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Science and Technology of Terrorism and Counterterrorism, Second Edition

Science and Technology of Terrorism and Counterterrorism, Second Edition
  • Author : Mark A. Prelas,Dabir S. Viswanath,Sudarshan K. Loyalka
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-08-10
  • Total pages :604
  • ISBN : 9781420071825
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Summary : Traditionally, resources on terrorism and counterterrorism tend to focus on the social, behavioral, and legal aspects of the subject, with minimal emphasis on the scientific and technological aspects. Taking into account these practical considerations, the second edition of Science and Technology of Terrorism and Counterterrorism discusses the nature of terrorism and the materials used by terrorists. It describes how intelligence professionals and law enforcement personnel can detect and destroy these materials, and how they can deal with terrorist groups. This volume begins by introducing the shift in analysis of terrorist attacks after September 11, 2001 and summarizes selected case studies. It discusses the origin and nature of terrorism and the factors involved in diplomacy. Covering a broad range of topics, the book examines: Aerosol dispersion of toxic materials Bioterrorism and the manufacture, detection, and delivery of biological agents Agricultural terrorism Nuclear terrorism and nuclear weapons systems, threats, and safeguards Chemical terrorism, including manufacture, detection, delivery, and decontamination Cyber-terrorism Personal protective equipment The role of government at federal, state, and local levels The role of international agencies and their resources, capabilities, and responsibilities The National Infrastructure Protection Plan As terrorist activities increase globally, it is critical that those charged with protecting the public understand the myriad of ways in which terrorists operate. While we cannot predict where, when, and how terrorists will strike, our vigilance in staying abreast of the terrorist threat is the only way to have a fighting chance against those who seek to destroy our world.

Science and Technology to Counter Terrorism

Science and Technology to Counter Terrorism
  • Author : International Strategic and Security Studies Programme of the National Institute of Advanced Studies,National Academy of Sciences,Committee on International Security and Arms Control
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-02-27
  • Total pages :180
  • ISBN : 0309179165
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Summary : This volume presents the papers and summarizes the discussions of a workshop held in Goa, India, in January 2004, organized by the Indian National Institute of Advanced Science (NIAS) and the U.S. Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC). During the workshop, Indian and U.S. experts examined the terrorist threat faced in both countries and elsewhere in the world, and explored opportunities for the U.S. and India to work together. Bringing together scientists and experts with common scientific and technical backgrounds from different cultures provided a unique opportunity to explore possible means of preventing or mitigating future terrorist attacks.

The Science and Technology of Counterterrorism

The Science and Technology of Counterterrorism
  • Author : Carl Young
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-02-26
  • Total pages :512
  • ISBN : 9780124200616
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Summary : Scientists with little or no background in security and security professionals with little or no background in science and technology often have difficulty communicating in order to implement the best counterterrorism strategies. The Science and Technology of Counterterrorism offers the necessary theoretical foundation to address real-world terrorism scenarios, effectively bridging the gap. It provides a powerful security assessment methodology, coupled with counterterrorism strategies that are applicable to all terrorism attack vectors. These include biological, chemical, radiological, electromagnetic, explosive, and electronic or cyber attacks. In addition to rigorous estimates of threat vulnerabilities and the effectiveness of risk mitigation, it provides meaningful terrorism risk metrics. The Science and Technology of Counterterrorism teaches the reader how to think about terrorism risk, and evaluates terrorism scenarios and counterterrorism technologies with sophistication punctuated by humor. Both students and security professionals will significantly benefit from the risk assessment methodologies and guidance on appropriate counterterrorism measures contained within this book. Offers a simple but effective analytic framework to assess counterterrorism risk and realistic measures to address threats Provides the essential scientific principles and tools required for this analysis Explores the increasingly important relationship between physical and electronic risk in meaningful technical detail Evaluates technical security systems to illustrate specific risks using concrete examples

