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The Role of Animals in Emerging Viral Diseases

The Role of Animals in Emerging Viral Diseases
  • Author : Nicholas Johnson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-14
  • Total pages :344
  • ISBN : 012405191X
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Summary : The Role of Animals in Emerging Viral Diseases presents what is currently known about the role of animals in the emergence or re-emergence of viruses including HIV-AIDS, SARS, Ebola, avian flu, swine flu, and rabies. It presents the structure, genome, and methods of transmission that influence emergence and considers non-viral factors that favor emergence, such as animal domestication, human demography, population growth, human behavior, and land-use changes. When viruses jump species, the result can be catastrophic, causing disease and death in humans and animals. These zoonotic outbreaks reflect several factors, including increased mobility of human populations, changes in demography and environmental changes due to globalization. The threat of new, emerging viruses and the fact that there are no vaccines for the most common zoonotic viruses drive research in the biology and ecology of zoonotic transmission. In this book, specialists in 11 emerging zoonotic viruses present detailed information on each virus's structure, molecular biology, current geographic distribution, and method of transmission. The book discusses the impact of virus emergence by considering the ratio of mortality, morbidity, and asymptomatic infection and assesses methods for predicting, monitoring, mitigating, and controlling viral disease emergence. Analyzes the structure, molecular biology, current geographic distribution and methods of transmission of 10 viruses Provides a clear perspective on how events in wildlife, livestock, and even companion animals have contributed to virus outbreaks and epidemics Exemplifies the "one world, one health, one medicine" approach to emerging disease by examining events in animal populations as precursors to what could affect humans

The Role of Animals in Emerging Viral Diseases

The Role of Animals in Emerging Viral Diseases
  • Author : Nicholas Johnson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-16
  • Total pages :364
  • ISBN : 9780124055155
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Summary : The Role of Animals in Emerging Viral Diseases presents what is currently known about the role of animals in the emergence or re-emergence of viruses including HIV-AIDS, SARS, Ebola, avian flu, swine flu, and rabies. It presents the structure, genome, and methods of transmission that influence emergence and considers non-viral factors that favor emergence, such as animal domestication, human demography, population growth, human behavior, and land-use changes. When viruses jump species, the result can be catastrophic, causing disease and death in humans and animals. These zoonotic outbreaks reflect several factors, including increased mobility of human populations, changes in demography and environmental changes due to globalization. The threat of new, emerging viruses and the fact that there are no vaccines for the most common zoonotic viruses drive research in the biology and ecology of zoonotic transmission. In this book, specialists in 11 emerging zoonotic viruses present detailed information on each virus's structure, molecular biology, current geographic distribution, and method of transmission. The book discusses the impact of virus emergence by considering the ratio of mortality, morbidity, and asymptomatic infection and assesses methods for predicting, monitoring, mitigating, and controlling viral disease emergence. Analyzes the structure, molecular biology, current geographic distribution and methods of transmission of 10 viruses Provides a clear perspective on how events in wildlife, livestock, and even companion animals have contributed to virus outbreaks and epidemics Exemplifies the "one world, one health, one medicine" approach to emerging disease by examining events in animal populations as precursors to what could affect humans

Food Safety Risks from Wildlife

Food Safety Risks from Wildlife
  • Author : Michele Jay-Russell,Michael P. Doyle
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-12-15
  • Total pages :254
  • ISBN : 9783319244426
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Summary : Foodborne illnesses caused by zoonotic pathogens associated with wildlife hosts are an emerging microbial food safety concern. Transmission of foodborne pathogens can occur through ingestion, or improper handling, of contaminated game meat. Wild and feral animals have also been investigated as potential sources of Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other enteric pathogens following foodborne disease outbreaks linked to fresh fruits and vegetables (e.g., baby spinach in California, shelled-peas in Alaska, strawberries in Oregon). This book explores the range of bacterial, parasitic, and viral pathogens that have been described in wildlife populations in the United States, Europe and other parts of the world. It also addresses important challenges and solutions to balance agriculture, conservation, and public health goals. The book provides unique information on approaches in risk communication, co-management, and One Health in a wildlife-food safety context. The first five chapters review research on the detection, epidemiology and ecology of foodborne pathogens in wildlife populations including the influence of wildlife-livestock-human interactions. The second half of the book addresses current guidelines to mitigate microbial food safety risks from wildlife hosts and new regulations proposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in the Food Safety Modernization Act Produce Safety Rule. Chapters are written by an array of internationally reco gnized authors, and will be of interest to agriculture safety experts, ecologists, environmental health specialists, food safety professionals, microbiologists, public health practitioners, veterinarians, wildlife biologists, and others in academia, government, industry, and students in these disciplines.

Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World

Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World
  • Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-03-10
  • Total pages :322
  • ISBN : 030915197X
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Summary : Modern transportation allows people, animals, and plants--and the pathogens they carry--to travel more easily than ever before. The ease and speed of travel, tourism, and international trade connect once-remote areas with one another, eliminating many of the geographic and cultural barriers that once limited the spread of disease. Because of our global interconnectedness through transportation, tourism and trade, infectious diseases emerge more frequently; spread greater distances; pass more easily between humans and animals; and evolve into new and more virulent strains. The IOM's Forum on Microbial Threats hosted the workshop "Globalization, Movement of Pathogens (and Their Hosts) and the Revised International Health Regulations" December 16-17, 2008 in order to explore issues related to infectious disease spread in a "borderless" world. Participants discussed the global emergence, establishment, and surveillance of infectious diseases; the complex relationship between travel, trade, tourism, and the spread of infectious diseases; national and international policies for mitigating disease movement locally and globally; and obstacles and opportunities for detecting and containing these potentially wide-reaching and devastating diseases. This document summarizes the workshop.

Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases of Livestock

Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases of Livestock
  • Author : Jagadeesh Bayry
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-02-07
  • Total pages :449
  • ISBN : 9783319474267
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Summary : This book provides comprehensive knowledge on diseases in livestock that are caused by viruses, parasites and bacteria. Emerging and re-emerging pathogens are presented in detail for various animal groups and in-depth insights into pathogenesis and epidemiology will be provided for each of them. In addition, state-of-the-art treatment possibilities, control measures as well as vaccination strategies are discussed. The recent years have witnessed a sharp increase in the number of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases of livestock and many of these, including Influenza, Corona and Hanta are of public health importance. The reasons for this development are manifold:changes in the climate, life cycle of vectors and increased global travel. Also, due to extensive deforestation, livestock are increasingly coming in direct contact with wild animals that are reservoirs of many emerging pathogens. Recent progress in diagnosis and management of emerging infectious diseases are also topic of this book.

Emerging and Reemerging Viral Pathogens

Emerging and Reemerging Viral Pathogens
  • Author : Moulay Mustapha Ennaji
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-09-27
  • Total pages :1168
  • ISBN : 9780128194010
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Summary : Emerging and Reemerging Viral Pathogens: Fundamental and Basic Virology Aspects of Human, Animal and Plant Pathogens, Volume One presents new research information on viruses and their impact on the scientific community. It provides a reference book on certain viruses in humans, animals and vegetal, along with a comprehensive discussion on interspecies interactions. The book then looks at the drug, vaccine and bioinformatical strategies that can be used against these viruses, giving the reader a clear understanding of transmission. The book's end goal is to create awareness that the appearance of newly transmissible pathogens is a global risk that requires shared/adoptable policies for prevention and control. Covers most emerging viral disease in humans, animals and plants Provides the most advanced tools and techniques in molecular virology and the modeling of viruses Creates awareness that the appearance of new transmissible pathogens is a global risk Highlights the need to adopt shared policies for the prevention and control of infectious diseases

Bats and Viruses

Bats and Viruses
  • Author : Lin-Fa Wang,Christopher Cowled
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-06-29
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9781118818725
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Summary : Approximately 75% of emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, and the rate of emergence of zoonotic diseases is on the rise. Bats are being increasingly recognised as an important reservoir of zoonotic viruses of different families, including SARS coronavirus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus and Ebola virus. Understanding bats’ role in emerging zoonotic diseases is crucial to this rapidly expanding area of research. Bats and Viruses: A New Frontier of Emerging Infectious Diseases provides an updated overview of research focusing on bat biology and the role bats play as hosts of many major zoonotic viruses. The text covers bat biology, immunology, and genomics. Chapters also delve into the various major bat-borne virus families, including lyssaviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses, filoviruses and reoviruses, among others. Edited by leaders in the field, Bats and Viruses: A New Frontier of Emerging Infectious Diseases is a timely, invaluable reference for bat researchers studying microbiology, virology and immunology, as well as infectious disease workers and epidemiologists, among others.

