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The Role of Halogens in Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Geochemical Processes

The Role of Halogens in Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Geochemical Processes
  • Author : Daniel E. Harlov,Leonid Aranovich
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-01-30
  • Total pages :1030
  • ISBN : 9783319616674
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Summary : The book summarizes the knowledge and experiences concerning the role of halogens during various geochemical processes, such as diagenesis, ore-formation, magma evolution, metasomatism, mineralization, and metamorphism in the crust and mantle of the Earth. It comprises the role of halogens in other terrestrial worlds like volatile-rich asteroids, Mars, and the ice moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Review chapters outline and expand upon the basis of our current understanding regarding how halogens contribute to the geochemical/geophysical evolution and stability of terrestrial worlds overall.

Geochemistry

Geochemistry
  • Author : William M. White
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-07-17
  • Total pages :960
  • ISBN : 9781119438106
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Summary : A Comprehensive Introduction to the “Geochemist Toolbox” – the Basic Principles of Modern Geochemistry In the new edition of William M. White’s Geochemistry, undergraduate and graduate students will find each of the core principles of geochemistry covered. From defining key principles and methods to examining Earth’s core composition and exploring organic chemistry and fossil fuels, this definitive edition encompasses all the information needed for a solid foundation in the earth sciences for beginners and beyond. For researchers and applied scientists, this book will act as a useful reference on fundamental theories of geochemistry, applications, and environmental sciences. The new edition includes new chapters on the geochemistry of the Earth’s surface (the “critical zone”), marine geochemistry, and applied geochemistry as it relates to environmental applications and geochemical exploration. ● A review of the fundamentals of geochemical thermodynamics and kinetics, trace element and organic geochemistry ● An introduction to radiogenic and stable isotope geochemistry and applications such as geologic time, ancient climates, and diets of prehistoric people ● Formation of the Earth and composition and origins of the core, the mantle, and the crust ● New chapters that cover soils and streams, the oceans, and geochemistry applied to the environment and mineral exploration In this foundational look at geochemistry, new learners and professionals will find the answer to the essential principles and techniques of the science behind the Earth and its environs.

High Temperature Gas-Solid Reactions in Earth and Planetary Processes

High Temperature Gas-Solid Reactions in Earth and Planetary Processes
  • Author : Penelope King,Bruce Fegley,Terry Seward
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-12-03
  • Total pages :534
  • ISBN : 9781501511790
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Summary : High temperature gas-solid reactions are ubiquitous on planetary bodies, distributing chemical elements over a range of geologic settings and temperatures. This volume reviews the critical role gas-solid reactions play in early solar system formation, volcanism, metamorphism and industrial processes. The field evidence, experimental and theoretical approaches for examining gas-solid reaction are presented, building on advances in fields outside of Earth Sciences. Computational chemistry techniques are used to probe the nature of molecular clusters and solvation in volcanic vapors and mineral-gas reaction mechanisms. Specialised analytical methods for characterising solid reaction products are included since these reactions commonly form thin or dispersed films and metastable minerals. Finally, the volume contains rich field examples, laboratory experiments and thermodynamic modelling and kinetics of gas-solid reactions on Earth, Venus and beyond.

Recent Advances in Volcanic Gas Science

Recent Advances in Volcanic Gas Science
  • Author : Andrew McGonigle,Alessandro Aiuppa,Nicole Bobrowski,Franco Tassi,Fátima Viveiros
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-01-23
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889633821
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Summary : Volcanoes release gases to the atmosphere both during and between eruptive phases. Primary and secondary processes occurring within the mantle and crust control the gases’ chemical and isotopic compositions as well as their emission rates. Therefore by measuring these gases a wealth of scientific information concerning the source and fate of these fluids is provided. Fluid geochemistry has been highly useful in advancing both our fundamental scientific understanding and procedures for operational volcano monitoring and eruption forecasting. Gases from low-to-high temperature fumaroles and those diffusively released through the soils of volcanic flanks are investigated using various sampling and measurement techniques. Furthermore, a variety of remote sensing methods are applied at relatively great distances from the source to gather major gas composition and flux data for volcanic plumes using ground based, airborne (including UAV) and space borne platforms. The acquired data have advanced science in a number of key ways: • firstly, with parallel thermodynamical modelling to advance our capacity to interpret acquired degassing data; • secondly, through improved constraints on budgets for volcanically mediated geochemical cycling, particularly via regional subduction processes; • thirdly, through improved constraints on the effects of volcanic gases on atmospheric composition, chemistry and radiative transfer, particularly in terms of halogen chemistry, volcanogenic climate change and impacts on human health; • fourthly, there has been a growing body of work focused on combining degassing data with contemporaneous geophysical data and studies on conduit fluid dynamics to advance our understanding of how subterranean gas flow mediates activity at the surface; • and fifthly, there have been considerable advances in the methods themselves, used to make the gas measurements, in particular in terms of extractive sampling (e.g., using MultiGAS units, mass spectrometry, spectroscopic isotope measurement approaches and diffusive denuder sampling) and remote sensing approaches (e.g., DOAS, UV cameras and other imaging techniques, LIDAR and FT)

