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The Innate Immune Response to Noninfectious Stressors

The Innate Immune Response to Noninfectious Stressors
  • Author : Massimo Amadori
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-02-23
  • Total pages :276
  • ISBN : 9780128019740
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Summary : The Innate Immune Response to Non-infectious Stressors: Human and Animal Models highlights fundamental mechanisms of stress response and important findings on how the immune system is affected, and in turn affects such a response. In addition, this book covers the crucial link between stress response and energy metabolism, prompts a re-appraisal of some crucial issues, and helps to define research priorities in this fascinating, somehow elusive field of investigation. Provides insights into the fundamental homeostatic processes vis-à-vis stressors to help in investigation Illustrates the depicted tenets and how to offset them against established models of response to physical and psychotic stressors in both animals and humans Covers the crucial issue of the immune response to endocrine disruptors Includes immunological parameters as reporter system of environmental adaptation Provides many illustrative examples to foster reader understanding

Producing, sensing and responding to cellular stress in immunity

Producing, sensing and responding to cellular stress in immunity
  • Author : Heitor A. Paula-Neto,Renata Meirelles Pereira,Leticia A. Carneiro
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-11-28
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889631421
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Summary : Cellular stress, being considered as any disturbance in cellular physiology, is a fundamental aspect of tissue and body capacity to adapt to the ever changing environment. It also surges as a consequence of tissue injury or invasion of the body by pathogens. Since the immune system was developed to sense and respond to these deleterious processes, it is reasonable to consider that immune cells are capable of sensing and responding to signs of cellular stress. Moreover, cells of the immune system undergo cellular stress during an immune response. This Research Topic presents a series of articles focusing on how cellular stress influences the outcome of immune responses, covering not only how cellular stress can be a fundamental process during immune cell activation and function, but also how cells of the immune system are capable of sensing and being influenced by factors produced by stressed cells.

Cadmium Tolerance in Plants

Cadmium Tolerance in Plants
  • Author : Mirza Hasanuzzaman,Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad,Kamrun Nahar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-04-17
  • Total pages :630
  • ISBN : 9780128163719
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Summary : Cadmium Toxicity and Tolerance in Plants: Agronomic, Genetic, Molecular and Omic Approaches presents research and latest developments on mechanisms of cadmium tolerance covering both lab and field conditions. This book contains important insights and options for minimizing Cd accumulation in plants and mitigating Cd toxicity. Topics covered include using various omics approaches to understanding plant responses to Cd, novel technologies for developing Cd tolerance and integrated breeding approaches to mitigate Cd stress in crops. Cadmium Toxicity and Tolerance in Plants: Agronomic, Genetic, Molecular and Omic Approaches is a valuable resource for both researchers and students working on cadmium pollution and plant responses as well as related fields of environmental contamination and toxicology. Provides data on mechanisms of cadmium tolerance at the cell, organ and whole plant level Covers several major approaches, molecular and agronomic, in addressing cadmium toxicity in plants and soil Offers real-world, application focused techniques

Neuroprogression in Psychiatric Disorders

Neuroprogression in Psychiatric Disorders
  • Author : A. Halaris,B.E. Leonard
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-07-25
  • Total pages :182
  • ISBN : 9783318060515
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Summary : In this volume, international experts critically review cutting-edge advances in neuroprogression research. The relevance of these findings to psychiatric and neurological disorders is clarified. Potential etiopathological mechanisms of neuroprogression are described in detail. Special emphasis is placed on the role of the immune system in stress and stress-related disorders and brain-immune interactions. The epigenetic consequences of adverse experiences in early childhood, which may prelude major psychiatric disorders, are also considered. Recent research has not only provided evidence of neuroprogression in psychiatric and neurological disorders, but has shown that pharmacologic interventions have the potential to arrest this process. Advances in testing and imaging will lead to timely diagnosis and earlier treatment. Identification of neurological mechanisms alongside (epi-)genetic vulnerability markers will create truly personalized treatment programs. This book is a valuable resource for everyone who wishes to gain insight into the essential features of the neuroprogressive course of major psychiatric and neurological disorders. In particular, psychiatrists, neuroscientists and neurologists ¬ as well as immunologists, pharmacologists and molecular biologists - will find very informative chapters of direct relevance to their field.

