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The Microbiome in Prenatal and Neonatal Life

The Microbiome in Prenatal and Neonatal Life
  • Author : Josef Neu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-01-18
  • Total pages :160
  • ISBN : 9780128206096
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Summary : The Microbiome in Prenatal and Neonatal Life clarifies that the microbiome in the maternal fetal unit and immediate changes that occur as new microbes are acquired postnatally play major roles in subsequent health and disease. Rapidly developing technologies for multi-omic analyses and systems biology are shifting paradigms in both scientific knowledge and clinical care with regard to this topic. In essence, we are changing the idea that newborns emerge from sterile environments. As such, in-utero colonization may have impacts on the development of immunity and metabolism that, with epigenetic modifications, will lead to diseases in later life. In addition, the microbial profile that develops during and after birth depends on mode of delivery, type of feeding (human milk versus formula), and various other environmental factors to which the newborn is exposed. Discusses the critical nonredundant timeframe in a newborn's life during which many factors drive immune and tissue maturation and influence the susceptibility to immune-mediated and other diseases in adult life Proves that the fetus and uterine membranes are exposed to not only microbes in close proximity but also to microbial products from metabolism of microbes in the mother Shows that since early life periods are a critical window for development, epigenetic and/or immunologic alterations may occur that can affect not only the infant during his/her lifetime but also subsequent generations Gives insight into factors that may affect the newborn microbiome and subsequent development

The Human Microbiome in Early Life

The Human Microbiome in Early Life
  • Author : Omry Koren,Samuli Rautava
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-09-18
  • Total pages :326
  • ISBN : 9780128180983
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Summary : The Human Microbiome in Early Life: Implications to Health and Disease presents recent research advances that have highlighted the significance of early life, possibly beginning before birth, in the establishment of both the microbiome and its role in health and disease. The book reviews current knowledge on the origins of the human microbiota in early life, presents exposures which may disturb normal microbial colonization, and covers their implications to the risk of disease. Finally, emerging means to modify the early human microbiome to improve health are discussed. Examines the timeline of the human microbiome, from before conception to infancy, with an emphasis on clinical implications Evaluates the effort to understand not only the composition but also the origin of the microbiome Proves the emerging means to modify the human microbiome and particularly ‘the first 1000 days of life’ improve human health and prevent disease Generates resources to facilitate characterization of the human microbiota to further our understanding of how the microbiome impacts human health and disease

The Developing Microbiome

The Developing Microbiome
  • Author : Erika Chiong Claud
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-05-23
  • Total pages :240
  • ISBN : 9780128206171
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Summary : The Developing Microbiome: Lessons from Early Life focuses on the establishment of the microbiome in early life, exposing it as a key mediator of diseases and health throughout the lifecycle. The content presents a comprehensive view of the status of the field and draws real-world correlations to health and disease states. It collates the significant research being done in the pediatric microbiome research space and bridges the knowledge gap showing the factors that impact health and disease states throughout the lifecycle. Finally, it offers knowledge on how the microbiome is and can be manipulated to promote change. This is a perfect reference for both researchers and clinical scientists who are interested in the role of the infant microbiome in health and disease, as well as gastroenterologists and pediatricians looking to affect change in their patients. Provides comprehensive coverage of the factors that influence microbiome development Links research in pediatric patients to later life stages Examines increasing evidence on the impact of the microbiome beyond the gut

Microbiota in health and disease: from pregnancy to childhood

Microbiota in health and disease: from pregnancy to childhood
  • Author : Pamela D. Browne,Eric Claassen,Michael D. Cabana
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-07-20
  • Total pages :344
  • ISBN : 9789086868391
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Summary : This book offers a state-of-the-art overview of the vital relationship between human microbiota and infant and child health. Renowned clinical-experimental experts in this field discuss the development of microbiota during early life and review the environmental inputs that affect the developing infant’s gut microbiota, such as early diet and (postnatal) medical interventions. They further describe the interplay between gut microbiota and functional systems of the body, from the immune system to the central nervous system. The book discusses a range of infant and childhood diseases that are associated with microbial changes or dysbiosis, such as gastrointestinal disorders, allergic diseases, autoimmune disorders and respiratory disorders. Additionally mechanisms by which microbial dysbiosis may influence behaviour in infants are discussed. Other topics include the use of current tools in molecular microbiology for microbiota-related research and clinical practice. In the management of particular paediatric disorders, the potential of microbial manipulation with pre- and probiotics during infancy and childhood is increasingly being investigated. This book presents the evidence supporting their use in practice and reviews safety aspects. Microbiota in health and disease: from pregnancy to childhood has the ambition to provide the reader with an overview of the most recent and stunning advances in the field of infant and child microbiota and their role in health, disease and prevention. As such, it is an excellent resource for health care professionals, students and researchers in the field of life sciences.

