant critical window for healthy superorganism formation. However, the bolus for microbiota seeding at birth and the nurturing process are subject to environmental influences and disruption, such as exposure to toxic chemicals and drugs, infections, and other physical and psychological stressors. Additionally, childhood and adult corrective measures, such as fecal transplantation and administration of prebiotics and probiotics, while potentially useful, may have limitations that are yet to be fully defined. This minireview considers (1) basic features of management of the microbiome to facilitate self‐completion, (2) protection of the microbiota from environmental hazards, and (3) the benefits of using a superorganism focus for health management beginning with pregnancy and extending throughout childhood and adult life.

The Human Microbiota and Microbiome

The Human Microbiota and Microbiome
  • Author : Julian R Marchesi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-05-14
  • Total pages :208
  • ISBN : 9781780640495
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Summary : Thousands of different microbial species colonize the human body, and are essential for our survival. This book presents a review of the current understanding of human microbiomes, the functions that they bring to the host, how we can model them, their role in health and disease and the methods used to explore them. Current research into areas such as the long-term effect of antibiotics makes this a subject of considerable interest. This title is essential reading for researchers and students of microbiology.

Microbiota of the Human Body

Microbiota of the Human Body
  • Author : Andreas Schwiertz
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-05-09
  • Total pages :157
  • ISBN : 9783319312484
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Summary : Microbes can now be found in nearly every niche the human body offers. However, the complexity of the microbiota of a given site depends on the particular environmental condition thereof. Only microbes which are able to grow under these conditions, will prevail. Recent publications imply that the microorganisms do not only have multiple, critical consequences for host physiological processes such as postnatal development, immunomodulation and energy supply, but also effects on neurodevelopment, behavior and cognition. Within this book we will focus on the techniques behind these developments, epigenomics and on the various parts of the human body which are inhabited by microorganism such as the mouth, the gut, the skin and the vagina. In addition, chapters are dedicated to the possible manipulations of the microbiota by probiotics, prebiotics and faecal transplantation.

The Human Microbiota and Chronic Disease

The Human Microbiota and Chronic Disease
  • Author : Luigi Nibali,Brian Henderson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-09-26
  • Total pages :544
  • ISBN : 9781118982877
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Summary : Microbiota-associated pathology can be a direct result of changes in general bacterial composition, such as might be found in periodontitis and bacterial vaginosis, and/or as the result of colonization and/or overgrowth of so called keystone species. The disruption in the composition of the normal human microbiota, or dysbiosis, plays an integral role in human health and human disease. The Human Microbiota and Human Chronic Disease: Dysbioses as a Cause of Human Pathology discusses the role of the microbiota in maintaining human health. The text introduces the reader to the biology of microbial dysbiosis and its potential role in both bacterial disease and in idiopathic chronic disease states. Divided into five sections, the text delineates the concept of the human bacterial microbiota with particular attention being paid to the microbiotae of the gut, oral cavity and skin. A key methodology for exploring the microbiota, metagenomics, is also described. The book then shows the reader the cellular, molecular and genetic complexities of the bacterial microbiota, its myriad connections with the host and how these can maintain tissue homeostasis. Chapters then consider the role of dysbioses in human disease states, dealing with two of the commonest bacterial diseases of humanity – periodontitis and bacterial vaginosis. The composition of some, if not all microbiotas can be controlled by the diet and this is also dealt with in this section. The discussion moves on to the major ‘idiopathic’ diseases afflicting humans, and the potential role that dysbiosis could play in their induction and chronicity. The book then concludes with the therapeutic potential of manipulating the microbiota, introducing the concepts of probiotics, prebiotics and the administration of healthy human faeces (faecal microbiota transplantation), and then hypothesizes as to the future of medical treatment viewed from a microbiota-centric position. Provides an introduction to dysbiosis, or a disruption in the composition of the normal human microbiota Explains how microbiota-associated pathology and other chronic diseases can result from changes in general bacterial composition Explores the relationship humans have with their microbiota, and its significance in human health and disease Covers host genetic variants and their role in the composition of human microbial biofilms, integral to the relationship between human health and human disease Authored and edited by leaders in the field, The Human Microbiota and Human Chronic Disease will be an invaluable resource for clinicians, pathologists, immunologists, cell and molecular biologists, biochemists, and system biologists studying cellular and molecular bases of human diseases.

Epigenetic Epidemiology

Epigenetic Epidemiology
  • Author : Karin B. Michels
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-01-02
  • Total pages :448
  • ISBN : 9789400724952
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Summary : The exploding field of epigenetics is challenging the dogma of traditional Mendelian inheritance. Epigenetics plays an important role in shaping who we are and contributes to our prospects of health and disease. While early epigenetic research focused on plant and animal models and in vitro experiments, population-based epidemiologic studies increasingly incorporate epigenetic components. The relevance of epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, genomic imprinting, and histone modification for disease causation has yet to be fully explored. This book covers the basic concepts of epigenetic epidemiology, discusses challenges in study design, analysis, and interpretation, epigenetic laboratory techniques, the influence of of age and environmental factors on shaping the epigenome, the role of epigenetics in the developmental origins hypothesis, and provides the state of the art on the epigenetic epidemiology of various health conditions including childhood syndromes, cancer, infectious diseases, inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders, psychiatric disorders, diabetes, obesity and metabolic disorders, and atherosclerosis. With contributions from: Peter Jones, Jean-Pierre Issa, Gavin Kelsey, Robert Waterland, and many other experts in epigenetics!