The role of viable but non-infectious developmental forms in chlamydial biology

The role of viable but non-infectious developmental forms in chlamydial biology
  • Author : Robert V Schoborg,Alan Paul Hudson,Jan Rupp,Andreas Pospischil,Nicole Borel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-11-04
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889193219
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Summary : The chlamydiae are Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria with a complex developmental cycle comprising a metabolically less-active, infectious stage, the elementary body (EB), and a metabolically more active stage, the reticulate body (RB). They are responsible for many acute and chronic diseases in humans and animals. In order to play a causative role in chronic diseases, chlamydiae would need to persist and to re-activate within infected cells/tissues for extended periods of time. Persistence in vitro is defined as viable but non-cultivable chlamydiae involving morphologically enlarged, aberrant, and nondividing RBs, termed aberrant bodies (AB). In vitro, alterations of the normal developmental cycle of chlamydiae can be induced by the addition of Interferon-? (IFN-?), tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) and penicillin G exposure as well as amino acid or iron deprivation, monocyte infection and co-infection with viruses. In vivo, key questions include whether or not ABs occur in infected patients and animals and whether such ABs can contribute to prolonged, chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and scarring through continuing stimulation of the host immune system known from diseases such as trachoma, pelvic inflammatory disease, reactive arthritis and atherosclerosis. To date, the direct causal role in the pathogenesis of chlamydial infection and persistence in vivo has been questioned since there was no tractable animal model of chlamydial persistence so far. A very recent study was able to establish an experimental animal model of in vivo persistence, when C. muridarum vaginally-infected mice were gavaged with amoxicillin. Amoxicillin treatment induced C. muridarum to enter the persistent state in vivo. Recent in vivo data from patients indicate that viable but non-infectious developmental stages are present in the genital tract of chronically-infected women and that the gastrointestinal tract might be a reservoir for persistent chlamydial infections at other sites.

Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns in Human Diseases

Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns in Human Diseases
  • Author : Walter Gottlieb Land
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-10-09
  • Total pages :870
  • ISBN : 9783319786551
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Summary : This book presents current understanding of the importance of modern immunology in the etiopathogenesis of human diseases and explores how this understanding is impacting on diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prophylaxis. As the core of modern immunology, the “danger/injury model” is introduced and addressed throughout the book. Volume I of the book describes the network of damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) and examines the central role of DAMPs in cellular stress responses and associated regulated cell death, the promotion and resolution of inflammation, the activation of innate lymphoid cells and unconventional T cells, the stimulation of adaptive immunity, and tissue repair. The significance of DAMPs in a wide range of human diseases will then be explored in Volume II of the book, with discussion of the implications of injury-induced innate immunity for present and future treatments. This book is written for professionals from all medical and paramedical disciplines who are interested in the introduction of innovative data from immunity and inflammation research into clinical practice. The readership will include practitioners and clinicians such as hematologists, rheumatologists, traumatologists, oncologists, intensive care anesthetists, endocrinologists such as diabetologists, psychiatrists, neurologists, pharmacists, and transplantologists.

Innate Immunity and Inflammation

Innate Immunity and Inflammation
  • Author : Ruslan Medzhitov
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-10-01
  • Total pages :240
  • ISBN : 1621820297
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Summary : The innate immune system is rapidly activated in response to infection and injury. It is a generic rather than pathogen-specific response that recruits immune cells, promotes inflammation, and mobilizes the adaptive immune system. Excessive or chronic inflammation may cause tissue damage, so a careful balance is required to restore homeostasis. Written and edited by experts in the field, this collection from Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology reviews the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in innate immunity and all types of inflammation. The contributors examine the cell types that make up the innate immune system, their use of pattern recognition receptors (e.g., Toll-like receptors) to identify pathogens and damaged tissues, and how they trigger signaling pathways that culminate in inflammation, pathogen destruction, and tissue repair. The numerous chemical signals and factors involved in innate immunity and inflammation are described, as are those that keep inflammation in check. The authors also discuss the diseases that can result when these processes go awry, such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. This volume is therefore a valuable reference for all immunologists, cell biologists, and medical scientists wishing to understand these protective processes and their implications for human health and disease.

