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The Microbiome in Prenatal and Neonatal Life

The Microbiome in Prenatal and Neonatal Life
  • Author : Josef Neu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-01-18
  • Total pages :160
  • ISBN : 9780128206096
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Summary : The Microbiome in Prenatal and Neonatal Life clarifies that the microbiome in the maternal fetal unit and immediate changes that occur as new microbes are acquired postnatally play major roles in subsequent health and disease. Rapidly developing technologies for multi-omic analyses and systems biology are shifting paradigms in both scientific knowledge and clinical care with regard to this topic. In essence, we are changing the idea that newborns emerge from sterile environments. As such, in-utero colonization may have impacts on the development of immunity and metabolism that, with epigenetic modifications, will lead to diseases in later life. In addition, the microbial profile that develops during and after birth depends on mode of delivery, type of feeding (human milk versus formula), and various other environmental factors to which the newborn is exposed. Discusses the critical nonredundant timeframe in a newborn's life during which many factors drive immune and tissue maturation and influence the susceptibility to immune-mediated and other diseases in adult life Proves that the fetus and uterine membranes are exposed to not only microbes in close proximity but also to microbial products from metabolism of microbes in the mother Shows that since early life periods are a critical window for development, epigenetic and/or immunologic alterations may occur that can affect not only the infant during his/her lifetime but also subsequent generations Gives insight into factors that may affect the newborn microbiome and subsequent development

The Human Microbiome in Early Life

The Human Microbiome in Early Life
  • Author : Omry Koren,Samuli Rautava
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-09-18
  • Total pages :326
  • ISBN : 9780128180983
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Summary : The Human Microbiome in Early Life: Implications to Health and Disease presents recent research advances that have highlighted the significance of early life, possibly beginning before birth, in the establishment of both the microbiome and its role in health and disease. The book reviews current knowledge on the origins of the human microbiota in early life, presents exposures which may disturb normal microbial colonization, and covers their implications to the risk of disease. Finally, emerging means to modify the early human microbiome to improve health are discussed. Examines the timeline of the human microbiome, from before conception to infancy, with an emphasis on clinical implications Evaluates the effort to understand not only the composition but also the origin of the microbiome Proves the emerging means to modify the human microbiome and particularly ‘the first 1000 days of life’ improve human health and prevent disease Generates resources to facilitate characterization of the human microbiota to further our understanding of how the microbiome impacts human health and disease

Microbiota in health and disease: from pregnancy to childhood

Microbiota in health and disease: from pregnancy to childhood
  • Author : Pamela D. Browne,Eric Claassen,Michael D. Cabana
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-07-20
  • Total pages :344
  • ISBN : 9789086868391
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Summary : This book offers a state-of-the-art overview of the vital relationship between human microbiota and infant and child health. Renowned clinical-experimental experts in this field discuss the development of microbiota during early life and review the environmental inputs that affect the developing infant’s gut microbiota, such as early diet and (postnatal) medical interventions. They further describe the interplay between gut microbiota and functional systems of the body, from the immune system to the central nervous system. The book discusses a range of infant and childhood diseases that are associated with microbial changes or dysbiosis, such as gastrointestinal disorders, allergic diseases, autoimmune disorders and respiratory disorders. Additionally mechanisms by which microbial dysbiosis may influence behaviour in infants are discussed. Other topics include the use of current tools in molecular microbiology for microbiota-related research and clinical practice. In the management of particular paediatric disorders, the potential of microbial manipulation with pre- and probiotics during infancy and childhood is increasingly being investigated. This book presents the evidence supporting their use in practice and reviews safety aspects. Microbiota in health and disease: from pregnancy to childhood has the ambition to provide the reader with an overview of the most recent and stunning advances in the field of infant and child microbiota and their role in health, disease and prevention. As such, it is an excellent resource for health care professionals, students and researchers in the field of life sciences.

The Developing Microbiome

The Developing Microbiome
  • Author : Erika Chiong Claud
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-05-23
  • Total pages :240
  • ISBN : 9780128206171
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Summary : The Developing Microbiome: Lessons from Early Life focuses on the establishment of the microbiome in early life, exposing it as a key mediator of diseases and health throughout the lifecycle. The content presents a comprehensive view of the status of the field and draws real-world correlations to health and disease states. It collates the significant research being done in the pediatric microbiome research space and bridges the knowledge gap showing the factors that impact health and disease states throughout the lifecycle. Finally, it offers knowledge on how the microbiome is and can be manipulated to promote change. This is a perfect reference for both researchers and clinical scientists who are interested in the role of the infant microbiome in health and disease, as well as gastroenterologists and pediatricians looking to affect change in their patients. Provides comprehensive coverage of the factors that influence microbiome development Links research in pediatric patients to later life stages Examines increasing evidence on the impact of the microbiome beyond the gut