Science and Technology of Terrorism and Counterterrorism

Science and Technology of Terrorism and Counterterrorism
  • Author : Tushar K. Ghosh,Mark A. Prelas,Dabir S. Viswanath,Sudarshan K. Loyalka
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002-08-29
  • Total pages :608
  • ISBN : 0203910648
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Summary : Citing viable homeland defense strategies, this book examines the potential agents, delivery methods, and toxic and nontoxic effects of possible nuclear, biological, and chemical terrorist attacks. Providing countermeasures for governmental and emergency first-response teams, the book covers the impact of WMDs on public health, agriculture, and eco

Making the Nation Safer

Making the Nation Safer
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Committee on Science and Technology for Countering Terrorism
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002-09-05
  • Total pages :440
  • ISBN : 0309182727
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Summary : Vulnerabilities abound in U.S. society. The openness and efficiency of our key infrastructures â€" transportation, information and telecommunications systems, health systems, the electric power grid, emergency response units, food and water supplies, and others â€" make them susceptible to terrorist attacks. Making the Nation Safer discusses technical approaches to mitigating these vulnerabilities. A broad range of topics are covered in this book, including: Nuclear and radiological threats, such as improvised nuclear devices and “dirty bombs;†Bioterrorism, medical research, agricultural systems and public health; Toxic chemicals and explosive materials; Information technology, such as communications systems, data management, cyber attacks, and identification and authentication systems; Energy systems, such as the electrical power grid and oil and natural gas systems; Transportation systems; Cities and fixed infrastructures, such as buildings, emergency operations centers, and tunnels; The response of people to terrorism, such as how quality of life and morale of the population can be a target of terrorists and how people respond to terrorist attacks; and Linked infrastructures, i.e. the vulnerabilities that result from the interdependencies of key systems; In each of these areas, there are recommendations on how to immediately apply existing knowledge and technology to make the nation safer and on starting research and development programs that could produce innovations that will strengthen key systems and protect us against future threats. The book also discusses issues affecting the government’s ability to carry out the necessary science and engineering programs and the important role of industry, universities, and states, counties, and cities in homeland security efforts. A long term commitment to homeland security is necessary to make the nation safer, and this book lays out a roadmap of how science and engineering can assist in countering terrorism.

India-United States Cooperation on Science and Technology for Countering Terrorism

India-United States Cooperation on Science and Technology for Countering Terrorism
  • Author : National Institute for Advanced Studies, Bangalore, India,National Academy of Sciences,Committee on India-United States Cooperation on Science and Technology for Countering Terrorism
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-12-23
  • Total pages :184
  • ISBN : 9780309312998
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Summary : India and the United States are the world's two largest democracies with distinguished scientific traditions and experts in a wide range of scientific-technical fields. Given these strengths and the ability to learn from one another, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences together with the National Institute for Advanced Studies in Bangalore, India, held a joint Indian-U.S. workshop to identify and examine potential areas for substantive scientific and technical cooperation that can support counterterrorism efforts through the Homeland Security Dialogue and through direct cooperation. India-United States Cooperation on Science and Technology for Countering Terrorism is the summary of that workshop. This report examines topics such as biological threats; protection of nuclear facilities; security (physical and cyber) for chemicals, chemical facilities and other critical infrastructure; and monitoring, surveillance, and emergency response. The report also identifies and examines promising areas for further Indian-U.S. cooperation.

Emergent Information Technologies and Enabling Policies for Counter-Terrorism

Emergent Information Technologies and Enabling Policies for Counter-Terrorism
  • Author : Robert L. Popp,John Yen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006-04-28
  • Total pages :768
  • ISBN : 9780471786559
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Summary : Explores both counter-terrorism and enabling policy dimensionsof emerging information technologies in national security After the September 11th attacks, "connecting the dots" hasbecome the watchword for using information and intelligence toprotect the United States from future terrorist attacks. Advancedand emerging information technologies offer key assets inconfronting a secretive, asymmetric, and networked enemy. Yet, in afree and open society, policies must ensure that these powerfultechnologies are used responsibly, and that privacy and civilliberties remain protected. Emergent Information Technologies and Enabling Policies forCounter-Terrorism provides a unique, integrated treatment ofcutting-edge counter-terrorism technologies and their correspondingpolicy options. Featuring contributions from nationally recognizedauthorities and experts, this book brings together a diverseknowledge base for those charged with protecting our nation fromterrorist attacks while preserving our civil liberties. Topics covered include: Counter-terrorism modeling Quantitative and computational social science Signal processing and information management techniques Semantic Web and knowledge management technologies Information and intelligence sharing technologies Text/data processing and language translation technologies Social network analysis Legal standards for data mining Potential structures for enabling policies Technical system design to support policy Countering terrorism in today's world requires innovativetechnologies and corresponding creative policies; the two cannot bepractically and realistically addressed separately. EmergentInformation Technologies and Enabling Policies forCounter-Terrorism offers a comprehensive examination of both areas,serving as an essential resource for students, practitioners,researchers, developers, and decision-makers.