Metasomatism and the Chemical Transformation of Rock

Metasomatism and the Chemical Transformation of Rock
  • Author : Daniel Harlov,Hakon Austrheim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-08-14
  • Total pages :806
  • ISBN : 9783642283932
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Summary : Fluid-aided mass transfer and subsequent mineral re-equilibration are the two defining features of metasomatism and must be present in order for metamorphism to occur. Coupled with igneous and tectonic processes, metasomatism has played a major role in the formation of the Earth’s continental and oceanic crust and lithospheric mantle as well as in their evolution and subsequent stabilization. Metasomatic processes can include ore mineralization, metasomatically induced alteration of oceanic lithosphere, mass transport in and alteration of subducted oceanic crust and overlying mantle wedge, which has subsequent implications regarding mass transport, fluid flow, and volatile storage in the lithospheric mantle overall, as well as both regional and localized crustal metamorphism. Metasomatic alteration of accessory minerals such as zircon or monazite can allow for the dating of metasomatic events as well as give additional information regarding the chemistry of the fluids responsible. Lastly present day movement of fluids in both the lithospheric mantle and deep to mid crust can be observed utilizing geophysical resources such as electrical resistivity and seismic data. Such observations help to further clarify the picture of actual metasomatic processes as inferred from basic petrographic, mineralogical, and geochemical data. The goal of this volume is to bring together a diverse group of geologists, each of whose specialities and long range experience regarding one or more aspects of metasomatism during geologic processes, should allow them to contribute to a series of review chapters, which outline the basis of our current understanding of how metasomatism influences and helps to control both the evolution and stability of the crust and lithospheric mantle.

The Noble Gases as Geochemical Tracers

The Noble Gases as Geochemical Tracers
  • Author : Pete Burnard
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-15
  • Total pages :391
  • ISBN : 9783642288364
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Summary : The twelve chapters of this volume aim to provide a complete manual for using noble gases in terrestrial geochemistry, covering applications which range from high temperature processes deep in the Earth’s interior to tracing climatic variations using noble gases trapped in ice cores, groundwaters and modern sediments. Other chapters cover noble gases in crustal (aqueous, CO2 and hydrocarbon) fluids and laboratory techniques for determining noble gas solubilities and diffusivities under geologically relevant conditions. Each chapter deals with the fundamentals of the analysis and interpretation of the data, detailing sampling and sampling strategies, techniques for analysis, sources of error and their estimation, including data treatment and data interpretation using recent case studies.

Encyclopedia of Geochemistry

Encyclopedia of Geochemistry
  • Author : William M. White
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-07-24
  • Total pages :1680
  • ISBN : 3319393111
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Summary : The Encyclopedia is a complete and authoritative reference work for this rapidly evolving field. Over 200 international scientists, each experts in their specialties, have written over 330 separate topics on different aspects of geochemistry including geochemical thermodynamics and kinetics, isotope and organic geochemistry, meteorites and cosmochemistry, the carbon cycle and climate, trace elements, geochemistry of high and low temperature processes, and ore deposition, to name just a few. The geochemical behavior of the elements is described as is the state of the art in analytical geochemistry. Each topic incorporates cross-referencing to related articles, and also has its own reference list to lead the reader to the essential articles within the published literature. The entries are arranged alphabetically, for easy access, and the subject and citation indices are comprehensive and extensive. Geochemistry applies chemical techniques and approaches to understanding the Earth and how it works. It touches upon almost every aspect of earth science, ranging from applied topics such as the search for energy and mineral resources, environmental pollution, and climate change to more basic questions such as the Earth’s origin and composition, the origin and evolution of life, rock weathering and metamorphism, and the pattern of ocean and mantle circulation. Geochemistry allows us to assign absolute ages to events in Earth’s history, to trace the flow of ocean water both now and in the past, trace sediments into subduction zones and arc volcanoes, and trace petroleum to its source rock and ultimately the environment in which it formed. The earliest of evidence of life is chemical and isotopic traces, not fossils, preserved in rocks. Geochemistry has allowed us to unravel the history of the ice ages and thereby deduce their cause. Geochemistry allows us to determine the swings in Earth’s surface temperatures during the ice ages, determine the temperatures and pressures at which rocks have been metamorphosed, and the rates at which ancient magma chambers cooled and crystallized. The field has grown rapidly more sophisticated, in both analytical techniques that can determine elemental concentrations or isotope ratios with exquisite precision and in computational modeling on scales ranging from atomic to planetary.