Perinatal and Prenatal Disorders

Perinatal and Prenatal Disorders
  • Author : Phyllis A. Dennery,Giuseppe Buonocore,Ola Didrik Saugstad
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-12-17
  • Total pages :435
  • ISBN : 9781493914050
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Summary : This authoritative volume describes the role of free radicals and antioxidants in prenatal and perinatal disorders currently explored in clinical and pre-clinical trials. In twenty-two inclusive chapters, the book covers the gamut of oxidative stress and its relation to a variety of factors, including fertility, metabolism, redox biomarkers, antioxidant defense and protection, gene polymorphisms, angiogenesis, cell signaling, mutations and oxidative damage involving lipids, proteins and nucleic acids, membrane trafficking, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, alterations in immunological function, hypoxia, and post-natal stressors. This comprehensive source will keep clinicians and research scientists up-to-date on translational research into medical applications. Perinatal and Prenatal Disorders is a significant addition to the well-known Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice series.

Fetal and Neonatal Physiology E-Book

Fetal and Neonatal Physiology E-Book
  • Author : Richard A. Polin,Steven H. Abman,David Rowitch,William E. Benitz
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-05-11
  • Total pages :2050
  • ISBN : 9780323352321
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Summary : Fetal & Neonatal Physiology provides neonatologist fellows and physicians with the essential information they need to effectively diagnose, treat, and manage sick and premature infants. Fully comprehensive, this resource continues to serve as an excellent reference tool, focusing on the basic science needed for exam preparation and the key information required for full-time practice. The 5th edition is the most substantially updated and revised edition ever. In the 5 years since the last edition published, there have been thousands of publications on various aspects of development of health and disease; Fetal and Neonatal Physiology synthesizes this knowledge into definitive guidance for today's busy practitioner. Offers definitive guidance on how to effectively manage the many health problems seen in newborn and premature infants. Chapters devoted to clinical correlation help explain the implications of fetal and neonatal physiology. Allows you to apply the latest insights on genetic therapy, intrauterine infections, brain protection and neuroimaging, and much more. Features a fantastic new 4-color design with 1,000 illustrations, 170+ chapters, and over 350 contributors. 16 new chapters cover such hot topics as Epigenetics; Placental Function in Intrauterine Growth Restriction; Regulation of Pulmonary Circulation; The Developing Microbiome of the Fetus and Newborn; Hereditary Contribution to Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia; Mechanistic Aspects of Phototherapy for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia; Cerebellar Development; Pathophysiology of Neonatal Sepsis; Pathophysiology of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn; Pathophysiology of Meconium Aspiration Syndrome; Pathophysiology of Ventilator Dependent Infants; Pathophysiology of Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury; Pathophysiology of Neonatal White Matter Injury; Pathophysiology of Meningitis; Pathophysiology of Preeclampsia; and Pathophysiology of Chorioamnionitis. New Pathophysiology of Neonatal Diseases section highlights every process associated with a disease or injury, all in one place. In-depth information, combined with end-of-chapter summaries, enables deep or quick use of the text.

Adiposity

Adiposity
  • Author : Jan Gordeladze
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-03-22
  • Total pages :296
  • ISBN : 9789535129974
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Summary : This book is the second in a series of two, featuring the Adiposity - Omics and Molecular Understanding, serving as an introduction to modern views on how the adipocytes are reciprocally interacting with organ systems in order to explain the biology of the body's fat cells and how they are integrated with other organ systems, like muscle cells and the liver, in order to control the lipid metabolism in our bodies, to finally preserve a positive balance between white and brown/beige adipocyte tissues (WAT and BAT). The understanding of the "omics" of obesity will therefore enable clinicians and researchers to better pursue the untoward incidents of metabolic deviations from a defined and health-bringing homeostasis, with fully responding WAT and BAT, being able to preserve a healthy balance between fat-producing and fat-metabolizing tissues for the benefit of the host, and thus longevity (optimal health with healthy, well-functioning organ systems) throughout a lifetime.