The Impact of Nutrition and Statins on Cardiovascular Diseases

The Impact of Nutrition and Statins on Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Author : Ioannis Zabetakis,Ronan Lordan,Alexandros Tsoupras
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-01-15
  • Total pages :348
  • ISBN : 9780128137932
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Summary : The Impact of Nutrition and Statins on Cardiovascular Diseases presents a summary of the background information and published research on the role of food in inhibiting the development of cardiovascular diseases. Written from a food science, food chemistry, and food biochemistry perspective, the book provides insights on the origin of cardiovascular diseases, an analysis of statin therapy, their side effects, and the role of dietary intervention as an alternative solution to preventing cardiovascular diseases. It focuses on the efficacy of nutrition and statins to address inflammation and inhibit the onset of disease, while also providing nutrition information and suggested dietary interventions. Includes a bioscience approach that focuses on inflammation and revisits the lipid hypothesis Presents the view that nutritional interventions have considerable value, not only for reducing cardiovascular risk for CVDs patients, but also acting as the best precaution for otherwise healthy people Advocates that nutritional habits that are formed at a young age are the best way to tackle the global epidemic that is CVDs

Gut Health: The New Paradigm in Food Animal Production

Gut Health: The New Paradigm in Food Animal Production
  • Author : Ryan J. Arsenault,Michael H. Kogut
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-11-02
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889450299
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Summary : Gut health and specifically the gut microbiome-host interaction is currently a major research topic across the life sciences. In the case of animal sciences research into animal production and health, the gut has been a continuous area of interest. Production parameters such as growth and feed efficiency are entirely dependent on optimum gut health. In addition, the gut is a major immune organ and one of the first lines of defense in animal disease. Recent changes in animal production management and feed regulations, both regulatory and consumer driven, have placed added emphasis on finding ways to optimize gut health in novel and effective ways. In this volume we bring together original research and review articles covering three major categories of gut health and animal production: the gut microbiome, mucosal immunology, and feed-based interventions. Included within these categories is a broad range of scientific expertise and experimental approaches that span food animal production. Our goal in bringing together the articles on this research topic is to survey the current knowledge on gut health in animal production. The following 15 articles include knowledge and perspectives from researchers from multiple countries and research perspectives, all with the central goal of improving animal health and production.

The Evolution of the Immune System

The Evolution of the Immune System
  • Author : Davide Malagoli
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-07-21
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9780128020135
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Summary : The Evolution of the Immune System: Conservation and Diversification is the first book of its kind that prompts a new perspective when describing and considering the evolution of the immune system. Its unique approach summarizes, updates, and provides new insights on the different immune receptors, soluble factors, and immune cell effectors. Helps the reader gain a modern idea of the evolution of the immune systems in pluricellular organisms Provides a complete overview of the most studied and hot topics in comparative and evolutionary immunology Reflects the organisation of the immune system (cell-based, humoral [innate], humoral [adaptive]) without introducing further and misleading levels of organization Brings concepts and ideas on the evolution of the immune system to a wide readership

The Role of Toll-Like Receptor 4 in Infectious and Non Infectious Inflammation

The Role of Toll-Like Receptor 4 in Infectious and Non Infectious Inflammation
  • Author : Carlo Rossetti,Francesco Peri
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-10-30
  • Total pages :174
  • ISBN : 9783030563196
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Summary : TLR4 is one of the most important innate immunity receptors, its function mainly consisting in the activation of inflammatory pathways in response to stimulation by Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) and Damage Associated Molecular Pattern molecules (DAMPs). This volume critically reviews the different types of TLR4 activators and inhibitors, discusses the role of molecular aggregates in agonism/antagonism as well as the pivotal role of the CD14 receptor in the modulation of TLR4 signal and the molecular details and actors of the intracellular cascade. The book presents the role of TLR4 in several pathologies, such as sepsis and septic shock caused by receptor activation by gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in neurodegenerative and neurological diseases such as Parkinson and Alzheimer’s diseases, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). It reviews the role of TLR4 in neural stem cell-mediated neurogenesis and neuroinflammation and in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Cerebral Organoids and discusses the emerging role of micro-RNA (miRNA) regulation by TLR4.