Geochemical Modelling of Igneous Processes – Principles And Recipes in R Language

Geochemical Modelling of Igneous Processes – Principles And Recipes in R Language
  • Author : Vojtěch Janoušek,Jean-François Moyen,Hervé Martin,Vojtěch Erban,Colin Farrow
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-09-10
  • Total pages :346
  • ISBN : 9783662467923
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Summary : The aim of this book is to unlock the power of the freeware R language to advanced university students and researchers dealing with whole-rock geochemistry of (meta-) igneous rocks. The first part covers data input/output, calculation of commonly used indexes and plotting in R. The core of the book then focusses on the presentation and practical implementations of modelling techniques used for fingerprinting processes such as partial melting, fractional crystallization, binary mixing or AFC using major-, trace-element and radiogenic isotope data. The reader will be given a firm theoretical basis for forward/reverse modelling, followed by exercises dealing with typical problems likely to be encountered in real life, and their solutions using R. The concluding sections demonstrate, using practical examples, how a researcher can proceed in developing a realistic model simulating natural systems. The appendices outline the fundamentals of the R language and provide a quick introduction to the open-source R-package GCDkit for interpretation of whole-rock geochemical data from igneous and metamorphic rocks.

Hydrogeological and Environmental Investigations in Karst Systems

Hydrogeological and Environmental Investigations in Karst Systems
  • Author : Bartolomé Andreo,Francisco Carrasco,Juan José Durán,Pablo Jiménez,James W. LaMoreaux
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-09-22
  • Total pages :638
  • ISBN : 9783642174353
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Summary : WATER RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT provides a detailed introduction to the full range of advanced, multidisciplinary techniques used in the study of water resources from understanding individual aquifers to the protection and management of water in a sustainable way, compatible with the preservation of the environment. Based on a masters course from UNESCO’s International Hydrological Program, this textbook is accompanied by color figures and graphics, illustrating clearly the content of the text and showing real examples from the field. Each chapter also contains a list of exercises and practical activities as well as case studies.

Temporal Climatology and Anomalous Weather Analysis

Temporal Climatology and Anomalous Weather Analysis
  • Author : Weihong Qian
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-02-20
  • Total pages :687
  • ISBN : 9789811036415
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Summary : By breaking down atmospheric variables into temporal climatologies and anomalies, this book demonstrates that all weather extremes and climatic events are directly associated with the anomaly component of atmospheric motion. We can use the anomaly-based synoptic chart and dynamical parameters to objectively describe these extremes and events. The conception and differences of weather, climate and general circulation tend to confuse us, because there are no clear physical definitions available for them. Weather extremes such as heat waves, cold surges, freezing rains, heavy rains, severe drought, unusual storm tracks, and tornados are common on our planet’s surface. Climatic events such as Arctic warming and declining sea ice have become hot topics in recent years. An approach based on breaking down total variables into temporal climatologies and anomalies can be used to identify general circulation, analyze climatic anomalies and forecast weather extremes. Accordingly, this book will appeal to students, teachers and forecasters in the field of weather and climate alike.