Immune Regulation

Immune Regulation
  • Author : Marc Feldmann,N. A. Mitchison
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :392
  • ISBN : 9781461249962
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Summary : Leukocyte culture conferences have a long pedigree. This volume records some of the scientific highlights of the 16th such annual con ference, and is a witness to the continuing evolution and popularity of leukocyte culture and of immunology. There is strong evidence of the widening horizons of immunology, both technically, with the obviously major impact of molecular biology into our understanding of cellular processes, and also conceptually. Traditionally, the 'proceedings' of these conferences have been published. But have the books produced really recorded the major part of the conference, the informal, friendly, but intense and some times heated exchanges that take place between workers in tackling very similar problems and systems and which are at the heart of every successful conference? Unfortunately this essence cannot be incorpo rated by soliciting manuscripts. For this reason, we have changed the format of publication, retaining published versions of the symposium papers, but requesting the workshop chairmen to produce a summary of the major new observations and areas of controversy highlighted in their sessions, as a vehicle for defining current areas of interest and debate. Not an easy task, as the workshop topics were culled from the abstracts submitted by the participants, rather than being on predefined topics. The unseasonal warmth in Cambridge was reflected in the atmos phere of the conference, the organization of which benefited from the administrative skills of Jean Bacon, Philippa Wells, Mr. Peter Irving, and Mrs.

Microbial Endocrinology: The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in Health and Disease

Microbial Endocrinology: The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in Health and Disease
  • Author : Mark Lyte,John F. Cryan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-07-05
  • Total pages :436
  • ISBN : 9781493908974
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Summary : The field of microbial endocrinology is expressly devoted to understanding the mechanisms by which the microbiota (bacteria within the microbiome) interact with the host (“us”). This interaction is a two-way street and the driving force that governs these interactions are the neuroendocrine products of both the host and the microbiota. Chapters include neuroendocrine hormone-induced changes in gene expression and microbial endocrinology and probiotics. This is the first in a series of books dedicated to understanding how bi-directional communication between host and bacteria represents the cutting edge of translational medical research, and hopefully identifies new ways to understand the mechanisms that determine health and disease.​

The Microcosm Within

The Microcosm Within
  • Author : William B. Miller, Jr.
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-12-04
  • Total pages :573
  • ISBN : 9781612332772
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Summary : You are not what you think you are. New research is transforming how we understand ourselves—from a singular 'self' to a vast cooperative, co-dependent and collaborative network of cellular environments and ecologies—a microcosm within. From this unique perspective, a startling revision of evolutionary theory unfurls. Sharply reasoned and certain to be controversial, The Microcosm Within takes its readers on a sweeping scientific journey that reorganizes our thinking about our biological selves, evolution, and extinction. Darwin has dominated evolution for over a century. But many issues remain puzzling—What is the origin of self-sacrifice? Does natural selection really account for evolution? Why is homosexuality commonplace in the animal kingdom? Why were the arms of Tyrannosaurus Rex so small? Why do some species go extinct yet others endure? The Microcosm Within offers intriguing and profound answers by exploring our extraordinary world of cellular consciousness, connections, and collaboration. Current research has unexpectedly revealed that all cells and microbes have elemental cognition and a previously unappreciated capacity for discrimination and awareness. From these faculties, cooperative natural genetic engineering is enabled; and it is from this starting point that biological complexity evolves. The Microcosm Within illuminates how immunological factors dominate evolution and extinction. Biology and evolutionary theory will never be the same.

The Biology of the First 1,000 Days

The Biology of the First 1,000 Days
  • Author : Crystal D Karakochuk,Kyly C. Whitfield,Tim J Green,Klaus Kraemer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-09-22
  • Total pages :494
  • ISBN : 9781351648998
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Summary : The first 1,000 days, from conception to two years of age, is a critical period of growth and development. Exposures to dietary, environmental, hormonal, and other stressors during this window have been associated with an increased risk of poor health outcomes, some of which are irreversible. The book addresses this crucial interval of early life across biological disciplines, linking concepts related to all biological fields to outcomes during the first 1,000 days (e.g. fetal growth and pregnancy outcomes) and beyond (e.g. gut microbiome and cardiovascular disease later in life). The strength of this book lies in its cross-disciplinary nature.

Your Baby's Microbiome

Your Baby's Microbiome
  • Author : Toni Harman,Alex Wakeford
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-02-20
  • Total pages :208
  • ISBN : 9781603586955
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Summary : From the Directors of the Award-Winning Documentary Microbirth At least two amazing events happen during childbirth. There's the obvious main event, which is the emergence of a new human into the world. But there's another event taking place simultaneously, a crucial event that is not visible to the naked eye, an event that could determine the lifelong health of the baby. This is the seeding of the baby's microbiome, the community of "good" bacteria that we carry with us throughout our lives. The seeding of the microbiome, along with breastfeeding and skin-to-skin contact, kick-starts the baby's immune system and helps protect the infant from disease across a lifetime. Researchers are discovering, however, that interventions such as the use of synthetic oxytocin, antibiotics, C-sections, and formula feeding interfere with, or bypass completely, the microbial transfer from mother to baby. These bacteria are vital for human health, and science has linked an imbalance in the human microbiome with multiple chronic diseases. Drawing on the extensive research they carried out for their documentary film Microbirth, authors Toni Harman and Alex Wakeford reveal a fascinating new view of birth and how microscopic happenings can have lifelong consequences, for ourselves, our children--and our species as a whole.