Counter-Terrorism Technologies

Counter-Terrorism Technologies
  • Author : Peter Lehr
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-07-10
  • Total pages :217
  • ISBN : 9783319909240
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Summary : This book critically discusses the role of technology for counter-terrorism in general, and for securing our vulnerable open societies in particular. It is set against the backdrop of the terrorist threat posed by the combined forces of Al Qaeda and ISIS/Daesh in the foreseeable future. The book commences by illuminating current and foreseeable tactics and weapons used by these implacable enemies – weapons that may well include chemical, biological, radiological and potentially even nuclear (CBRN) devices. In a second part, it introduces technologies already available or in development that promise an increase in safety and security when it comes to the dangers posed by these terrorists. This part also includes a critical discussion of advantages and disadvantages of such technologies that are, quite often, sold as a ‘silver bullet’ approach in the fight against terrorism. Controversies such as those triggered by the abuse of millimeter wave scanners deployed at several Western European airports will demonstrate that there are costs involved with regard to human rights. The third, analytical part takes the critical discussion further by arguing that the uncritical fielding of new surveillance and control technologies in parallel with the on-going outsourcing and privatization of key services of the state could well lead to dystopias as envisaged in a rather prescient way by the so-called cyperpunk novels of the 1980s. The book concludes with the question that any liberal democracy should ask itself: how far can we go with regard to hardening our societies against terrorist threats?

Science and Technology Policies for the Anti-terrorism Era

Science and Technology Policies for the Anti-terrorism Era
  • Author : NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Science and Technology Policies for the Anti-Terrorism Era
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006
  • Total pages :191
  • ISBN : 1586036467
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Summary : Considers the science and technology policies necessary for defense against terrorism and other threats to security; assesses the priorities for governments, universities, national laboratories and industrial firms; and identifies how governments and the science and technology community can most effectively work together to enhance our security.

Countering Bioterrorism

Countering Bioterrorism
  • Author : National Research Council,Institute of Medicine,Committee on Science and Technology for Countering Terrorism,Panel on Biological Issues
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003-01-03
  • Total pages :105
  • ISBN : 9780309086073
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Summary : The attacks of September 11 and the release of anthrax spores revealed enormous vulnerabilities in the U.S. public-health infrastructure and suggested similar vulnerabilities in the agricultural infrastructure as well. The traditional public health response-surveillance (intelligence), prevention, detection, response, recovery, and attribution-is the paradigm for the national response not only to all forms of terrorism but also to emerging infectious diseases. Thus, investments in research on bioterrorism will have enormous potential for application in the detection, prevention, and treatment of emerging infectious diseases that also are unpredictable and against which we must be prepared. The deciphering of the human genome sequence and the complete elucidation of numerous pathogen genomes, our rapidly increasing understanding of the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis and of immune responses, and new strategies for designing drugs and vaccines all offer unprecedented opportunities to use science to counter bioterrorist threats. But these same developments also allow science to be misused to create new agents of mass destruction. Hence the effort to confront bioterrorism must be a global one. Countering Bioterrorism makes the following recommendations: Recommendation 1: All agencies with responsibility for homeland security should work together to establish stronger and more meaningful working ties between the intelligence, S&T, and public health communities. Recommendation 2: Federal agencies should work cooperatively and in collaboration with industry to develop and evaluate rapid, sensitive, and specific early-detection technologies. Recommendation 3: Create a global network for detection and surveillance, making use of computerized methods for real-time reporting and analysis to rapidly detect new patterns of disease locally, nationally, and ultimately- internationally. The use of high-throughput methodologies that are being increasingly utilized in modern biological research should be an important component of this expanded and highly automated surveillance strategy. Recommendation 4: Use knowledge of complex biological patterns and high-throughput laboratory automation to classify and diagnose infections in patients in primary care settings. Recommendation 5: USDA should create an agency for control and prevention of plant disease. This agency should have the capabilities necessary to deal effectively with biothreats.