Emerging and Transboundary Animal Viruses

Emerging and Transboundary Animal Viruses
  • Author : Yashpal Singh Malik,Raj Kumar Singh,Mahendra Pal Yadav
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-02-22
  • Total pages :377
  • ISBN : 9789811504020
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Summary : This book, which is the first volume of the book series-Livestock Diseases and Management, summarizes the prominence and implications of the emerging and transboundary animal viruses. Although the livestock plays an important role in the economy of many countries, the emerging and transboundary animal viral diseases possess a serious risk to the animal-agriculture sector and food security globally. The book describes the precise and up-to-date information on animal viral diseases which have emerged in the recent past or are re-emerging due to various environmental factors and those which are not bounded in restricted national boundaries and attained the transboundary status. The chapters summarize the recent advancements in the molecular state-of-art tools towards the development of diagnostics, prophylactics, and therapeutics of these viruses. It also explicitly describes the challenges imposed by the emerging and transboundary viral infections and our preparedness to counter them.

The Emergence of Zoonotic Diseases

The Emergence of Zoonotic Diseases
  • Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Emerging Infections
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002-04-09
  • Total pages :176
  • ISBN : 0309169739
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Summary : Zoonotic diseases represent one of the leading causes of illness and death from infectious disease. Defined by the World Health Organization, zoonoses are “those diseases and infections that are naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and man with or without an arthropod intermediate.†Worldwide, zoonotic diseases have a negative impact on commerce, travel, and economies. In most developing countries, zoonotic diseases are among those diseases that contribute significantly to an already overly burdened public health system. In industrialized nations, zoonotic diseases are of particular concern for at-risk groups such as the elderly, children, childbearing women, and immunocompromised individuals. The Emergence of Zoonotic Diseases: Understanding the Impact on Animal and Human Health, covers a range of topics, which include: an evaluation of the relative importance of zoonotic diseases against the overall backdrop of emerging infections; research findings related to the current state of our understanding of zoonotic diseases; surveillance and response strategies to detect, prevent, and mitigate the impact of zoonotic diseases on human health; and information about ongoing programs and actions being taken to identify the most important needs in this vital area.

Wildlife and Emerging Zoonotic Diseases: The Biology, Circumstances and Consequences of Cross-Species Transmission

Wildlife and Emerging Zoonotic Diseases: The Biology, Circumstances and Consequences of Cross-Species Transmission
  • Author : James E. Childs,John S. Mackenzie,Jürgen A.. Richt
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-07-23
  • Total pages :524
  • ISBN : 9783540709626
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Summary : This volume offers an overview of the processes of zoonotic viral emergence, the intricacies of host/virus interactions, and the role of biological transitions and modifying factors. The themes introduced here are amplified and explored in detail by the contributing authors, who explore the mechanisms and unique circumstances by which evolution, biology, history, and current context have contrived to drive the emergence of different zoonotic agents by a series of related events.

Zoonoses

Zoonoses
  • Author : Rolf Bauerfeind,Alexander Von Graevenitz,Peter Kimmig,Hans Gerd Schiefer,Tino Schwarz,Werner Slenczka,Horst Zahner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-12-22
  • Total pages :544
  • ISBN : 9781555819255
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Summary : Zoonoses are a persistent threat to the global human health Today, more than 200 diseases occurring in humans and animals are known to be mutually transmitted. Classical infectious diseases, such as rabies, plague, and yellow fever, have not been eradicated despite major efforts. New zoonotic diseases are on the increase due global conditions such as overpopulation, wars, and food scarcity, which facilitate human contact with rodents, stray animals, and their parasites. In addition, humans are unwittingly becoming accidental hosts and new links in an infectious chain by engaging in activities such as survival training, which involves camping in open areas and consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked food. Zoonotic infections cause a variety of symptoms that often do not provide clear evidence of a known disease. Zoonoses, Fourth Edition, describes most occurring worldwide zoonosis and facilitates the identification, diagnosis and treatment of zoonotic infections. Written by a team of doctors, medical microbiologists and veterinarians, this completely, revised edition covers all aspects of the epidemiology and prevention of zoonotic diseases through clear descriptions of various illnesses. Specifically, this fourth edition covers zoonosis caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites infections caused by animal bites infections and intoxications by animal foods Iatrogenic transmission of zoonotic pathogens Zoonoses is an indispensable reference for clinicians and laboratorians.

Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach

Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach
  • Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-10-10
  • Total pages :418
  • ISBN : 9780309259330
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Summary : Globalization of the food supply has created conditions favorable for the emergence, reemergence, and spread of food-borne pathogens-compounding the challenge of anticipating, detecting, and effectively responding to food-borne threats to health. In the United States, food-borne agents affect 1 out of 6 individuals and cause approximately 48 million illnesses, 128,000 hospitalizations, and 3,000 deaths each year. This figure likely represents just the tip of the iceberg, because it fails to account for the broad array of food-borne illnesses or for their wide-ranging repercussions for consumers, government, and the food industry-both domestically and internationally. A One Health approach to food safety may hold the promise of harnessing and integrating the expertise and resources from across the spectrum of multiple health domains including the human and veterinary medical and plant pathology communities with those of the wildlife and aquatic health and ecology communities. The IOM's Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a public workshop on December 13 and 14, 2011 that examined issues critical to the protection of the nation's food supply. The workshop explored existing knowledge and unanswered questions on the nature and extent of food-borne threats to health. Participants discussed the globalization of the U.S. food supply and the burden of illness associated with foodborne threats to health; considered the spectrum of food-borne threats as well as illustrative case studies; reviewed existing research, policies, and practices to prevent and mitigate foodborne threats; and, identified opportunities to reduce future threats to the nation's food supply through the use of a "One Health" approach to food safety. Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach: Workshop Summary covers the events of the workshop and explains the recommendations for future related workshops.

Viruses and Human Disease

Viruses and Human Disease
  • Author : Ellen G. Strauss,James H. Strauss
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-09-21
  • Total pages :480
  • ISBN : 0080553168
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Summary : Completely revised and updated, the new edition of this groundbreaking text integrates basic virology with pathophysiological conditions to examine the connection between virology and human disease. Most virology textbooks focus on the molecular biology involved without adequate reference to physiology. This text focuses on viruses that infect humans, domestic animals and vertebrates and is based on extensive course notes from James Strauss’ virology class at the California Institute of Technology taught for over 30 years. Expertly depicting in color the molecular structure and replication of each virus, it provides an excellent overview for students and professionals interested in viruses as agents of human disease. Includes over 30% new material - virtually all of the figures and tables have been redrawn to include the latest information and the text has been extensively rewritten to include the most up-to-date information Includes a new chapter on emerging and reemerging viral diseases such as avian flu, SARS, the spread of West Nile virus across America, and the continuing spread of Nipah virus in Southeast Asia Further reading sections at the end of each chapter make it easy find key references World maps depicting the current distribution of existing and newly emerging viruses are also incorporated into the text

Sustaining Global Surveillance and Response to Emerging Zoonotic Diseases

Sustaining Global Surveillance and Response to Emerging Zoonotic Diseases
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Committee on Achieving Sustainable Global Capacity for Surveillance and Response to Emerging Diseases of Zoonotic Origin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-12-24
  • Total pages :338
  • ISBN : 030914938X
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Summary : H1N1 ("swine flu"), SARS, mad cow disease, and HIV/AIDS are a few examples of zoonotic diseases-diseases transmitted between humans and animals. Zoonotic diseases are a growing concern given multiple factors: their often novel and unpredictable nature, their ability to emerge anywhere and spread rapidly around the globe, and their major economic toll on several disparate industries. Infectious disease surveillance systems are used to detect this threat to human and animal health. By systematically collecting data on the occurrence of infectious diseases in humans and animals, investigators can track the spread of disease and provide an early warning to human and animal health officials, nationally and internationally, for follow-up and response. Unfortunately, and for many reasons, current disease surveillance has been ineffective or untimely in alerting officials to emerging zoonotic diseases. Sustaining Global Surveillance and Response to Emerging Zoonotic Diseases assesses some of the disease surveillance systems around the world, and recommends ways to improve early detection and response. The book presents solutions for improved coordination between human and animal health sectors, and among governments and international organizations. Parties seeking to improve the detection and response to zoonotic diseases--including U.S. government and international health policy makers, researchers, epidemiologists, human health clinicians, and veterinarians--can use this book to help curtail the threat zoonotic diseases pose to economies, societies, and health.

