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The Microbiology of Nuclear Waste Disposal

The Microbiology of Nuclear Waste Disposal
  • Author : Jonathan R. Lloyd,Andrea Cherkouk
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-10-30
  • Total pages :376
  • ISBN : 9780128186961
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Summary : The Microbiology of Nuclear Waste Disposal is a state-of-the-art reference featuring contributions focusing on the impact of microbes on the safe long-term disposal of nuclear waste. This book is the first to cover this important emerging topic, and is written for a wide audience encompassing regulators, implementers, academics, and other stakeholders. The book is also of interest to those working on the wider exploitation of the subsurface, such as bioremediation, carbon capture and storage, geothermal energy, and water quality. Planning for suitable facilities in the U.S., Europe, and Asia has been based mainly on knowledge from the geological and physical sciences. However, recent studies have shown that microbial life can proliferate in the inhospitable environments associated with radioactive waste disposal, and can control the long-term fate of nuclear materials. This can have beneficial and damaging impacts, which need to be quantified. Encompasses expertise from both the bio and geo disciplines, aiming to foster important collaborations across this disciplinary divide Includes reviews and research papers from leading groups in the field Provides helpful guidance in light of plans progressing worldwide for geological disposal facilities Includes timely research for planning and safety case development

Influences of Microbiology on Nuclear Waste Disposal

Influences of Microbiology on Nuclear Waste Disposal
  • Author : M. Dunk,Great Britain. HM Inspectorate of Pollution
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1991
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:60002535
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Summary :

Microbial Influence on the Performance of Subsurface, Salt-Based Radioactive Waste Repositories

Microbial Influence on the Performance of Subsurface, Salt-Based Radioactive Waste Repositories
  • Author : Nuclear Energy Agency
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018
  • Total pages :72
  • ISBN : 9264303138
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Summary : For the past several decades, the Nuclear Energy Agency Salt Club has been supporting and overseeing the characterisation of rock salt as a potential host rock for deep geological repositories. This extensive evaluation of deep geological settings is aimed at determining - through a multidisciplinary approach - whether specific sites are suitable for radioactive waste disposal. Studying the microbiology of granite, basalt, tuff, and clay formations in both Europe and the United States has been an important part of this investigation, and much has been learnt about the potential influence of microorganisms on repository performance, as well as about deep subsurface microbiology in general. Some uncertainty remains, however, around the effects of microorganisms on salt-based repository performance. Using available information on the microbial ecology of hypersaline environments, the bioenergetics of survival under high ionic strength conditions and studies related to repository microbiology, this report summarises the potential role of microorganisms in salt-based radioactive waste repositories.

MIND - Group Formulation of a Collaborative Technical Program"" Proceedings of the 2nd Meeting of the 'Microbiology in Nuclear Waste Disposal (MIND)' Working Group - Stockholm, Sweden, May 1988

MIND - Group Formulation of a Collaborative Technical Program'' Proceedings of the 2nd Meeting of the 'Microbiology in Nuclear Waste Disposal (MIND)' Working Group - Stockholm, Sweden, May 1988
  • Author : A. M. McCabe
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1989
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:758009525
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Summary :

Investigations of Subterranean Microorganisms and Their Importance for Performance Assessment of Radioactive Waste Disposal

Investigations of Subterranean Microorganisms and Their Importance for Performance Assessment of Radioactive Waste Disposal
  • Author : Karsten Pedersen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1997
  • Total pages :284
  • ISBN : UOM:39015052402719
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Summary :

Geomicrobiology and Its Relevance to Nuclear Waste Disposal

Geomicrobiology and Its Relevance to Nuclear Waste Disposal
  • Author : J. M. West,S. C. Arme
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1984
  • Total pages :21
  • ISBN : OCLC:12110535
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Summary :

Microbial Processes in Radioactive Waste Disposal

Microbial Processes in Radioactive Waste Disposal
  • Author : Karsten Pedersen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000
  • Total pages :97
  • ISBN : UOM:39015050757031
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Summary :

Microbial Degradation Processes in Radioactive Waste Repository and in Nuclear Fuel Storage Areas

