Download The Tattooist Of Auschwitz Based On An Incredible True Story Book PDF

Download full The Tattooist Of Auschwitz Based On An Incredible True Story books PDF, EPUB, Tuebl, Textbook, Mobi or read online The Tattooist Of Auschwitz Based On An Incredible True Story anytime and anywhere on any device. Get free access to the library by create an account, fast download and ads free. We cannot guarantee that every book is in the library.

The Tattooist of Auschwitz

The Tattooist of Auschwitz
  • Author : Heather Morris
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-07-18
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782123514619
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : “The Tattooist of Auschwitz” is an unexpected and extraordinary book. This novel has been authored by Heather Morris, born in New Zealand and now resides in Australia. She is the bestselling author and famous historical fiction based novels and short pieces of writing. She is also a famous author on the subject of Religion and Spirituality. In April 1942, Lale Sokolov, a Slovakian Jew, is powerfully related to the absorption camps at Auschwitz-Birkenau. When his captors find out that he speaks a number of languages, he is put to work as a Tätowierer.

The Tattooist of Auschwitz

The Tattooist of Auschwitz
  • Author : Heather Morris
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782123514602
GET BOOK HERE

Summary :

The Tattooist of Auschwitz

The Tattooist of Auschwitz
  • Author : Heather Morris
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-01-11
  • Total pages :368
  • ISBN : 9781785763663
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : The five million copy bestseller and one of the bestselling books of the 21st Century. Chosen for the Richard and Judy Bookclub. I tattooed a number on her arm. She tattooed her name on my heart. In 1942, Lale Sokolov arrived in Auschwitz-Birkenau. He was given the job of tattooing the prisoners marked for survival - scratching numbers into his fellow victims' arms in indelible ink to create what would become one of the most potent symbols of the Holocaust. Waiting in line to be tattooed, terrified and shaking, was a young girl. For Lale - a dandy, a jack-the-lad, a bit of a chancer - it was love at first sight. And he was determined not only to survive himself, but to ensure this woman, Gita, did, too. So begins one of the most life-affirming, courageous, unforgettable and human stories of the Holocaust: the love story of the tattooist of Auschwitz. Don't miss Heather Morris's next book, Stories of Hope. Coming September 2020. ----- 'Extraordinary - moving, confronting and uplifting . . . I recommend it unreservedly' Greame Simsion 'A moving and ultimately uplifting story of love, loyalties and friendship amidst the horrors of war . . . It's a triumph.' Jill Mansell 'A sincere . . . moving attempt to speak the unspeakable' Sunday Times

The Tattooist of Auschwitz

The Tattooist of Auschwitz
  • Author : Heather Morris
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-09-04
  • Total pages :288
  • ISBN : 9780062797162
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : The #1 International Bestseller & New York Times Bestseller This beautiful, illuminating tale of hope and courage is based on interviews that were conducted with Holocaust survivor and Auschwitz-Birkenau tattooist Ludwig (Lale) Sokolov—an unforgettable love story in the midst of atrocity. “The Tattooist of Auschwitz is an extraordinary document, a story about the extremes of human behavior existing side by side: calculated brutality alongside impulsive and selfless acts of love. I find it hard to imagine anyone who would not be drawn in, confronted and moved. I would recommend it unreservedly to anyone, whether they’d read a hundred Holocaust stories or none.”—Graeme Simsion, internationally-bestselling author of The Rosie Project In April 1942, Lale Sokolov, a Slovakian Jew, is forcibly transported to the concentration camps at Auschwitz-Birkenau. When his captors discover that he speaks several languages, he is put to work as a Tätowierer (the German word for tattooist), tasked with permanently marking his fellow prisoners. Imprisoned for over two and a half years, Lale witnesses horrific atrocities and barbarism—but also incredible acts of bravery and compassion. Risking his own life, he uses his privileged position to exchange jewels and money from murdered Jews for food to keep his fellow prisoners alive. One day in July 1942, Lale, prisoner 32407, comforts a trembling young woman waiting in line to have the number 34902 tattooed onto her arm. Her name is Gita, and in that first encounter, Lale vows to somehow survive the camp and marry her. A vivid, harrowing, and ultimately hopeful re-creation of Lale Sokolov's experiences as the man who tattooed the arms of thousands of prisoners with what would become one of the most potent symbols of the Holocaust, The Tattooist of Auschwitz is also a testament to the endurance of love and humanity under the darkest possible conditions.