Handbook of Human Stress and Immunity

Handbook of Human Stress and Immunity
  • Author : Ronald Glaser,Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-06-28
  • Total pages :414
  • ISBN : 9781483295121
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Summary : In 1964, George Solomon coined the term psychoneuroimmunology. In the intervening 30 years, this term has emerged into a dynamic field of study which investigates the unique interactions between the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. The Handbook of Human Stress and Immunity is a comprehensive reference for this dynamic new field. Focusing on how stressors impact the central nervous system and the resulting changes in immune responses, the Handbook is the first to describehow stress specifically affects human immune systems. It discusses how stress generally makes people more susceptible to infection, how personal support systems can counteract the physiological effects of stress, and how stress, or lack of stress, affects the aging process. Chapters are authored by the leading names in the field and cover such diseases as autoimmune disease, viral pathogenesis, herpes, HIV, and AIDS.

Atherothrombosis and Coronary Artery Disease

Atherothrombosis and Coronary Artery Disease
  • Author : Valentin Fuster,Eric J. Topol,Elizabeth G. Nabel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005
  • Total pages :1636
  • ISBN : 0781735831
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Summary : Written by the world’s foremost authorities, this volume provides comprehensive coverage of current approaches to the prevention, diagnosis, and management of atherothrombosis and its coronary and noncoronary complications. This edition has been thoroughly updated, sharply focused on clinical information, and trimmed to one manageable volume. Coverage begins with a review of risk factors and prevention, emphasizing lipid abnormalities, hypertension, smoking, diabetes, and obesity. Subsequent sections examine the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, markers and imaging, acute coronary syndromes, chronic stable angina, and noncoronary atherothrombosis. Clinical presentations, medical management, and the latest interventional strategies are included.

Immunopharmacology and Inflammation

Immunopharmacology and Inflammation
  • Author : Carlo Riccardi,Francesca Levi-Schaffer,Ekaterini Tiligada
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-06-09
  • Total pages :331
  • ISBN : 9783319776583
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Summary : A comprehensive overview of the current research on inflammation and immunopharmacology, with particular attention to the use of anti-inflammatory drugs, this book discusses future trends in this area of pharmacological research. It addresses an audience with basic knowledge in the inflammatory process, immune system and pharmacology. The book meets the needs of graduate students, junior and senior researchers and is useful as a source of the most current information for those already working in these fields.

Nutrition, Immunity, and Infection

Nutrition, Immunity, and Infection
  • Author : Philip C. Calder,Anil D. Kulkarni
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-10-10
  • Total pages :536
  • ISBN : 9781482253986
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Summary : Both nutrition deficiency and overnutrition can have a significant effect on the risk of infection. Nutrition, Immunity, and Infection focuses on the influence of diet on the immune system and how altering one’s diet helps prevent and treat infections and chronic diseases. This book reviews basic immunology and discusses changes in immune function throughout the life course. It features comprehensive chapters on obesity and the role of immune cells in adipose tissue; undernutrition and malnutrition; infant immune maturation; pre- and probiotics; mechanisms of immune regulation by various vitamins and minerals; nutrition and the aging immune system; nutrition interactions with environmental stress; and immunity in the global health arena. Nutrition, Immunity, and Infection describes the various roles of nutrients and other food constituents on immune function, host defense, and resistance to infection. It describes the impact of infection on nutritional status through a translational approach. Chapters bring together molecular, cellular, and experimental studies alongside human trials so that readers can assess both the evidence for the effects of the food component being discussed and the mechanisms underlying those effects. The impact of specific conditions including obesity, anorexia nervosa, and HIV infection is also considered. Chapter authors are experts in nutrition, immunity, and infection from all around the globe, including Europe, Australia, Brazil, India, and the United States. This book is a valuable resource for nutrition scientists, food scientists, dietitians, health practitioners, and students interested in nutrition and immunity.

The Resolution of Inflammation

The Resolution of Inflammation
  • Author : Adriano Rossi,Deborah A. Sawatzky
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-03-17
  • Total pages :240
  • ISBN : 376437506X
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Summary : This book provides readers with an up-to-date and comprehensive view on the resolution of inflammation and on new developments in this area, including pro-resolution mediators, apoptosis, macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells, possible novel drug developments.