Fetal and Neonatal Physiology E-Book

Fetal and Neonatal Physiology E-Book
  • Author : Richard A. Polin,Steven H. Abman,David Rowitch,William E. Benitz
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-05-11
  • Total pages :2050
  • ISBN : 9780323352321
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Summary : Fetal & Neonatal Physiology provides neonatologist fellows and physicians with the essential information they need to effectively diagnose, treat, and manage sick and premature infants. Fully comprehensive, this resource continues to serve as an excellent reference tool, focusing on the basic science needed for exam preparation and the key information required for full-time practice. The 5th edition is the most substantially updated and revised edition ever. In the 5 years since the last edition published, there have been thousands of publications on various aspects of development of health and disease; Fetal and Neonatal Physiology synthesizes this knowledge into definitive guidance for today's busy practitioner. Offers definitive guidance on how to effectively manage the many health problems seen in newborn and premature infants. Chapters devoted to clinical correlation help explain the implications of fetal and neonatal physiology. Allows you to apply the latest insights on genetic therapy, intrauterine infections, brain protection and neuroimaging, and much more. Features a fantastic new 4-color design with 1,000 illustrations, 170+ chapters, and over 350 contributors. 16 new chapters cover such hot topics as Epigenetics; Placental Function in Intrauterine Growth Restriction; Regulation of Pulmonary Circulation; The Developing Microbiome of the Fetus and Newborn; Hereditary Contribution to Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia; Mechanistic Aspects of Phototherapy for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia; Cerebellar Development; Pathophysiology of Neonatal Sepsis; Pathophysiology of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn; Pathophysiology of Meconium Aspiration Syndrome; Pathophysiology of Ventilator Dependent Infants; Pathophysiology of Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury; Pathophysiology of Neonatal White Matter Injury; Pathophysiology of Meningitis; Pathophysiology of Preeclampsia; and Pathophysiology of Chorioamnionitis. New Pathophysiology of Neonatal Diseases section highlights every process associated with a disease or injury, all in one place. In-depth information, combined with end-of-chapter summaries, enables deep or quick use of the text.

Milk, Mucosal Immunity and the Microbiome

Milk, Mucosal Immunity and the Microbiome
  • Author : Pearay L. Ogra,W. Allan Walker,Bo Lönnerdal
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9783318066852
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Summary : "This publication covers the 94th Nestle Nutritional Institute Workshop, which was designed to provide a comprehensive overview on the latest human milk research and its role in modulating mucosal immunity, the microbiome, and its impact on the neonate. This publication should provide scientific support to anyone seeking a deeper understanding of human milk and its immunological properties, and enlarge the knowledge of those who specialize in human milk research"--

Perinatal and Prenatal Disorders

Perinatal and Prenatal Disorders
  • Author : Phyllis A. Dennery,Giuseppe Buonocore,Ola Didrik Saugstad
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-12-17
  • Total pages :435
  • ISBN : 9781493914050
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Summary : This authoritative volume describes the role of free radicals and antioxidants in prenatal and perinatal disorders currently explored in clinical and pre-clinical trials. In twenty-two inclusive chapters, the book covers the gamut of oxidative stress and its relation to a variety of factors, including fertility, metabolism, redox biomarkers, antioxidant defense and protection, gene polymorphisms, angiogenesis, cell signaling, mutations and oxidative damage involving lipids, proteins and nucleic acids, membrane trafficking, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, alterations in immunological function, hypoxia, and post-natal stressors. This comprehensive source will keep clinicians and research scientists up-to-date on translational research into medical applications. Perinatal and Prenatal Disorders is a significant addition to the well-known Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice series.

Stress and Brain Health: Across the Life Course

Stress and Brain Health: Across the Life Course
  • Author : Nina Smyth
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-03
  • Total pages :322
  • ISBN : 9780128167526
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Summary : Stress and Brain Health: Across the Life Course, Volume 150, examines up-to-date knowledge on how stress effects brain health. The book's wide-ranging topics include the effects of pre-natal and childhood stress on neurodevelopment and aging. Chapters cover What is stress, how to measure it and effects on brain function, Pre-natal effects of stress on brain development and vulnerability, Stress in childhood, sensitive periods and regulatory mechanisms, The impact of childhood poverty on brain health, Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) on the brain, Stress, aging and epigenetics, The effects of chronic stress on the prefrontal cortex, Neurobiology of resilience to stress, and more.

