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The Protective Arm of the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS)

The Protective Arm of the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS)
  • Author : Thomas Unger,U. Muscha Steckelings,Robson Augusto Souza dos Santos
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-04-18
  • Total pages :316
  • ISBN : 9780128014851
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Summary : The Protective Arm of the Renin Angiotensin System: Functional Aspects and Therapeutic Implications is the first comprehensive publication to signal the protective role of a distinct part of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), providing readers with early insight into a complex system which will become of major medical importance in the near future. Focusing on recent research, The Protective Arm of the Renin Angiotensin System presents a host of new experimental studies on specific components of the RAS, namely angiotensin AT2 receptors (AT2R), the angiotensin (1–7) peptide with its receptor Mas, and the enzyme ACE 2, which exert significant beneficial, health-promoting actions by counterbalancing the well-known harmful arm of the RAS with its classical angiotensin AT1 receptor. This innovative concept of the protective arm of the RAS, examined in this reference, represents an indispensable background and will be a strong support for biomedical students, researchers, cardiologists, surgeons, nephrologists, diabetologists, and endocrinologists, as well as any other physician or researcher concerned with RAS physiology, pathophysiology and clinical implications. Provides a complete understanding of the protective side of the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) involving angiotensin AT2 receptor, ACE2, and Ang(1-7)/Mas receptor Combines the knowledge of editors who pioneered research on the protective renin angiotensin system including; Dr. Thomas Unger, one of the founders of AT2 receptor research; Dr. Ulrike M. Steckelings, who contributed significantly to first preclinical studies with a novel specific AT2-agonist, and Dr. Robson Santos who pioneered research on angiotensin-(1-7) and its receptor Mas. Shows that the protective RAS axes are able to ameliorate the course of several cardiovascular, renal, metabolic and neurological diseases Provides the basis for the understanding of a novel therapeutic approach to stimulate components of the protective arm of the RAS.

The Renin-Angiotensin System

The Renin-Angiotensin System
  • Author : 堀内正嗣,伊藤裕
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003-08-01
  • Total pages :409
  • ISBN : 4896005848
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Summary :

Loss of the Protective Arm of Renin-angiotensin-system Results in Hematopoietic Stem

Loss of the Protective Arm of Renin-angiotensin-system Results in Hematopoietic Stem
  • Author : Yaqian Duan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018
  • Total pages :352
  • ISBN : OCLC:1061294119
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Summary : Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the primary enzyme of the vasoprotective axis of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). We tested the hypothesis that the protective arm of the RAS axis can i) act to maintain homeostasis in the diabetic bone marrow stem cell compartment, ii) regulate the reparative function of the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and iii) modulate the gut microbiota composition. All processes could influence the development of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic ACE2 knockout (KO)/C57BL/6-Ins2WT/C96Y (Akita) mice were examined at 3 and 9 months after the onset of diabetes and compared to age-matched controls. Both ACE2KO-Akita and Akita cohorts showed reduced retinal thickness by optical coherence tomography at 9 months of diabetes. The absence of ACE2 in 9-month diabetic mice led to an accelerated increase in acellular capillaries, a hallmark feature of diabetic retinopathy. The absence of ACE2 also caused a reduction of both long-term and short-term repopulating HSPCs in the diabetic bone marrow at 9 months of diabetes. Reparative function studies showed that ACE2KO exacerbated diabetes-induced impairment of lineage-c-kit+ HSPC migration and proliferation as early as 3-month of diabetes. HSPCs from both early and late stage diabetic mice, pretreated with Ang-(1-7) or alamandine (two downstream peptides of ACE2) showed restored migration and proliferation. The gut microbiota has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Analysis of the gut microbiome also revealed a distinct bacterial profile in ACE2KO-Akita group, with a great diversity of bacterial types that were previously reported to contribute to diabetic pathogenesis, including Tenericutes at the phylum level and Mollicutes at the class level, and with an activation of peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathways. Flow cytometry analysis showed that loss of ACE2 led to less infiltration of circulating angiogenic cells in the gut which may lead to an increased endothelial cell permeability in the intestinal endothelium. This leakage into the blood may promote systemic inflammation known to contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. These data suggested a loss of the protective arm of RAS contributes to the impairment of HSPCs and alteration of gut microbiota, both of which may contribute to the development of diabetic retinopathy.