Organofluorine Compounds in Biology and Medicine

Organofluorine Compounds in Biology and Medicine
  • Author : V Prakash Reddy
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-01-25
  • Total pages :330
  • ISBN : 9780444537492
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Summary : This book covers topics on biochemically relevant organofluorine compounds and their synthesis and biochemical pathways. Organofluorine compounds have renewed interest in pharmaceutical industry, and therefore a concise book on this topic is highly relevant to the scientific community involved in this area. Covers the synthesis, biochemical, and therapeutic applications of organofluorine compounds Offers a complete text on biochemically relevant organofluorine compounds and their synthesis and mechanistic pathways Provides one of the first major reference books on the biological and medicinal applications of organofluorine chemistry

The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes

The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes
  • Author : Haraldur Sigurdsson,Bruce Houghton,Steve McNutt,Hazel Rymer,John Stix
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-03-06
  • Total pages :1456
  • ISBN : 9780123859396
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Summary : Volcanoes are unquestionably one of the most spectacular and awe-inspiring features of the physical world. Our paradoxical fascination with them stems from their majestic beauty and powerful, sometimes deadly, destructiveness. Notwithstanding the tremendous advances in volcanology since ancient times, some of the mystery surrounding volcanic eruptions remains today. The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes summarizes our present knowledge of volcanoes; it provides a comprehensive source of information on the causes of volcanic eruptions and both the destructive and beneficial effects. The early chapters focus on the science of volcanism (melting of source rocks, ascent of magma, eruption processes, extraterrestrial volcanism, etc.). Later chapters discuss human interface with volcanoes, including the history of volcanology, geothermal energy resources, interaction with the oceans and atmosphere, health aspects of volcanism, mitigation of volcanic disasters, post-eruption ecology, and the impact of eruptions on organismal biodiversity. Provides the only comprehensive reference work to cover all aspects of volcanology Written by nearly 100 world experts in volcanology Explores an integrated transition from the physical process of eruptions through hazards and risk, to the social face of volcanism, with an emphasis on how volcanoes have influenced and shaped society Presents hundreds of color photographs, maps, charts and illustrations making this an aesthetically appealing reference Glossary of 3,000 key terms with definitions of all key vocabulary items in the field is included

Marine Geochemistry

Marine Geochemistry
  • Author : Roy Chester
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :702
  • ISBN : 9789401094887
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Summary : The past two or three decades have seen many important advances in our knowledge of the chemistry, physics, geology and biology of the oceans. It has also become apparent that in order to understand the manner in which the oceans work as a 'chemical system', it is necessary to use a framework which takes account of these interdisciplinary advances. Marine geochemistry has been written in response to the need for a single state-of-the-art text that addresses the subject of treating the sea water, sediment and rock reservoirs as a unified system. In taking this approach, a process-orientated framework has been adopted in which the emphasis is placed on identifying key processes operating within the 'unified ocean'. In doing this, particular attention has been paid to making the text accessible to students from all disciplines in such a way that future advances can readily be understood. I would like to express my thanks to those people who have helped with the writing of this volume. In particular, I wish to put on record my sincere appreciation of extremely helpful suggestions made by Professor John Edmond, FRS. In addition, I thank Dr S. Rowlatt for his comments on the sections covering the geochemistry of oceanic sediments, and Dr G. Wolff for his invaluable advice on the organic geochemistry of biota, water and sediments. It is a great pleasure to acknowledge the help of Dr K. J. T.

Treatise on Geochemistry: Surface and ground water, weathering and soils

Treatise on Geochemistry: Surface and ground water, weathering and soils
  • Author : Heinrich D. Holland,Karl K. Turekian
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014
  • Total pages :16
  • ISBN : 012417289X
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Summary :

Biodiversity

Biodiversity
  • Author : Oscar Grillo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-05-14
  • Total pages :380
  • ISBN : 9789535113157
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Summary : The current world biodiversity consists of an inestimable amount of living forms, that at all levels, from genes to biomes, from individuals to populations, from species to communities, are in constant pursuit of the best strategies to react to the natural and anthropic environmental changes. The arrangement of new and dynamic ecosystems balanced by the formation and the vanishing of species, is the direct consequence of these changes. This book contains comprehensive overviews and original studies focused on ecological and ecosystem functioning studies, hazards and conservation management, assessment of environmental variables affecting species diversity, also considering species richness and distribution, in order to identify the best management strategies to face and solve the conservation problems.