Dual Use Science and Technology, Ethics and Weapons of Mass Destruction

Dual Use Science and Technology, Ethics and Weapons of Mass Destruction
  • Author : Seumas Miller
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-05-22
  • Total pages :122
  • ISBN : 9783319926063
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Summary : This book deals with the problem of dual-use science research and technology. It first explains the concept of dual use and then offers analyses of collective knowledge and collective ignorance. It goes on to present a theory of collective responsibility, followed by four chapters focusing on a particular scientific field or industry of dual use concern: the chemical industry, the nuclear industry, cyber-technology and the biological sciences. The problem of dual-use science research and technology arises because such research and technology has the potential to be used for great evil as well as for great good. On the one hand, knowledge is a necessary condition, and perhaps a constitutive feature, of technologies that contribute greatly to individual and collective well-being. Consider, for example, nuclear technology that enables the generation of low cost electricity in populations without obvious alternative energy sources. So technological knowledge is a good thing and ignorance of it a bad thing. On the other hand, these same technologies can be extremely harmful to individuals and collectives, as with the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. So, at least with respect to some technologies evidently knowledge is a bad thing and ignorance a good thing. Accordingly, the question arises as to whether we ought to limit scientific research and/or the development of technology and, if so, which research or technology, in what manner and to what extent. This book examines the answer to that question.

Counter-Terrorism for Emergency Responders

Counter-Terrorism for Emergency Responders
  • Author : Robert A. Burke
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-10-31
  • Total pages :1094
  • ISBN : 9781498752008
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Summary : Using the authors many years of experience in emergency services and his skills as a hazardous materials consultant, prepares the first responder to handle everything from re-establishing control and on-scene triage to investigating the crime. Including information on pre-incident and avoidance tactics, the author also discusses monitoring and detection techniques, protective equipment and decontamination, and an extensive list of resource organizations and training opportunities. This up-to-date 3rd edition is written to provide concise information for emergency responders who might be called upon to confront explosive, chemical, nuclear, biological, or incendiary acts of terrorism.

Homegrown Violent Extremism

Homegrown Violent Extremism
  • Author : Erroll Southers
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-09-25
  • Total pages :124
  • ISBN : 9781317522430
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Summary : In the country’s changing threat environment, homegrown violent extremism (HVE) represents the next challenge in counterterrorism. Security and public policy expert Erroll Southers examines post-9/11 HVE – what it is, the conditions enabling its existence, and the community-based approaches that can reduce the risk of homegrown terrorism. Drawing on scholarly insight and more than three decades on the front lines of America’s security efforts, Southers challenges the misplaced counterterrorism focus on foreign individuals and communities. As Southers shows, there is no true profile of a terrorist. The book challenges how Americans think about terrorism, recruitment, and the homegrown threat. It contains essential information for communities, security practitioners, and policymakers on how violent extremists exploit vulnerabilities in their communities and offers approaches to put security theory into practice.