The Gut-Brain Axis

The Gut-Brain Axis
  • Author : Niall Hyland,Catherine Stanton
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-05-13
  • Total pages :508
  • ISBN : 9780128025444
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Summary : The Gut-Brain Axis: Dietary, Probiotic, and Prebiotic Interventions on the Microbiota examines the potential for microbial manipulation as a therapeutic avenue in central nervous system disorders in which an altered microbiota has been implicated, and explores the mechanisms, sometimes common, by which the microbiota may contribute to such disorders. Focuses on specific areas in which the microbiota has been implicated in gut-brain communication Examines common mechanisms and pathways by which the microbiota may influence brain and behavior Identifies novel therapeutic strategies targeted toward the microbiota in the management of brain activity and behavior

Welcome to the Microbiome

Welcome to the Microbiome
  • Author : Rob DeSalle,Susan L. Perkins
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-01-01
  • Total pages :243
  • ISBN : 9780300208405
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Summary : Inspired by an exhibition at the American Museum of Natural History in New York, explores microbes and their implications for modern science and medicine.

Human Microbiota in Health and Disease

Human Microbiota in Health and Disease
  • Author : Bryan Tungland
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-05-25
  • Total pages :680
  • ISBN : 9780128146507
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Summary : Human Gut Microbiota in Health and Disease: From Pathogenesis to Therapy is a comprehensive discussion on all the aspects associated with the early colonization of gut microbiota, its development and maintenance, and its symbiotic relationship with the host in promoting health. Chapters illustrate the complex mechanisms and metabolic signaling pathways related to how the gut microbiota maintain proper regulation of glucose, lipid and energy homeostasis and immune response, all while mediating inflammatory processes involved in the etiology of many chronic disease conditions. With today's common use of pharmaceutical medicine in treating symptoms and frequent overuse of antibiotics in chronic disease within mainstream medical practice, our understanding of the etiological mechanisms of dysbiosis-induced chronic disease and natural approaches to prevention and potential cures for these diseases is of vital importance to overall human health. Details the complex relationship between human microbiota in the gut, oral cavity and skin as well as their colonization, development and impact of factors that influence the relationship Illustrates the mechanisms associated with dysbiosis-associated inflammation and its role in the onset and progression in chronic disease Provides the primary mechanisms and comprehensive scientific evidence for the use of dietary modification and pro- and prebiotics in preventing chronic disease

Microbiota in health and disease: from pregnancy to childhood

Microbiota in health and disease: from pregnancy to childhood
  • Author : Pamela D. Browne,Eric Claassen,Michael D. Cabana
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-07-20
  • Total pages :344
  • ISBN : 9789086868391
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : This book offers a state-of-the-art overview of the vital relationship between human microbiota and infant and child health. Renowned clinical-experimental experts in this field discuss the development of microbiota during early life and review the environmental inputs that affect the developing infant’s gut microbiota, such as early diet and (postnatal) medical interventions. They further describe the interplay between gut microbiota and functional systems of the body, from the immune system to the central nervous system. The book discusses a range of infant and childhood diseases that are associated with microbial changes or dysbiosis, such as gastrointestinal disorders, allergic diseases, autoimmune disorders and respiratory disorders. Additionally mechanisms by which microbial dysbiosis may influence behaviour in infants are discussed. Other topics include the use of current tools in molecular microbiology for microbiota-related research and clinical practice. In the management of particular paediatric disorders, the potential of microbial manipulation with pre- and probiotics during infancy and childhood is increasingly being investigated. This book presents the evidence supporting their use in practice and reviews safety aspects. Microbiota in health and disease: from pregnancy to childhood has the ambition to provide the reader with an overview of the most recent and stunning advances in the field of infant and child microbiota and their role in health, disease and prevention. As such, it is an excellent resource for health care professionals, students and researchers in the field of life sciences.

Pets as Sentinels, Forecasters and Promoters of Human Health

Pets as Sentinels, Forecasters and Promoters of Human Health
  • Author : M. Ramiro Pastorinho,Ana Catarina A. Sousa
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-11-30
  • Total pages :375
  • ISBN : 9783030307349
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Summary : This book provides an up-to-date overview of the current knowledge and research concerning domestic pets as sentinels, forecasters and promoters of human health. Written by leading specialists in the fields of medicine, veterinary, environment, analytical chemistry, sociology and behavioral science, this volume provides a comprehensive understanding of the capabilities of pets in what regards to human health. The first seven chapters are devoted to the use of pets as sentinels for their human companions, in terms of exposure to different classes of environmental chemicals. The following five chapters address the use of pets as models for human diseases and promoters of human health. The final two chapters highlight the psycho-social and psychophysiological aspects of human-animal interactions. The book offers an integrated approach to the One Health concept, providing, in a truly holistic manner, tools to assess the equilibrium between the environment, men and animals. This exercise will highlight and reshape our position towards the planet that despite being “a microscopic dot on a microscopic dot lost in the unimaginable infinity of the Universe” is still our own. At the end of the day, pets will always be there to help us.