Microbial Degradation Processes in Radioactive Waste Repository and in Nuclear Fuel Storage Areas
  • Author : J.H. Wolfram,Robin D. Rogers,Lajos G. Gazsó
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1997-03-31
  • Total pages :288
  • ISBN : 079234488X
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Summary : Purpose ofthe Workshop In the spirit of enhancing developments in science and technology by facilitating international scientific cooperation, the Science Committee of NATO is sponsoring AR W's in several selected priority areas. The objective of this workshop was to discuss what microbial mediated problems have been experienced in the area of nuclear waste management and spent fuel storage. Long term storage of high-level wastes in repositories is just starting in some countries. However, low and medium level wastes have been stored for several decades. In the area of spent fuel interim, storage has been extended at many locations far beyond the intended time. It was a priority of the workshop to examine and discuss what deleterious effects have been observed under these storage conditions or under conditions used in simulated trial tests for predicting material performance under the storage conditions. For example, one chronic problem that was discussed was possibility that microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) could be taking place in the wet storage of spent fuel thereby initiating or accelerating the process of corrosion. Another discussion in the area of waste forms, focused on the presence ofbiofilms which may be breaking down the structure of the waste form and thereby jeopardizing its integrity. The meeting focused on discussing the observations and data collected relating to problems encountered in the storage of these types of wastes, and sharing this information with others that have not monitored their facilities for similar problems.

Corrosion of Steel Mediated by Sulphate-reducing Bacteria with Reference to Nuclear Waste Disposal

Corrosion of Steel Mediated by Sulphate-reducing Bacteria with Reference to Nuclear Waste Disposal
  • Author : J. C. Philp,UKAEA Atomic Energy Establishment. Materials Development Division,Council for National Academic Awards (Great Britain)
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1987
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:59725385
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Summary :

Geological Repository Systems for Safe Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuels and Radioactive Waste

Geological Repository Systems for Safe Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuels and Radioactive Waste
  • Author : Michael J Apted,Joonhong Ahn
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-05-25
  • Total pages :802
  • ISBN : 9780081006528
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Summary : Geological Repository Systems for Safe Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuels and Radioactive Waste, Second Edition, critically reviews state-of-the-art technologies and scientific methods relating to the implementation of the most effective approaches to the long-term, safe disposition of nuclear waste, also discussing regulatory developments and social engagement approaches as major themes. Chapters in Part One introduce the topic of geological disposal, providing an overview of near-surface, intermediate depth, and deep borehole disposal, spanning low-, medium- and high-level wastes. Part Two addresses the different types of repository systems – crystalline, clay, and salt, also discussing methods of site surveying and construction. The critical safety issue of engineered barrier systems is the focus of Part Three, with coverage ranging from nuclear waste canisters, to buffer and backfill materials. Lastly, Parts Four and Five focus on safety, security, and acceptability, concentrating on repository performance assessment, then radiation protection, environmental monitoring, and social engagement. Comprehensively revised, updated, and expanded with 25% new material on topics of current importance, this is the standard reference for all nuclear waste management and geological repository professionals and researchers. Contains 25% more material on topics of current importance in this new, comprehensive edition Fully updated coverage of both near-surface/intermediate depth, and deep borehole disposal in one convenient volume Goes beyond the scientific and technical aspects of disposal to include the political, regulatory, and societal issues involved, all from an international perspective

Cementitious Materials for Nuclear Waste Immobilization

Cementitious Materials for Nuclear Waste Immobilization
  • Author : Rehab O. Abdel Rahman,Ravil Z. Rakhimov,Michael I. Ojovan,Nailia R. Rakhimova
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-11-17
  • Total pages :248
  • ISBN : 9781118512005
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Summary : Cementitious materials are an essential part in any radioactive waste disposal facility. Conditioning processes such as cementation are used to convert waste into a stable solid form that is insoluble and will prevent dispersion to the surrounding environment. It is incredibly important to understand the long-term behavior of these materials. This book summarises approaches and current practices in use of cementitious materials for nuclear waste immobilisation. It gives a unique description of the most important aspects of cements as nuclear waste forms: starting with a description of wastes, analyzing the cementitious systems used for immobilization and describing the technologies used, and ending with analysis of cementitious waste forms and their long term behavior in an envisaged disposal environment. Extensive research has been devoted to study the feasibility of using cement or cement based materials in immobilizing and solidifying different radioactive wastes. However, these research results are scattered. This work provides the reader with both the science and technology of the immobilization process, and the cementitious materials used to immobilize nuclear waste. It summarizes current knowledge in the field, and highlights important areas that need more investigation. The chapters include: Introduction, Portland cement, Alternative cements, Cement characterization and testing, Radioactive waste cementation, Waste cementation technology, Cementitious wasteform durability and performance assessment.