Yaffe and Aranda's Neonatal and Pediatric Pharmacology

Yaffe and Aranda's Neonatal and Pediatric Pharmacology
  • Author : Jacob V. Aranda
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-11-05
  • Total pages :1072
  • ISBN : 9781975112493
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Summary : The premier comprehensive textbook in the field, Yaffe and Aranda’s Neonatal and Pediatric Pharmacology, Fifth Edition, provides an authoritative overview of all aspects of drug therapy in newborns, children, and adolescents. It offers evidence-based guidelines for safe, effective, and rational drug therapy, including specific recommendations for all major drug classes and diseases. Now in a vibrant two-color format, this fully revised reference is an indispensable resource for pediatricians, neonatologists, pediatric residents, and fellows in different pediatric subspecialties, including neonatal medicine and pediatric critical care.

The Microbiome Effect

The Microbiome Effect
  • Author : Toni Harman,Alex Wakeford
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-04-07
  • Total pages :240
  • ISBN : 178066270X
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Summary : The Microbiome Effect explores the way the microbiome, or good bacteria, is transferred from mother to baby during childbirth, how modern medical practices interfere with this process, and the consequences for a baby s future health and perhaps for the future of humanity itself."

Prenatal Stress and Child Development

Prenatal Stress and Child Development
  • Author : Ashley Wazana
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9783030601591
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Summary :

Epigenetic Epidemiology

Epigenetic Epidemiology
  • Author : Karin B. Michels
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-01-02
  • Total pages :448
  • ISBN : 9789400724952
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Summary : The exploding field of epigenetics is challenging the dogma of traditional Mendelian inheritance. Epigenetics plays an important role in shaping who we are and contributes to our prospects of health and disease. While early epigenetic research focused on plant and animal models and in vitro experiments, population-based epidemiologic studies increasingly incorporate epigenetic components. The relevance of epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, genomic imprinting, and histone modification for disease causation has yet to be fully explored. This book covers the basic concepts of epigenetic epidemiology, discusses challenges in study design, analysis, and interpretation, epigenetic laboratory techniques, the influence of of age and environmental factors on shaping the epigenome, the role of epigenetics in the developmental origins hypothesis, and provides the state of the art on the epigenetic epidemiology of various health conditions including childhood syndromes, cancer, infectious diseases, inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders, psychiatric disorders, diabetes, obesity and metabolic disorders, and atherosclerosis. With contributions from: Peter Jones, Jean-Pierre Issa, Gavin Kelsey, Robert Waterland, and many other experts in epigenetics!

Selected Topics in Neonatal Care

Selected Topics in Neonatal Care
  • Author : René Mauricio Barría
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-06-27
  • Total pages :248
  • ISBN : 9781789233629
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Summary : Neonatology is one of the areas of greatest development and evolution within pediatrics. The technoscientific advances in this area have led to an increase in the survival of premature infants who sometimes require sophisticated care. However, there is essential care that must be included in all centers that care for high-risk babies. This book includes important topics related to neonatal care grouped into four sections. In 14 chapters that address relevant issues about neonatal care, the book seeks to contribute to the clinical work of the health teams of neonatal units. Specialists in the field of neonatology from different countries have developed these chapters and through them they hope to share part of their experience.

Pre-emptive Medicine: Public Health Aspects of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease

Pre-emptive Medicine: Public Health Aspects of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
  • Author : Fumihiro Sata,Hideoki Fukuoka,Mark Hanson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-12-11
  • Total pages :217
  • ISBN : 9789811321948
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Summary : This book reviews public health activities such as awareness campaigns, health education, and strategies for health policy based on recent epidemiological studies that provide insights into epigenetic processes caused by environmental factors and developmental plasticity. It provides the latest concepts and findings on the public health aspects of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) research regarding early prevention of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Attention is especially paid to key issues, including strategies for the effective prevention of NCDs in developmental stages of life and younger generations rather than in adults and the elderly. Public Health Aspects in Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) is structured in two parts; the first focuses on general remarks reviewing specific recommendations, practical methods and protocols, and future goals regarding public health aspects, while the second presents brief profiles of individual cohorts and consortia studies. This collection will benefit both new and established researchers, as well as students in the fields of epidemiology, clinical medicine, nutrition, education, and public health who are seeking comprehensive information on DOHaD and preemptive medicine.