Renin-Angiotensin System

Renin-Angiotensin System
  • Author : Anna Tolekova
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-07-12
  • Total pages :268
  • ISBN : 9789535133513
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Summary : Exploring the contractile activity of smooth muscle segments isolated from various organs of healthy animals and animals with experimentally induced diabetes, she obtained original data about angiotensin II-induced force and time parameters. For the first time, she established the effect of ghrelin on angiotensin II-provoked contraction of the urinary bladder. Original data on the role of both types of angiotensin receptors for the contractile activity of the various segments of the gastrointestinal tract and bladder were obtained. By applying specific software for force and time parameter analysis, the contribution of different types of angiotensin receptors on muscle contractility has been shown. The new methodology was used to analyze the data obtained during the registration of smooth muscle relaxation activity, which allows the determination of not only the magnitude of the mechanical response but also the parameters related to the time and speed of the contractions. Plasma renin activity models have been developed using mathematical approaches to predict the effect of different drug doses on the behavior of the system.

Advances in Osteoporosis

Advances in Osteoporosis
  • Author : Yannis Dionyssiotis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-03-04
  • Total pages :176
  • ISBN : 9789535120278
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Summary : A balanced regulation of bone formation and resorption in the healthy individual is required for a healthy bone. On the other side, there are many factors which can lead to alterations in bone density and microarchitecture. Menopause is a condition which can increase the remodeling process in favor of resorption. Moreover, there are also some diseases, i.e. chronic kidney bone disease, that increase the possibility of fractures and the subsequent disability leading to increased mortality. However, it is clear that drugs are an essential element of the therapy and this issue is analyzed extensively in this book. Some novel pathophysiological mechanisms are also presented, offering advanced knowledge to the reader. The book includes chapters from scientific departments and researchers from all over the world.

Manual of Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension, Third Edition

Manual of Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension, Third Edition
  • Author : Giuseppe Mancia,Guido Grassi,Konstantinos Tsioufis,Anna Dominiczak,Enrico Agabiti Rosei
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-06-06
  • Total pages :650
  • ISBN : 9780429581441
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Summary : The Manual of Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension reflects emerging concepts that have the potential to impact diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to hypertension. Updating all material, this new edition also delves into a number of areas that have received heightened interest in recent years or have become a matter of debate due to the controversial interpretation of the available data. FEATURES Reflects emerging concepts impacting diagnostic and therapeutic approaches Explores background, history, epidemiology, and risk factors Describes pharmacological, nonpharmacological, and medical treatments Examines hypertension in special populations and treatment

Kidney and Blood Pressure Regulation

Kidney and Blood Pressure Regulation
  • Author : Hiromichi Suzuki (M.D.),Takao Saruta
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004
  • Total pages :172
  • ISBN : 9783805577519
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Summary : Chronic kidney disease is one of the world's major public health problems, and the prevalence of kidney failure is rising steadily. Among the risk factors for a faster progression of renal disease are hypertension and proteinuria, many studies clearly demonstrating that hypertension is both a cause and consequence of chronic kidney disease. Namely, renal blood pressure regulation seems to be involved in five major pathophysiological mechanisms (all closely related to the renin-angiotensin system): Pressure-natriuresis, renal sympathetic nervous system, renal blood flow, intraglomerular pressure and tubuloglomerular feedback. This book reviews experimental data which form the basis of our current understanding of the association between hypertension and kidney diseases: The pathogenesis of increased blood pressure, the mechanisms by which systemic hypertension promotes progressive kidney failure, and the impact of antihypertensive agents on experimental renal mechanisms involved in hypertension. Furthermore, the role of angiotensin II receptor blockers in both the control of systemic blood pressure and the reduction of proteinuria is examined in an attempt to define optimal therapeutic strategies to prevent the otherwise inexorable deterioration of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease.