Emerging zoonoses: eco-epidemiology, involved mechanisms and public health implications

Emerging zoonoses: eco-epidemiology, involved mechanisms and public health implications
  • Author : Rubén Bueno-Marí,A. Paulo Gouveia Almeida,Juan Carlos Navarro
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-07-06
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889196180
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Summary : Zoonoses are currently considered as one of the most important threats for public health worldwide. Zoonoses can be defined as any disease or infection that is naturally transmissible from vertebrate or invertebrate animals to humans and vice-versa. Approximately 75% of recently emerging infectious diseases affecting humans are diseases of animal origin; approximately 60% of all human pathogens are zoonotic. All types of potential pathogenic agents, including viruses, parasites, bacteria and fungi, can cause these zoonotic infections. From the wide range of potential vectors of zoonoses, insects are probably those of major significance due to their abundance, high plasticity and adaptability to different kinds of pathogens, high degrees of synanthropism in several groups and difficulties to apply effective programs of population control. Although ticks, flies, cockroaches, bugs and fleas are excellent insects capable to transmit viruses, parasites and bacteria, undoubtedly mosquitoes are the most important disease vectors. Mosquito borne diseases like malaria, dengue, equine encephalitis, West Nile, Mayaro or Chikungunya are zoonoses with increasing incidence in last years in tropical and temperate countries. Vertebrates can also transmit serious zoonoses, highlighting the role of some carnivorous animals in rabies dissemination or the spread of rodent borne diseases in several rural and urban areas. Moreover, the significance of other food borne zoonoses such as taeniasis, trichinellosis or toxoplasmosis may not been underestimated. According to WHO, FAO and OIE guidelines an emerging zoonotic disease can be defined as a zoonosis that is newly recognized or newly evolved, or that has occurred previously but shows an increase of incidence or expansion in geographical, host or vector range. There are many factors that can provoke or accelerate the emergence of zoonoses, such as environmental changes, habitat modifications, variations of human and animal demography, pathogens and vectors anomalous mobilization related with human practices and globalization, deterioration of the strategies of vector control or changes in pathogen genetics. To reduce public health risks from zoonoses is absolutely necessary to acquire an integrative perspective that includes the study of the complexity of interactions among humans, animals and environment in order to be able to fight against these issues of primary interest for human health. In any case, although zoonoses represent significant public health threats, many of them still remain as neglected diseases and consequently are not prioritized by some health international organisms.

Microbial Evolution and Co-Adaptation

Microbial Evolution and Co-Adaptation
  • Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-05-10
  • Total pages :330
  • ISBN : 9780309131216
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Summary : Dr. Joshua Lederberg - scientist, Nobel laureate, visionary thinker, and friend of the Forum on Microbial Threats - died on February 2, 2008. It was in his honor that the Institute of Medicine's Forum on Microbial Threats convened a public workshop on May 20-21, 2008, to examine Dr. Lederberg's scientific and policy contributions to the marketplace of ideas in the life sciences, medicine, and public policy. The resulting workshop summary, Microbial Evolution and Co-Adaptation, demonstrates the extent to which conceptual and technological developments have, within a few short years, advanced our collective understanding of the microbiome, microbial genetics, microbial communities, and microbe-host-environment interactions.

Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases

Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases
  • Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-09-21
  • Total pages :396
  • ISBN : 9780309377621
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Summary : Pathogens transmitted among humans, animals, or plants by insects and arthropod vectors have been responsible for significant morbidity and mortality throughout recorded history. Such vector-borne diseases â€" including malaria, dengue, yellow fever, and plague â€" together accounted for more human disease and death in the 17th through early 20th centuries than all other causes combined. Over the past three decades, previously controlled vector-borne diseases have resurged or reemerged in new geographic locations, and several newly identified pathogens and vectors have triggered disease outbreaks in plants and animals, including humans. Domestic and international capabilities to detect, identify, and effectively respond to vector-borne diseases are limited. Few vaccines have been developed against vector-borne pathogens. At the same time, drug resistance has developed in vector-borne pathogens while their vectors are increasingly resistant to insecticide controls. Furthermore, the ranks of scientists trained to conduct research in key fields including medical entomology, vector ecology, and tropical medicine have dwindled, threatening prospects for addressing vector-borne diseases now and in the future. In June 2007, as these circumstances became alarmingly apparent, the Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a workshop to explore the dynamic relationships among host, pathogen(s), vector(s), and ecosystems that characterize vector-borne diseases. Revisiting this topic in September 2014, the Forum organized a workshop to examine trends and patterns in the incidence and prevalence of vector-borne diseases in an increasingly interconnected and ecologically disturbed world, as well as recent developments to meet these dynamic threats. Participants examined the emergence and global movement of vector-borne diseases, research priorities for understanding their biology and ecology, and global preparedness for and progress toward their prevention, control, and mitigation. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Spillover: Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic

Spillover: Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic
  • Author : David Quammen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-10-01
  • Total pages :592
  • ISBN : 9780393239225
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Summary : "[Mr. Quammen] is not just among our best science writers but among our best writers, period." —Dwight Garner, New York Times The next big human pandemic—the next disease cataclysm, perhaps on the scale of AIDS or the 1918 influenza—is likely to be caused by a new virus coming to humans from wildlife. Experts call such an event “spillover” and they warn us to brace ourselves. David Quammen has tracked this subject from the jungles of Central Africa, the rooftops of Bangladesh, and the caves of southern China to the laboratories where researchers work in space suits to study lethal viruses. He illuminates the dynamics of Ebola, SARS, bird flu, Lyme disease, and other emerging threats and tells the story of AIDS and its origins as it has never before been told. Spillover reads like a mystery tale, full of mayhem and clues and questions. When the Next Big One arrives, what will it look like? From which innocent host animal will it emerge? Will we be ready?

One Health

One Health
  • Author : Ronald M. Atlas,Stanley Maloy
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-07-24
  • Total pages :331
  • ISBN : 9781555818432
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Summary : Emerging infectious diseases are often due to environmental disruption, which exposes microbes to a different niche that selects for new virulence traits and facilitates transmission between animals and humans. Thus, health of humans also depends upon health of animals and the environment – a concept called One Health. This book presents core concepts, compelling evidence, successful applications, and remaining challenges of One Health approaches to thwarting the threat of emerging infectious disease. Written by scientists working in the field, this book will provide a series of "stories" about how disruption of the environment and transmission from animal hosts is responsible for emerging human and animal diseases. Explains the concept of One Health and the history of the One Health paradigm shift. Traces the emergence of devastating new diseases in both animals and humans. Presents case histories of notable, new zoonoses, including West Nile virus, hantavirus, Lyme disease, SARS, and salmonella. Links several epidemic zoonoses with the environmental factors that promote them. Offers insight into the mechanisms of microbial evolution toward pathogenicity. Discusses the many causes behind the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Presents new technologies and approaches for public health disease surveillance. Offers political and bureaucratic strategies for promoting the global acceptance of One Health.

Emerging Zoonoses

Emerging Zoonoses
  • Author : I. W. Fong
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-02-06
  • Total pages :250
  • ISBN : 9783319508900
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Summary : The book begins with a review of zoonotic pandemics of the past: the “Black Death” or bubonic plague of the Middle Ages, the Spanish Influenza pandemic (derived from avian influenza) of the early 20th century, to the more modern pandemic of AIDS/HIV infection, which originated in Africa from primates. However, the majority of chapters focus on more recent zoonoses, which have been recognized since the late 20th century to the present: · SARS and MERS coronaviruses· New avian influenza viruses · The tick-borne Henan fever virus from China· The tick-borne Heartland virus from the United States · Recently recognized bacterial pathogens, such as Streptococcus suis from pigs. In addition, reemergence of established zoonoses that have expanded their niche are reviewed, such as the spread of Zika virus and Chikungunya virus to the Western Hemisphere, and the emergence and spread of Ebola virus infection in Africa. A chapter is also devoted to an overview of the mechanisms and various types of animals involved in the transmission of diseases to humans, and the potential means of control and prevention. Many endemic and sporadic diseases are still transmitted by animals, through either direct or indirect contact, and zoonoses are estimated to account for about 75% of all new and emerging infectious diseases. It is predicted by public health experts that the next major pandemic of infectious disease will be of animal origin, making Emerging Zoonoses: A Worldwide Perspective a crucial resource to all health care specialists by providing them with much needed information on these zoonotic diseases.iv>

Recent Advances in Animal Virology

Recent Advances in Animal Virology
  • Author : Yashpal Singh Malik,Raj Kumar Singh,Mahendra Pal Yadav
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-11-14
  • Total pages :471
  • ISBN : 9789811390739
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Summary : This book discusses the prominence and implication of the viral diseases that are a major threat to animals around the globe. A number of these diseases have also shown links with human populations, which has implications for public health. This book offers detailed and up-to-date information on viral diseases in livestock and poultry that were and/or are still a problem. Including cutting-edge developments, it also highlights several landmark contributions in the field of virology from India. Additionally, the book features tables and figures showing important clinical data and recommendations, with references for further information. It also explores the economic impact of viral diseases for farmers and the livestock industry, providing several examples. Further, it presents the latest information on viral diseases in global context, with a focus on state-of-art, molecular tools for the development of diagnostics, prophylactics and therapeutics. Lastly, the book also describes the challenges posed by the emerging and transboundary viral infections and our preparedness to counter them.