Leifer's Introduction to Maternity & Pediatric Nursing in Canada E-Book

Leifer's Introduction to Maternity & Pediatric Nursing in Canada E-Book
  • Author : Gloria Leifer,Lisa Keenan-Lindsay
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-09-06
  • Total pages :848
  • ISBN : 9781771722070
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Summary : Gain a solid foundation in Canadian maternity and pediatric nursing! Written in a clear, concise, friendly style, Leifer’s Intro to Maternity & Pediatric Nursing in Canada, is the first Canadian edition of the best-selling Leifer textbook. Fully revised by author, Lisa Keenan-Lindsay, RN, MN, PNC(C), it includes Canadian statistics, terminology, references, guidelines, resources, Canadian nursing best practices, assessments, and more! It’s organized by developmental stages and includes discussions of pediatric disorders by body system from simple-to-complex and health-to-illness. With a rich focus on family health, this text contains exam-style review questions, case studies, and numerous other pedagogical features to give you the tools you need to successfully care for patients within the Canadian social and institutional context. Logical organization of content by simple-to-complex and health-to-illness, makes it easy for you to locate and access information. Health Promotion Considerations boxes focus on preventive strategies for achieving prenatal wellness, health during pregnancy, postpartum health, newborn health, and pediatric illness prevention and wellness---including Canadian immunization schedules for all ages. Unfolding Case Studies with open-ended critical thinking questions assess application of content to practice as you follow one family through conception and the birth process. Nursing Care Plans provide expected outcomes, interventions, and rationales for nursing interventions. Comprehensive coverage of over 35 skills, outlined in step-by-step format cover a wide range of maternal and pediatric nursing interventions. Focus on health promotion and illness prevention, covers women’s health issues, and growth and development of child and parent. Cultural considerations applied as they relate to maternal/infant, and pediatric care in detailed tables. Safety Alerts emphasize protecting patients, family, health care providers, and the public from accidents, medication errors, and the spread of disease. Nursing Tips throughout text provide you with pertinent information applicable in the clinical setting.

Neonatal Gastroenterology: Challenges, Controversies And Recent Advances, An Issue of Clinics in Perinatology, E-Book

Neonatal Gastroenterology: Challenges, Controversies And Recent Advances, An Issue of Clinics in Perinatology, E-Book
  • Author : Sudarshan R. Jadcherla
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-06-21
  • Total pages :240
  • ISBN : 9780323720793
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Summary : Together with Consulting Editor Dr. Lucky Jain, Dr. Sudarshan R. Jadcherla has put together a comprehensive issue devoted to neonatal gastroenterology. Expert authors have contributed clinical review articles on the following topics: Neonatal Aerodigestive Disorders: Epidemiology and Economic Burden; Feeding and Swallowing Difficulties in Neonates: Developmental Physiology and Pathophysiology; Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in the NICU Neonate: Controversies, Current Understanding and Future Directions; Feeding Difficulties and Tube-feeding Controversies in Complex Neonates: Evidence-Based Practices; Physiology and Pathological basis of Aerodigestive Difficulties in Chronic Lung Disease; Congenital Diarrheas in Infants: Pathophysiology, Consequences, and Potential Treatment Strategies; Short Gut syndrome: Recent Advances in Pathophysiology and Intestinal Support Practices; Neonatal Cholestasis in the Premature Infant: Approaches to Diagnosis and Management; Strategies for Prevention of TPN-related Liver Injury; Supplements and Additives to Human Milk: Principles and Practices, Current Controversies; Microbiome and Gut Injury in Neonates; Recent Advances in NEC Research: Strategies for Implementation in Clinical Practice; Transfusion-Related Gut Injury and NEC; Neonatal Endoscopy, Diagnosis and Intervention Procedures Crib-side; and Surgical Gastrointestinal Emergencies in Neonates: An overview. Readers will come away with the information they need to improve outcomes in the neonate.

Milk, Mucosal Immunity and the Microbiome

Milk, Mucosal Immunity and the Microbiome
  • Author : Pearay L. Ogra,W. Allan Walker,Bo Lönnerdal
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9783318066852
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Summary : "This publication covers the 94th Nestle Nutritional Institute Workshop, which was designed to provide a comprehensive overview on the latest human milk research and its role in modulating mucosal immunity, the microbiome, and its impact on the neonate. This publication should provide scientific support to anyone seeking a deeper understanding of human milk and its immunological properties, and enlarge the knowledge of those who specialize in human milk research"--