Brain, Stroke and Kidney

Brain, Stroke and Kidney
  • Author : K. Toyoda
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-02
  • Total pages :140
  • ISBN : 9783318023527
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Summary : Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an established risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Stroke, on the other hand, is not only a major player in cardiovascular disease, but it also has strong two-way relationships with CKD. Moreover, subclinical cerebral abnormalities are also associated with CKD. But despite all these connections, the cerebro-renal interaction has so far not received much attention. This book includes easily understandable reviews on brain, stroke and kidney by both experts in nephrology and neurology. Examined are underlying concepts for cerebro-renal interaction, risk of clinical and subclinical brain damage in CKD patients, primary prevention and acute/chronic management for stroke patients with CKD and end-stage kidney disease.This book promotes not only further understanding and a multidisciplinary collaboration between nephrologists and neurologists, but it is also of interest for neurosurgeons and cardiologists.

The Renin-Angiotensin System and the Kidney

The Renin-Angiotensin System and the Kidney
  • Author : Xiao C. Li,Jia L. Zhuo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-03-01
  • Total pages :61
  • ISBN : 9781615046751
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Summary : The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is one of the most important endocrine (tissue-to-tissue), paracrine (cell-to-cell) and intracrine (intracellular/nuclear) humoral systems in the regulation of blood pressure, cardiovascular, and kidney function in health and disease. The RAS has remarkably evolved from the initial discovery of the rate-limiting enzyme renin to a complex biochemical and physiological cascade involving more than a dozen members. Currently, there are up to five axes or pathways identified in the RAS; each has its substrate, enzyme, effector peptide, receptor, and downstream signaling pathways. These include the renin/ACE/ANG II/AT1 receptor, the APA/ANG III/AT2 receptor, the ACE2/ANG (1-7)/Mas receptor, the prorenin/prorenin receptor (PRR), and the ANG IV/AT4 receptor (IRAP) pathways. Accordingly, the roles of the RAS have expanded well beyond the classic endocrine paradigm as a powerful vasoconstrictor, a potent aldosterone stimulator, or a sodium-retaining hormonal system. The goals of this article are to review and discuss the current insights into and new perspectives on the expression, localization, and novel actions of the RAS with a focus in the kidney. Special emphasis will be placed on recently discovered new members of the RAS derived from studies using innovative mutant rats or mice that either overexpress (knockin) or are deficient (knockout) of a particular substrate, enzyme, ANG peptide, or receptor. This new knowledge will help improve our understanding how each of these pathways act directly or indirectly to regulate blood pressure, cardiovascular and kidney function in physiology, and can be targeted to treat hypertension, cardiovascular and renal diseases.

Pediatric Hypertension

Pediatric Hypertension
  • Author : Ronald J. Portman,Jonathan M. Sorof,Julie R. Ingelfinger
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-06-12
  • Total pages :492
  • ISBN : 9781592597970
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Summary : The importance of hypertension in children and adolescents is becoming incre- ingly recognized by physicians and scientists in the 21st century. However, in contrast to the attention that hypertension has received in the adult population for the past three decades since the first Joint National Committee (JNC) report, research and clinical knowledge that involves hypertension in children is still very much in its own childhood. Pediatric Hypertension, edited by Drs. Portman, Sorof, and Ingelfinger, is undoubtedly the most up-to-date and clinically relevant contribution to the field of hypertension in children available because it brings together the numerous pathophysiologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic advances in the evaluation of high blood pressure in infants, children, and adolescents. The editors have carefully organized their volume into sections that cover blood pressure regulation in infants and children, blood pressure measurement issues, pat- physiology and clinical assessment for essential and secondary forms of hypertension during childhood, and nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches to the tre- ment of hypertension in children.

Angiotensin-(1-7)

Angiotensin-(1-7)
  • Author : Robson Augusto Souza Santos
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-08-21
  • Total pages :240
  • ISBN : 9783030226961
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Summary : This is the first book addressing in full the most important aspects of the angiotensin-(1-7), the key peptide of the protective axis and the main component in the new modulatory concept of the renin-angiotensin system. It features a detailed review of angiotensin-(1-7) and its receptor Mas, comprising the historical background, enzymatic pathways for generation, functions, integrative aspects of its protective profile, and its therapeutic potential. It also encompasses a comprehensive presentation of current knowledge about its widespread biological actions on several tissues, as well as the most recent scientific achievements, emerging from preclinical and clinical trials. Dr. Santos is a renowned researcher on the Renin-Angiontensin system, with remarkable achievements regarding the role of peptides such as alamandine and angiontensin-(1-7). He has also worked on the potential clinical applicability of angiotensin-(1-7)-related drugs for cardiovascular diseases. He has an extensive publication record in the field, including the publication of the book The Protective Arm of the Renin Angiotensin System (Academic Press, 2015). Angiotensin-(1-7) will make a unique contribution to the literature and will be an important resource for biomedical students and researchers, medical practitioners and any other professional interested in this peptide and its role in the renin-angiotensin system.