Molecular Nutrition

Molecular Nutrition
  • Author : Manlio Vinciguerra,Paul Cordero Sanchez
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-10-15
  • Total pages :450
  • ISBN : 9780128138632
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Summary : Molecular Nutrition: Mother and Infant presents the impact of diet in early life stages, from pre-conception, throughout pregnancy, and to the infant. The book covers the molecular biology of the cell, genetic machinery and its function, general coverage on diet and nutrition, pregnancy, placenta, weight gain, breast milk, feeding practices, gestational disease, glucose metabolism, immunity, vitamins and minerals. Other topics discusses include fetal programming, bioactive compounds, amino acids, intrauterine growth, one carbon metabolism, overnutrition, genetic risk factors, polymorphisms, folic acid genes, DNA methylation, genes involved in lipid metabolism, microRNAs, epigenetics, transcriptomics and micro RNA. This book will be a welcomed reference for research scientists and practitioners, including nutritionists and dieticians. Addresses mother and infant nutrition and its critical impact on the well-being of humankind Contains coverage from pre-conception to young offspring Includes pedagogical features (e.g. a list of key facts, mini-dictionaries of terms and definitions, and summary points) to assist in its use as a reference Contains coverage of emerging fields of molecular biology and important discoveries related to diet and nutritional health

Adiposity

Adiposity
  • Author : Jan Gordeladze
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-03-22
  • Total pages :296
  • ISBN : 9789535129974
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Summary : This book is the second in a series of two, featuring the Adiposity - Omics and Molecular Understanding, serving as an introduction to modern views on how the adipocytes are reciprocally interacting with organ systems in order to explain the biology of the body's fat cells and how they are integrated with other organ systems, like muscle cells and the liver, in order to control the lipid metabolism in our bodies, to finally preserve a positive balance between white and brown/beige adipocyte tissues (WAT and BAT). The understanding of the "omics" of obesity will therefore enable clinicians and researchers to better pursue the untoward incidents of metabolic deviations from a defined and health-bringing homeostasis, with fully responding WAT and BAT, being able to preserve a healthy balance between fat-producing and fat-metabolizing tissues for the benefit of the host, and thus longevity (optimal health with healthy, well-functioning organ systems) throughout a lifetime.

Selected Topics in Neonatal Care

Selected Topics in Neonatal Care
  • Author : René Mauricio Barría
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-06-27
  • Total pages :248
  • ISBN : 9781789233629
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Summary : Neonatology is one of the areas of greatest development and evolution within pediatrics. The technoscientific advances in this area have led to an increase in the survival of premature infants who sometimes require sophisticated care. However, there is essential care that must be included in all centers that care for high-risk babies. This book includes important topics related to neonatal care grouped into four sections. In 14 chapters that address relevant issues about neonatal care, the book seeks to contribute to the clinical work of the health teams of neonatal units. Specialists in the field of neonatology from different countries have developed these chapters and through them they hope to share part of their experience.

The Microcosm Within

The Microcosm Within
  • Author : William B. Miller, Jr.
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-12-04
  • Total pages :573
  • ISBN : 9781612332772
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Summary : You are not what you think you are. New research is transforming how we understand ourselves—from a singular 'self' to a vast cooperative, co-dependent and collaborative network of cellular environments and ecologies—a microcosm within. From this unique perspective, a startling revision of evolutionary theory unfurls. Sharply reasoned and certain to be controversial, The Microcosm Within takes its readers on a sweeping scientific journey that reorganizes our thinking about our biological selves, evolution, and extinction. Darwin has dominated evolution for over a century. But many issues remain puzzling—What is the origin of self-sacrifice? Does natural selection really account for evolution? Why is homosexuality commonplace in the animal kingdom? Why were the arms of Tyrannosaurus Rex so small? Why do some species go extinct yet others endure? The Microcosm Within offers intriguing and profound answers by exploring our extraordinary world of cellular consciousness, connections, and collaboration. Current research has unexpectedly revealed that all cells and microbes have elemental cognition and a previously unappreciated capacity for discrimination and awareness. From these faculties, cooperative natural genetic engineering is enabled; and it is from this starting point that biological complexity evolves. The Microcosm Within illuminates how immunological factors dominate evolution and extinction. Biology and evolutionary theory will never be the same.