Exercise Immunology

Exercise Immunology
  • Author : Michael Gleeson,Nicolette Bishop,Neil Walsh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-26
  • Total pages :456
  • ISBN : 9781136455858
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Summary : Exercise immunology is an important, emerging sub-discipline within exercise physiology, concerned with the relationship between exercise, immune function and infection risk. This book offers a comprehensive, up-to-date and evidence-based introduction to exercise immunology, including the physiological and molecular mechanisms that determine immune function and the implications for health and performance in sport and everyday life. Written by a team of leading exercise physiologists, the book describes the characteristics of the immune system and how its components are organised to form an immune response. It explains the physiological basis of the relationship between stress, physical activity, immune function and infection risk, and identifies the ways in which exercise and nutrition interact with immune function in athletes and non-athletes. The book shows students how to evaluate the strengths and limitations of the evidence linking physical activity, immune system integrity and health, and explains why exercise is associated with anti-inflammatory effects that are potentially beneficial to long-term health. Every chapter includes useful features, such as clear summaries, definitions of key terms, discussions of seminal research studies and practical guidelines for athletes on ways to minimise infection risk, with additional learning resources available on a companion website. This is an essential textbook for any course on exercise immunology or advanced exercise physiology.

The Parasite-Stress Theory of Values and Sociality

The Parasite-Stress Theory of Values and Sociality
  • Author : Randy Thornhill,Corey L. Fincher
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-07-17
  • Total pages :449
  • ISBN : 9783319080406
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Summary : This book develops and tests an ecological and evolutionary theory of the causes of human values—the core beliefs that guide people’s cognition and behavior—and their variation across time and space around the world. We call this theory the parasite-stress theory of values or the parasite-stress theory of sociality. The evidence we present in our book indicates that both a wide span of human affairs and major aspects of human cultural diversity can be understood in light of variable parasite (infectious disease) stress and the range of value systems evoked by variable parasite stress. The same evidence supports the hypothesis that people have psychological adaptations that function to adopt values dependent upon local infectious-disease adversity. The authors have identified key variables, variation in infectious disease adversity and in the core values it evokes, for understanding these topics and in novel and encompassing ways. Although the human species is the focus in the book, evidence presented in the book shows that the parasite-stress theory of sociality informs other topics in ecology and evolutionary biology such as variable family organization and speciation processes and biological diversity in general in non-human animals.

Principles of Geriatric Critical Care

Principles of Geriatric Critical Care
  • Author : Shamsuddin Akhtar,Stanley Rosenbaum
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-10-25
  • Total pages :242
  • ISBN : 9781316613894
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Summary : Provides coverage of the issues surrounding geriatric critical care, emphasising assessment and treatment.

Principles of Immunopharmacology

Principles of Immunopharmacology
  • Author : Franciscus Petrus Nijkamp,Michael J. Parnham
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005
  • Total pages :662
  • ISBN : 3764358041
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Summary : This updated 2nd edition provides a thorough grounding on the immune response, its diagnosis and its modification by drugs and chemicals. The first section of the book offers a basic introduction to immunology, updated to accommodate new immunological concepts. The second section on immunodiagnostics has been expanded to describe widely used molecular techniques and is followed by a systematic review of drugs affecting the immune system, revised to cover recent developments. The book concludes with a chapter on immunotoxicology. New aids to readers include a two-column format, glossaries of technical terms and appendix reference tables. The emphasis on illustrations is maintained from the first edition.

Tumor Microenvironment and Cellular Stress

Tumor Microenvironment and Cellular Stress
  • Author : Constantinos Koumenis,Ester Hammond,Amato Giaccia
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-23
  • Total pages :290
  • ISBN : 9781461459156
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Summary : The collection of chapters in this proceeding volume reflects the latest research presented at the Aegean meeting on Tumor Microenvironment and Cellular Stress held in Crete in Fall of 2012. The book provides critical insight to how the tumor microenvironment affects tumor metabolism, cell stemness, cell viability, genomic instability and more. Additional topics include identifying common pathways that are potential candidates for therapeutic intervention, which will stimulate collaboration between groups that are more focused on elucidation of biochemical aspects of stress biology and groups that study the pathophysiological aspects of stress pathways or engaged in drug discovery.