Early Vascular Aging (EVA)

Early Vascular Aging (EVA)
  • Author : Peter M Nilsson,Michael Hecht Olsen,Stephane Laurent
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-08-06
  • Total pages :376
  • ISBN : 9780128016763
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Summary : Early Vascular Aging (EVA): New Directions in Cardiovascular Protection brings together the last decade of research related to the characterization of EVA, as well as the predictive power of pulse wave velocity (PWV). The book presents a novel approach to the problem of cardiovascular disease, showing it in relation to great vessels disease and revealing a comprehensive approach to the problem of increased rigidity of the great vessels, its causes, and further consequences. Information provided is accompanied by online access to a supplemental website with video clips of anatomic specimens, cardiac imaging, and surgical procedures. Introduces the latest information on early vascular aging (EVA), complete with summaries of recent evidence and guidelines for relevant risk factor control Ideal reference for the study of vascular aging, pulse wave velocity, arteriosclerosis, EVA, arterial stiffness, vascular, PWV biomarkers, and cardiovascular disease Contains all the relevant information available from different fields of knowledge (from basic biology to epidemiology) in regard to EVA Provides evidence that leads to a new target for interventions, early vascular aging (EVA) in subjects with early onset increased arterial stiffness Includes online access to a supplemental website with video clips of anatomic specimens, cardiac imaging, and surgical procedures

Renin Angiotensin System and Cardiovascular Disease

Renin Angiotensin System and Cardiovascular Disease
  • Author : Walmor C. DeMello,Edward D. Frohlich
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-09-01
  • Total pages :300
  • ISBN : 1607611864
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Summary : This book offers the latest research into the role of the renin angiotensin system on cardiac and vascular functions and in cardiovascular diseases. It covers vital aspects such as intracellular signaling and regulation of cell volume in the failing heart.

Textbook of Nephro-Endocrinology

Textbook of Nephro-Endocrinology
  • Author : Ajay K. Singh,Gordon H. Williams
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-01-12
  • Total pages :522
  • ISBN : 0080920462
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Summary : The Textbook of Nephro-Endocrinology is the definitive translational reference in the field of nephro-endocrinology, investigating both the endocrine functions of the kidneys and how the kidney acts as a target for hormones from other organ systems. It offers researchers and clinicians expert, gold-standard analyses of nephro-endocrine research and translation into the treatment of diseases such as anemia, chronic kidney disease (CKD), rickets, osteoporosis, and, hypoparathyroidism. Investigates both the endocrine functions of the kidneys and how the kidney acts as a target for hormones from other organ systems Presents a uniquely comprehensive and cross-disciplinary look at all aspects of nephro-endocrine disorders in one reference work Clear translational presentations by the top endocrinologists and nephrologists in each specific hormone or functional/systems field

Fitness Medicine

Fitness Medicine
  • Author : Hasan Sozen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-10-26
  • Total pages :156
  • ISBN : 9789535127444
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Summary : Although fitness and health have similar properties, they are, in reality, two very different concepts. While health refers to the absence of diseases, fitness refers to the degree of body functioning and the ability of the body to handle physical demands. The more efficient the body functions, the higher the level of fitness. The higher the level of fitness, the greater the chance of the body being free of diseases and maintaining a healthy state.

Integrated Diabetes Care

Integrated Diabetes Care
  • Author : David Simmons,Helmut Wenzel,Janice C. Zgibor
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-10-31
  • Total pages :250
  • ISBN : 9783319133898
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Summary : Integrating care across disciplines and organisations around the needs of the person with diabetes has been proposed as an approach that could improve care while reducing cost- but has it and can it? Integrated Diabetes Care- A Multidisciplinary Approach collates evidence of worldwide approaches to both horizontal integration (across disciplines) and vertical integration (across organizations) in diabetes care and describe what was done, what worked and what appeared to be the barriers to achieving the goals of the programmes. Evidence is sought from groups who have developed different approaches to integrating diabetes care in different health systems (eg insurance vs tax payer funded, single vs multiple organization, published vs unpublished). A final chapter brings the evidence together for a final discussion about what seems to work and what does not.