Microbial Endocrinology: The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in Health and Disease

Microbial Endocrinology: The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in Health and Disease
  • Author : Mark Lyte,John F. Cryan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-07-05
  • Total pages :436
  • ISBN : 9781493908974
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Summary : The field of microbial endocrinology is expressly devoted to understanding the mechanisms by which the microbiota (bacteria within the microbiome) interact with the host (“us”). This interaction is a two-way street and the driving force that governs these interactions are the neuroendocrine products of both the host and the microbiota. Chapters include neuroendocrine hormone-induced changes in gene expression and microbial endocrinology and probiotics. This is the first in a series of books dedicated to understanding how bi-directional communication between host and bacteria represents the cutting edge of translational medical research, and hopefully identifies new ways to understand the mechanisms that determine health and disease.​

The Microbiome Effect

The Microbiome Effect
  • Author : Toni Harman,Alex Wakeford
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-04-07
  • Total pages :240
  • ISBN : 178066270X
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Summary : The Microbiome Effect explores the way the microbiome, or good bacteria, is transferred from mother to baby during childbirth, how modern medical practices interfere with this process, and the consequences for a baby s future health and perhaps for the future of humanity itself."

Your Baby's Microbiome

Your Baby's Microbiome
  • Author : Toni Harman,Alex Wakeford
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-02-20
  • Total pages :208
  • ISBN : 9781603586955
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Summary : From the Directors of the Award-Winning Documentary Microbirth At least two amazing events happen during childbirth. There's the obvious main event, which is the emergence of a new human into the world. But there's another event taking place simultaneously, a crucial event that is not visible to the naked eye, an event that could determine the lifelong health of the baby. This is the seeding of the baby's microbiome, the community of "good" bacteria that we carry with us throughout our lives. The seeding of the microbiome, along with breastfeeding and skin-to-skin contact, kick-starts the baby's immune system and helps protect the infant from disease across a lifetime. Researchers are discovering, however, that interventions such as the use of synthetic oxytocin, antibiotics, C-sections, and formula feeding interfere with, or bypass completely, the microbial transfer from mother to baby. These bacteria are vital for human health, and science has linked an imbalance in the human microbiome with multiple chronic diseases. Drawing on the extensive research they carried out for their documentary film Microbirth, authors Toni Harman and Alex Wakeford reveal a fascinating new view of birth and how microscopic happenings can have lifelong consequences, for ourselves, our children--and our species as a whole.

New Technologies and Perinatal Medicine

New Technologies and Perinatal Medicine
  • Author : Moshe Hod,Vincenzo Berghella,Mary D'Alton,Gian Carlo Di Renzo,Eduard Gratacos,Vassilios Fanos
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-11-21
  • Total pages :247
  • ISBN : 9781351783606
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Summary : The potential impact of work being conducted in genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics upon clinical practice for gynecologists is immense but not yet completely appreciated. This groundbreaking text from international experts examines the newest topics on the perinatal agenda and gives clinicians a real look into the future via the newest methodologies.

Handbook of Life Course Health Development

Handbook of Life Course Health Development
  • Author : Neal Halfon,Christopher B. Forrest,Richard M. Lerner,Elaine M. Faustman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-11-20
  • Total pages :664
  • ISBN : 9783319471433
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Summary : This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. ​This handbook synthesizes and analyzes the growing knowledge base on life course health development (LCHD) from the prenatal period through emerging adulthood, with implications for clinical practice and public health. It presents LCHD as an innovative field with a sound theoretical framework for understanding wellness and disease from a lifespan perspective, replacing previous medical, biopsychosocial, and early genomic models of health. Interdisciplinary chapters discuss major health concerns (diabetes, obesity), important less-studied conditions (hearing, kidney health), and large-scale issues (nutrition, adversity) from a lifespan viewpoint. In addition, chapters address methodological approaches and challenges by analyzing existing measures, studies, and surveys. The book concludes with the editors’ research agenda that proposes priorities for future LCHD research and its application to health care practice and health policy. Topics featured in the Handbook include: The prenatal period and its effect on child obesity and metabolic outcomes. Pregnancy complications and their effect on women’s cardiovascular health. A multi-level approach for obesity prevention in children. Application of the LCHD framework to autism spectrum disorder. Socioeconomic disadvantage and its influence on health development across the lifespan. The importance of nutrition to optimal health development across the lifespan. The Handbook of Life Course Health Development is a must-have resource for researchers, clinicians/professionals, and graduate students in developmental psychology/science; maternal and child health; social work; health economics; educational policy and politics; and medical law as well as many interrelated subdisciplines in psychology, medicine, public health, mental health, education, social welfare, economics, sociology, and law.