Handling and Processing of Radioactive Waste from Nuclear Applications

Handling and Processing of Radioactive Waste from Nuclear Applications
  • Author : International Atomic Energy Agency
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001
  • Total pages :143
  • ISBN : UOM:39015047516276
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Summary : This report provides detailed information on the handling, processing and storage techniques most widely used and recommended for waste from non-fuel-cycle activities, i.e. radioactive waste generated during the application of nuclear techniques and radioisotopes in industry, medicine, research and education. The report was designed to meet mainly the needs of developing countries by focusing on the most simple, affordable and reliable techniques and discussing their advantages and limitations.

An Overview of Recent Microbiological Research Relevant to the Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste

An Overview of Recent Microbiological Research Relevant to the Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste
  • Author : J. M. West,N. Christofi,I. G. McKinley
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:770299949
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Summary :

Microbial Effects in the Context of Past German Safety Cases (KIT Scientific Reports ; 7744)

Microbial Effects in the Context of Past German Safety Cases (KIT Scientific Reports ; 7744)
  • Author : Kienzler, Bernhard,Swanson, Juliet S.
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-10-19
  • Total pages :80
  • ISBN : 9783731507123
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Summary :

Geological Disposal of Radioactive Wastes and Natural Analogues

Geological Disposal of Radioactive Wastes and Natural Analogues
  • Author : W. Miller,R. Alexander,N. Chapman,John C McKinley,J.A.T. Smellie
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000-11-09
  • Total pages :328
  • ISBN : 0080553052
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Summary : Many countries are currently exploring the option to dispose of highly radioactive solid wastes deep underground in purpose built, engineered repositories. A number of surface and shallow repositories for less radioactive wastes are already in operation. One of the challenges facing the nuclear industry is to demonstrate confidently that a repository will contain wastes for so long that any releases that might take place in the future will pose no significant health or environmental risk. One method for building confidence in the long-term future safety of a repository is to look at the physical and chemical processes which operate in natural and archaeological systems, and to draw appropriate parallels with the repository. For example, to understand why some uranium orebodies have remained isolated underground for billions of years. Such studies are called 'natural analogues'. This book investigates the concept of geological disposal and examines the wide range of natural analogues which have been studied. Lessons learnt from studies of archaeological and natural systems can be used to improve our capabilities for assessing the future safety of a radioactive waste repository.

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Committee on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1996-11-13
  • Total pages :184
  • ISBN : 0309175542
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Summary : This volume discusses the readiness of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility near Carlsbad, New Mexico, to serve as a geological repository for transuranic radioactive waste. WIPP is located in a Permian-age bedded salt deposit 658 meters below the surface. The committee has long reviewed DOE's readiness efforts, now aimed at demonstrating compliance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations. Site characterization studies and performance assessment modeling are among the topics considered in this volume.

Safe Management of Wastes from Health-care Activities

Safe Management of Wastes from Health-care Activities
  • Author : World Health Organization
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014
  • Total pages :308
  • ISBN : 9789241548564
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Summary : This is the second edition of the WHO handbook on the safe, sustainable and affordable management of health-care waste--commonly known as "the Blue Book". The original Blue Book was a comprehensive publication used widely in health-care centers and government agencies to assist in the adoption of national guidance. It also provided support to committed medical directors and managers to make improvements and presented practical information on waste-management techniques for medical staff and waste workers. It has been more than ten years since the first edition of the Blue Book. During the intervening period, the requirements on generators of health-care wastes have evolved and new methods have become available. Consequently, WHO recognized that it was an appropriate time to update the original text. The purpose of the second edition is to expand and update the practical information in the original Blue Book. The new Blue Book is designed to continue to be a source of impartial health-care information and guidance on safe waste-management practices. The editors' intention has been to keep the best of the original publication and supplement it with the latest relevant information. The audience for the Blue Book has expanded. Initially, the publication was intended for those directly involved in the creation and handling of health-care wastes: medical staff, health-care facility directors, ancillary health workers, infection-control officers and waste workers. This is no longer the situation. A wider range of people and organizations now have an active interest in the safe management of health-care wastes: regulators, policy-makers, development organizations, voluntary groups, environmental bodies, environmental health practitioners, advisers, researchers and students. They should also find the new Blue Book of benefit to their activities. Chapters 2 and 3 explain the various types of waste produced from health-care facilities, their typical characteristics and the hazards these wastes pose to patients, staff and the general environment. Chapters 4 and 5 introduce the guiding regulatory principles for developing local or national approaches to tackling health-care waste management and transposing these into practical plans for regions and individual health-care facilities. Specific methods and technologies are described for waste minimization, segregation and treatment of health-care wastes in Chapters 6, 7 and 8. These chapters introduce the basic features of each technology and the operational and environmental characteristics required to be achieved, followed by information on the potential advantages and disadvantages of each system. To reflect concerns about the difficulties of handling health-care wastewaters, Chapter 9 is an expanded chapter with new guidance on the various sources of wastewater and wastewater treatment options for places not connected to central sewerage systems. Further chapters address issues on economics (Chapter 10), occupational safety (Chapter 11), hygiene and infection control (Chapter 12), and staff training and public awareness (Chapter 13). A wider range of information has been incorporated into this edition of the Blue Book, with the addition of two new chapters on health-care waste management in emergencies (Chapter 14) and an overview of the emerging issues of pandemics, drug-resistant pathogens, climate change and technology advances in medical techniques that will have to be accommodated by health-care waste systems in the future (Chapter 15).