Apatites and their Synthetic Analogues

Apatites and their Synthetic Analogues
  • Author : Petr Ptáček
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-04-13
  • Total pages :514
  • ISBN : 9789535122654
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Summary : Apatite-type minerals and their synthetic analogues are of interest of many industrial branches and scientific disciplines including material sciences, chemical industry, agriculture, geology, medicine and dentistry. This book provides a basic overview of general knowledges of this topic in order to provide the comprehensive survey from a scientific and technological perspective. The book is divided into 10 chapters, which are devoted to the structure and properties of minerals from the supergroup of apatite, experimental techniques of preparation and characterization of synthetic analogues of apatite minerals, substitution in the structure of apatite as well as utilization of these materials in wide range of common and special advanced applications in industry, material sciences and research. Additionally, the phosphate rocks, their classification, geological role, mining and beneficiation of phosphate ore, production of elemental phosphorus, phosphoric acid and fertilizers are also described. Although this book is meant for chemist, material scientist and research engineers, the individual chapters contain theoretical background, historical aspects as well as examples of synthetic and analytical methods which may be also interesting for students and non-expert readers as well.

The Geochemistry of Stable Chlorine and Bromine Isotopes

The Geochemistry of Stable Chlorine and Bromine Isotopes
  • Author : Hans Eggenkamp
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-08-25
  • Total pages :172
  • ISBN : 9783642285066
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Summary : This book provides detailed information on the history, analysis and applications of chlorine and bromine isotope geochemistry. Chlorine and bromine are geochemically unique as they prefer to exist as single charged negative ions. For this reason isotope fractionation reflects mostly processes that are not related to changes in the redox state and this fractionation is generally modest. The book will describe the processes that are most easily detected using these isotopes. Also isotope variations, and processes that cause them, measured in oxidised species such as perchlorates and in organic molecules will be described in this book.

Meteorites and the Early Solar System II

Meteorites and the Early Solar System II
  • Author : Dante S. Lauretta,Harry Y. McSween
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006
  • Total pages :943
  • ISBN : 0816525625
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Summary : They range in size from microscopic particles to masses of many tons. The geologic diversity of asteroids and other rocky bodies of the solar system are displayed in the enormous variety of textures and mineralogies observed in meteorites. The composition, chemistry, and mineralogy of primitive meteorites collectively provide evidence for a wide variety of chemical and physical processes. This book synthesizes our current understanding of the early solar system, summarizing information about processes that occurred before its formation. It will be valuable as a textbook for graduate education in planetary science and as a reference for meteoriticists and researchers in allied fields worldwide.

Lunar Sourcebook

Lunar Sourcebook
  • Author : Grant Heiken,David Vaniman,Bevan M. French
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1991-04-26
  • Total pages :736
  • ISBN : 0521334446
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Summary : The only work to date to collect data gathered during the American and Soviet missions in an accessible and complete reference of current scientific and technical information about the Moon.

Atmospheric Aerosols

Atmospheric Aerosols
  • Author : Claudio Tomasi,Sandro Fuzzi,Alexander Kokhanovsky
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-03-20
  • Total pages :704
  • ISBN : 9783527336456
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Summary : The book describes the morphological, physical and chemical properties of aerosols from various natural and anthropogenic sources to help the reader better understand the direct role of aerosol particles in scattering and absorbing short- and long-wave radiation.

Silicate Glasses and Melts

Silicate Glasses and Melts
  • Author : Bjorn O. Mysen,Pascal Richet
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-11-27
  • Total pages :720
  • ISBN : 9780444637093
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Summary : Silicate Glasses and Melts, Second Edition describes the structure-property-composition relationships for silicate glasses and melts from a geological and industrial perspective. Updated sections include (i) characterization of silicate melt and COHN fluid structure (with and without dissolved silicate components) with pressure, temperature, and redox conditions and responses of structural variables to chemical composition, (ii) determination of solubility and solution mechanisms of COHN volatiles in silicate melts and minerals and of solubility and solution mechanisms of silicate components in COHN fluids, and (iii) effects of very high pressure on structure and properties of melts and glasses. This new book is an essential resource for researchers in a number of fields, including geology, geophysics, geoscience, volcanology, material science, glass science, petrology and mineralogy. Brings together multidisciplinary research scattered across the scientific literature into one reference, with a focus on silicate melts and their application to natural systems Emphasizes linking melt properties to melt structure Includes a discussion of the pros and cons of the use of glass as a proxy for melt structure and properties Written by highly regarded experts in the field who, among other honors, were the 2006 recipients of the prestigious G.W. Morey award of the American Ceramic Society