Counterterrorism

Counterterrorism
  • Author : Davis Langdon
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-07-17
  • Total pages :241
  • ISBN : 9781482237160
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Summary : Counterterrorism: Reassessing the Policy Response promotes a more nuanced understanding of the effectiveness of current counterterrorism practices and the need for reform. It challenges government, media, and academic accounts that exaggerate terrorist threats, particularly in comparison to other threats such as organized crime. Author BenoGomis r

The Geography of International Terrorism

The Geography of International Terrorism
  • Author : Richard M. Medina,George F. Hepner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-04-04
  • Total pages :258
  • ISBN : 9781439886885
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Summary : While geography is not the only factor to shape human behavior, its influence on terrorists motivations, behaviors, options, and activities is a primary consideration in understanding terrorism. Taking a different approach than many other books on terrorism, The Geography of International Terrorism: An Introduction to Spaces and Places of Violent

Science and Technology for Army Homeland Security

Science and Technology for Army Homeland Security
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Army Science and Technology,Committee on Army Science and Technology for Homeland Defense
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003-04-08
  • Total pages :184
  • ISBN : 9780309168281
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Summary : The confluence of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack and the U.S. Army’s historic role to support civil authorities has resulted in substantial new challenges for the Army. To help meet these challenges, the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Technology requested the National Research Council (NRC) carry out a series of studies on how science and technology could assist the Army prepare for its role in homeland security (HLS). The NRC’s Board on Army Science and Technology formed the Committee on Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security to accomplish that assignment. The Committee was asked to review relevant literature and activities, determine areas of emphasis for Army S&T in support of counter terrorism and anti-terrorism, and recommend high-payoff technologies to help the Army fulfill its mission. The Department of Defense Counter-Terrorism Technology Task Force identified four operational areas in reviewing technical proposals for HLS operations: indications and warning; denial and survivability; recovery and consequence management; and attribution and retaliation. The study sponsor asked the Committee to use these four areas as the basis for its assessment of the science and technology (S&T) that will be important for the Army’s HLS role. Overall, the Committee found that: - There is potential for substantial synergy between S&T work carried out by the Army for its HLS responsibilities and the development of the next generation Army, the Objective Force. - The Army National Guard (ARNG) is critical to the success of the Army’s HLS efforts.

Information Technology for Counterterrorism

Information Technology for Counterterrorism
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Computer Science and Telecommunications Board,Committee on the Role of Information Technology in Responding to Terrorism
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003-04-07
  • Total pages :144
  • ISBN : 9780309087360
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Summary : Information technology (IT) is essential to virtually all of the nation’s critical infrastructures making them vulnerable by a terrorist attack on their IT system. An attack could be on the system itself or use the IT system to launch or exacerbate another type of attack. IT can also be used as a counterterrorism tool. The report concludes that the most devastating consequences of a terrorist attack would occur if it were on or used IT as part of a broader attack. The report presents two recommendations on what can be done in the short term to protect the nation’s communications and information systems and several recommendations about what can be done over the longer term. The report also notes the importance of considering how an IT system will be deployed to maximize protection against and usefulness in responding to attacks.

Counterterrorist Detection Techniques of Explosives

Counterterrorist Detection Techniques of Explosives
  • Author : Jehuda Yinon
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-10-13
  • Total pages :454
  • ISBN : 0080545203
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Summary : The detection of hidden explosives has become an issue of utmost importance in recent years. While terrorism is not new to the international community, recent terrorist attacks have raised the issue of detection of explosives and have generated a great demand for rapid, sensitive and reliable methods for detecting hidden explosives. Counterterrorist Detection Techniques of Explosives covers recent advances in this area of research including vapor and trace detection techniques (chemiluminescence, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry, electrochemical methods and micromechanical sensors, such as microcantilevers) and bulk detection techniques (neutron techniques, nuclear quadrupole resonance, x-ray diffraction imaging, millimeter-wave imaging, terahertz imaging and laser techniques). This book will be of interest to any scientists involved in the design and application of security screening technologies including new sensors and detecting devices which will prevent the smuggling of bombs and explosives. * Covers latest advances in vapor and trace detection techniques and bulk detection techniques * Reviews both current techniques and those in advanced stages of development * Techniques that are described in detail, including its principles of operation, as well as its applications in the detection of explosives