Interactions of Microorganisms with Radionuclides

Interactions of Microorganisms with Radionuclides
  • Author : M.J. Keith-Roach,F.R. Livens
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002-04-22
  • Total pages :408
  • ISBN : 0080534902
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Summary : Many environmental processes are influenced, if not controlled, by microbial action and it is becoming increasingly important to develop an understanding of microbial roles in geochemistry. This book brings together state of the art research into microbiological processes and the extent to which they affect or can be used to control radioactive elements. The basic principles and fundamental mechanisms by which microbes and radionuclides interact are outlined, the methodology described, potential microbial influences on waste repositories examined, direct and indirect effects on transport both on local and global scales considered and potential technological applications identified. The book is directed towards advanced undergraduate students, postgraduates and researchers in the areas of environmental radioactivity, environmental microbiology, biotechnology and radioactive waste management. It will also be of interest to regulators, policy makers and non-governmental organisations. This novel and timely book offers a fully integrated approach to a topical international issue.

An Introduction to Nuclear Waste Immobilisation

An Introduction to Nuclear Waste Immobilisation
  • Author : Michael I Ojovan,William E. Lee
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-12-03
  • Total pages :376
  • ISBN : 9780080993935
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Summary : Drawing on the authors’ extensive experience in the processing and disposal of waste, An Introduction to Nuclear Waste Immobilisation, Second Edition examines the gamut of nuclear waste issues from the natural level of radionuclides in the environment to geological disposal of waste-forms and their long-term behavior. It covers all-important aspects of processing and immobilization, including nuclear decay, regulations, new technologies and methods. Significant focus is given to the analysis of the various matrices used, especially cement and glass, with further discussion of other matrices such as bitumen. The final chapter concentrates on the performance assessment of immobilizing materials and safety of disposal, providing a full range of the resources needed to understand and correctly immobilize nuclear waste. The fully revised second edition focuses on core technologies and has an integrated approach to immobilization and hazards Each chapter focuses on a different matrix used in nuclear waste immobilization: cement, bitumen, glass and new materials Keeps the most important issues surrounding nuclear waste - such as treatment schemes and technologies and disposal - at the forefront

Microbial Issues Pertaining to the Canadian Concept for the Disposal of Nuclear Fuel Waste

Microbial Issues Pertaining to the Canadian Concept for the Disposal of Nuclear Fuel Waste
  • Author : Simcha Stroes-Gascoyne,J. M. West,Whiteshell Laboratories
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1994
  • Total pages :39
  • ISBN : UOM:39015043215352
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Summary : AECL Research is developing a concept for the permanent disposal of nuclear fuel waste in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The Federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel has issued a set of guidelines to be used in preparing an environmental impact statement (EIS) that require the addressing of a number of microbiological factors and their potential to affect the integrity of the multiple barrier system on which the disposal concept is based. This report formulates views and positions on microbiological factors that could influence the performance of a disposal vault in plutonic rock. These include the presence and survival of microbes, biofilms, corrosion, biodegradation of emplaced materials, gas production, geochemical changes, radionuclide migration, colloid formation, mutation, pathogens, and methylation. Studies being performed to underscore and strengthen current knowledge are briefly discussed.

Biosafety in the Laboratory

Biosafety in the Laboratory
  • Author : Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications,Committee on Hazardous Biological Substances in the Laboratory,National Research Council
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1989-01-01
  • Total pages :244
  • ISBN : 9780309039758
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Summary : Biosafety in the Laboratory is a concise set of practical guidelines for handling and disposing of biohazardous material. The consensus of top experts in laboratory safety, this volume provides the information needed for immediate improvement of safety practices. It discusses high- and low-risk biological agents (including the highest-risk materials handled in labs today), presents the "seven basic rules of biosafety," addresses special issues such as the shipping of dangerous materials, covers waste disposal in detail, offers a checklist for administering laboratory safety--and more.