The Newborn Lung

The Newborn Lung
  • Author : Eduardo Bancalari
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-06-19
  • Total pages :464
  • ISBN : 9780323568753
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Summary : Dr. Richard Polin’s Neonatology Questions and Controversies series highlights the most challenging aspects of neonatal care, offering trustworthy guidance on up-to-date diagnostic and treatment options in the field. In each volume, renowned experts address the clinical problems of greatest concern to today’s practitioners, helping you handle difficult practice issues and provide optimal, evidence-based care to every patient. Stay fully up to date in this fast-changing field with The Newborn Lung, 3rd Edition. The most current clinical information throughout, including key management strategies that may reduce some of the chronic sequelae of neonatal respiratory failure. New content on the role of microbiome in lung injury and lung development. Current coverage of non-invasive respiratory support, perinatal events and their influence on lung development and injury, cell-based lung therapy, automation of respiratory support, and oxygenation targeting in preterm infants. Consistent chapter organization to help you find information quickly and easily. The most authoritative advice available from world-class neonatologists who share their knowledge of new trends and developments in neonatal care. Purchase each volume individually, or get the entire 7-volume set! Gastroenterology and Nutrition Hematology, Immunology and Genetics Hemodynamics and Cardiology Infectious Disease and Pharmacology New Volume! Nephrology and Fluid/Electrolyte Physiology Neurology The Newborn Lung

Mapping the Future of Biology

Mapping the Future of Biology
  • Author : Anouk Barberousse,Michel Morange,Thomas Pradeu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-02-26
  • Total pages :173
  • ISBN : 9781402096365
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Summary : Carving Nature at its Joints? In order to map the future of biology we need to understand where we are and how we got there. Present day biology is the realization of the famous metaphor of the organism as a bete ˆ machine elaborated by Descartes in Part V of the Discours,a realization far beyond what anyone in the seventeenth century could have im- ined. Until the middle of the nineteenth century that machine was an articulated collection of macroscopic parts, a system of gears and levers moving gasses, solids, and liquids, and causing some parts of the machine to move in response to the force produced by others. Then, in the nineteenth century, two divergent changes occurred in the level at which the living machine came to be investigated. First, with the rise of chemistry and the particulate view of the composition of matter, the forces on macroscopic machine came to be understood as the ma- festation of molecular events, and functional biology became a study of molecular interactions. That is, the machine ceased to be a clock or a water pump and became an articulated network of chemical reactions. Until the ?rst third of the twentieth century this chemical view of life, as re?ected in the development of classical b- chemistry treated the chemistry of biological molecules in much the same way as for any organic chemical reaction, with reaction rates and side products that were the consequence of statistical properties of the concentrations of reactants.

Dirt Is Good

Dirt Is Good
  • Author : Jack Gilbert,Rob Knight
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-06-06
  • Total pages :288
  • ISBN : 9781250132628
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Summary : From two of the world’s top scientists and one of the world’s top science writers (all parents), Dirt Is Good is a q&a-based guide to everything you need to know about kids & germs. “Is it OK for my child to eat dirt?” That’s just one of the many questions authors Jack Gilbert and Rob Knight are bombarded with every week from parents all over the world. They've heard everything from “My two-year-old gets constant ear infections. Should I give her antibiotics? Or probiotics?” to “I heard that my son’s asthma was caused by a lack of microbial exposure. Is this true, and if so what can I do about it now?” Google these questions, and you’ll be overwhelmed with answers. The internet is rife with speculation and misinformation about the risks and benefits of what most parents think of as simply germs, but which scientists now call the microbiome: the combined activity of all the tiny organisms inside our bodies and the surrounding environment that have an enormous impact on our health and well-being. Who better to turn to for answers than Drs. Gilbert and Knight, two of the top scientists leading the investigation into the microbiome—an investigation that is producing fascinating discoveries and bringing answers to parents who want to do the best for their young children. Dirt Is Good is a comprehensive, authoritative, accessible guide you've been searching for.

Nutrition in Infancy

Nutrition in Infancy
  • Author : Ronald Ross Watson,George Grimble,Victor R. Preedy,Sherma Zibadi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-02
  • Total pages :467
  • ISBN : 9781627032247
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Summary : Nutrition in Infancy: Volume 1 is a very useful resource for all clinicians treating and preventing nutritional problems in infants. This volume covers a wide range of topics that support wellness in infants through the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, malnutrition, and developmental and genetic abnormalities. A variety of chapters deal with nutrients for infants with disabilities, surgery, and other special needs. Special emphasis is provided for clinicians treating the millions of children in developing countries whose death is promoted by undernutrition or malnutrition. The next sections discuss the health benefits of supplementation and breast feeding and methods to improve use of berast feeding and it’s duration. In Nutrition in Infancy: Volume 1, all of these facets of nutrition and nutritional therapy are covered in a precise and practical way. The latest developments in diagnostic procedures and nutritional support are also included. Written by a group of international experts, this volume is an indispensable new reference for clinicians with an interest in the nutrition and health of pregnant mothers and their infants.