Counter Terrorism Issues

Counter Terrorism Issues
  • Author : James Ottavio Castagnera
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-03-15
  • Total pages :266
  • ISBN : 9781466571921
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Summary : The American legal profession and judicial system bear a unique responsibility to set and maintain the balance between defending homeland security and protecting the civil liberties outlined in the Bill of Rights. These competing interests will continue to collide as the threats to our safety grow. Exploring the most significant terrorist cases of the past two decades, Counter Terrorism Issues: Case Studies in the Courtroom presents a panoramic view of the American judiciary’s handling of domestic terrorism in the last 20 years. Drawing extensively upon trial transcripts, witness statements, and judicial opinions, the book brings the underlying events back to life and demonstrates how the criminal justice system has sought to grapple with conflicting facts and countervailing legal rights and responsibilities. The book examines some of the most notorious recent cases—the two attacks on the World Trade Center, the Oklahoma City bombing, and the Fort Hood massacre. It also looks at lesser-known but equally important incidents, including those involving animal-rights radicals who harass university researchers and corporate executives, as well as the actions of terrorist "wannabes" who threaten our security. Also discussed are attempts by victims of terrorist attacks to sue state sponsors of terrorism. Through the words of witnesses, judges, and the attorneys who tried these cases in America’s courtrooms, the book provides important commentary on the related back-stories and historical/political contexts of these events, enabling readers to understand the significance of these often-infamous attacks on U.S. soil.

National Security Issues in Science, Law, and Technology

National Security Issues in Science, Law, and Technology
  • Author : Thomas A. Johnson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-04-19
  • Total pages :680
  • ISBN : 1420019082
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Summary : The tragedy of 9/11 placed homeland security and the prevention of further attacks into the central focus of our national consciousness. With so many avenues of terror open to our enemies in terms of mode, medium, and location, effective management and mitigation of threat must be grounded in objective risk assessment. The structure of national security decisions should be premised on decision theory and science with minimal political posturing or emotional reactivisim. National Security Issues in Science, Law, and Technology demonstrates a mature look at a frightening subject and presents sound, unbiased tools with which to approach any situation that may threaten human lives. By applying the best of scientific decision-making practices this book introduces the concept of risk management and its application in the structure of national security decisions. It examines the acquisition and utilization of all-source intelligence, including the ability to analyze data and forecast patterns, to enable policymakers to make better informed decisions. The text addresses reaction and prevention strategies applicable to chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons; agricultural terrorism; cyberterrorism; and other potential threats to our critical infrastructure. It discusses legal issues that inevitably arise when integrating new legislation with the threads of our Constitution and illustrates the dispassionate analysis of our intelligence, law enforcement, and military operations and actions. Finally, the book considers the redirection of our national research and laboratory system to investigate the very problems terrorists can induce through the use of weapons we have as yet to confront. Taking the guesswork out of hard choices, National Security Issues in Science, Law, and Technology provides anyone burdened with the mantle of responsibility for the protection of the American people with the tools to make sound, well-informed decisions.

Targeted Killings, Law and Counter-Terrorism Effectiveness

Targeted Killings, Law and Counter-Terrorism Effectiveness
  • Author : Ophir Falk
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-07-15
  • Total pages :144
  • ISBN : 9781000079845
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Summary : This book examines the permissibility and effectiveness of targeted killing in campaigns against terror. Targeted killing has become a primary counterterrorism measure used by several countries in their confrontation with lethal threats. The practice has been extensively used by the US in Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan, Yemen and Somalia, and by Israel in the West Bank and Gaza. Several studies have already explored the difficult balance between achieving security while maintaining the liberties and rights of a country’s civilians. This book goes a step further by seeking to examine whether maintaining those liberties by complying with legal standards and minimizing unintended deaths can be more effective for national security. Using targeted killing applied by Israel, in particular, as well as the United States during the first decade of the twenty-first century as case studies, this book explores that question and ultimately assesses whether compliance with legal standards can strengthen a state in its campaign against terrorism and thus provide stronger security. The book focuses on civilian-related criteria, hypothesizing that minimizing civilian casualties will maximize effectiveness in an asymmetric war setting. The conclusions are not limited to a specific tactic or theater, and if adopted might have far-reaching implications for how asymmetric warfare is strategized. This book will be of much interest to students of counter-terrorism, law, Middle Eastern studies, and security studies.