Hypertension in the Elderly

Hypertension in the Elderly
  • Author : L. Michael Prisant
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-11-05
  • Total pages :532
  • ISBN : 9781592599110
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Summary : A comprehensive review of all aspects of hypertension in the elderly using the most current clinical data. Topics range from basic concepts, epidemiology and trials, and evaluation and management, to pharmacologic treatment, special populations, and adherence, all presented with an emphasis on the optimal management of patients. The authors examine in detail the mechanisms of hypertension in the elderly, the lifestyle trials and outcomes trials that were conducted in older persons, as well as the problems of clinical evaluation, secondary hypertension, adherence, and target organ damage. Extensive discussions of pharmacologic therapy detail the role of all the major drug classes.

Nutrigenetics

Nutrigenetics
  • Author : Dolores Corella
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-07-10
  • Total pages :230
  • ISBN : 9783038429951
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Summary : This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Nutrigenetics" that was published in Nutrients

The Renin-angiotensin System

The Renin-angiotensin System
  • Author : James Ian Summers Robertson,M. Gary Nicholls
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1993
  • Total pages :1000
  • ISBN : 1563755505
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Summary : This is a detailed, state-of-the-art account of the renin-angiotensin system. It covers all aspects of the subject by describing contemporary research whilst also emphasising historical perspectives. Volume One considers scientific aspects such as structure, function, evolution, biochemistry and genetics; Volume two details the pathophysiology of the system and describes how knowledge of the RAS is being applied practically to therapeutic techniques. Each chapter is fully illustrated as appropriate: tables, algorithms, graphs, conceptual artworks and black and white photographs are all used. Where colour photographs are included, they are presented in a plate section at the front of the volume.

New Aspects of the Renin Angiotensin System in Cardiovascular and Renal Diseases

New Aspects of the Renin Angiotensin System in Cardiovascular and Renal Diseases
  • Author : Dulce Elena Casarini,Danielle Yuri Arita,Tatiana Sousa Cunha,Juliana Almada Colucci
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-11-03
  • Total pages :385
  • ISBN : 9781681083131
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Summary : The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a hormonal system that is responsible for regulating plasma sodium ion concentration and arterial blood pressure in the body. The system involves several peptides such as angiotensin I and II as well as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) to enable the constriction of arterial blood vessels in the lung. Angiotensin II also stimulates the production of the hormone aldosterone in the kidneys which brings sodium ions into the bloodstream in exchange for potassium ions. Malfunctions of the RAS can lead to hypertension, heart failure, diabetes and renal complications. Thus the biochemical components of this system serve as important targets for therapeutic drugs. This monograph is a compilation of updated reviews on the RAS. The monograph covers describes the components of the system to explaining its physiological and clinical features in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys. This is followed by sections explaining the biochemistry of the RAS system in cardiovascular and renal disease and the pharmacology of relevant therapeutic drugs. Additional information on the effect of exercise states and methods to quantify angiotensins for molecular diagnosis is also presented in the concluding sections. Information in the monograph will be of interest to physiologists and endocrinologists involved in medical studies or clinical practice. Readers will be able to understand the RAS with a holistic frame of reference.

The Cardiac Renin-angiotensin System

The Cardiac Renin-angiotensin System
  • Author : Klaus Lindpaintner,Detlev Ganten
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1994-01-01
  • Total pages :366
  • ISBN : 0879935715
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Summary : The potential significance of the cardiac renin–angiotensin system is indicated by the beneficial effects of angiotensin–converting enzyme inhibitors in the treatment of congestive heart failure and regional myocardial ischemia. It has become clear that the cardiac renin–angiotensin system may contribute to post–myocardial infarction ventricular remodeling. This book details the cardiac renin–angiotensin system and its importance as the key to new therapeutic strategies. It will be an important addition to the library of any physician who is involved with the treatment of hypertension or congestive heart failure