The Tattooist of Auschwitz

The Tattooist of Auschwitz
  • Author : Heather Morris
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-02
  • Total pages :277
  • ISBN : 1760403172
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : The incredible story of the Auschwitz-Birkenau tattooist and the woman he loved. Lale Sokolov is well-dressed, a charmer, a ladies' man. He is also a Jew. On the first transport of men from Slovakia to Auschwitz in 1942, Lale immediately stands out to his fellow prisoners. In the camp, he is looked up to, looked out for, and put to work in the privileged position of TStowierer the tattooist to mark his fellow prisoners, forever. One of them is a young woman, Gita who steals his heart at first glance. His life given new purpose, Lale does his best through the struggle and suffering to use his position for good. This story, full of beauty and hope, is based on years of interviews author Heather Morris conducted with real-life Holocaust survivor and Auschwitz-Birkenau tattooist Ludwig (Lale) Sokolov. It is heart-wrenching, illuminating, and unforgettable.

Surviving the War

Surviving the War
  • Author : Adiva Geffen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-01-01
  • Total pages :304
  • ISBN : 9781473580947
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : An extraordinary novel based on an incredible true story of love, resilience, survival and hope. Perfect for fans of THE TATTOOIST OF AUSCHWITZ, THE VOLUNTEER and THE LIBRARIAN OF AUSCHWITZ. _______________________________ Against all odds, love will lead them home. Shurka, her husband and their two small children never thought the war would reach their remote Polish village. They were wrong. Forced to flee their family home, they find shelter with their fellow Jews in the ghetto - but every night more and more people disappear, taken away on trucks to never be seen again. As terrible rumours of extermination camps swirl, Shurka realises that the longer they stay in the ghetto, the lower their chances of survival. Their best hope is to flee into the Polish forest, where Jewish resistance fighters hold out against Nazi search parties. Their new life is precarious in the extreme - and will test them more than they ever thought possible... Even in the dark, hope can be found. _______________________________ Surviving The War is the international Amazon bestselling survival and holocaust story, based on an incredible true story and previously published as Surviving The Forest. It has been translated into English from the original Hebrew.

Cilka's Journey

Cilka's Journey
  • Author : Heather Morris
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-10-01
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 9781785769061
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Based on the heart-breaking true story of Cilka Klein, Cilka's Journey is a million copy international bestseller and the sequel to the No.1 bestselling phenomenon, The Tattooist of Auschwitz 'She was the bravest person I ever met' Lale Sokolov, The Tattooist of Auschwitz In 1942 Cilka Klein is just sixteen years old when she is taken to Auschwitz-Birkenau Concentration Camp. The Commandant at Birkenau, Schwarzhuber, notices her long beautiful hair, and forces her separation from the other women prisoners. Cilka learns quickly that power, even unwillingly given, equals survival. After liberation, Cilka is charged as a collaborator by the Russians and sent to a desolate, brutal prison camp in Siberia known as Vorkuta, inside the Arctic Circle. Innocent, imprisoned once again, Cilka faces challenges both new and horribly familiar, each day a battle for survival. Cilka befriends a woman doctor, and learns to nurse the ill in the camp, struggling to care for them under unimaginable conditions. And when she tends to a man called Alexandr, Cilka finds that despite everything, there is room in her heart for love. Cilka's Journey is a powerful testament to the triumph of the human will. It will move you to tears, but it will also leave you astonished and uplifted by one woman's fierce determination to survive, against all odds. Don't miss Heather Morris's next book, Stories of Hope. Coming September 2020. - - - - - - - - 'Her truly incredible story is one to be read by everyone.' Sun 'Cilka's extraordinary courage in the face of evil and her determination to survive against the odds will stay with you long after you've finished reading this heartrending book.' Sunday Express 'Her courage and determination to survive makes for a heartrending read.' Daily Mirror

The Librarian of Auschwitz

The Librarian of Auschwitz
  • Author : Antonio Iturbe
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-04-04
  • Total pages :448
  • ISBN : 9781473570627
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : For readers of The Tattooist of Auschwitz and The Choice: this is the story of the smallest library in the world – and the most dangerous. 'It wasn’t an extensive library. In fact, it consisted of eight books and some of them were in poor condition. But they were books. In this incredibly dark place, they were a reminder of less sombre times, when words rang out more loudly than machine guns...’ Fourteen-year-old Dita is one of the many imprisoned by the Nazis at Auschwitz. Taken, along with her mother and father, from the Terezín ghetto in Prague, Dita is adjusting to the constant terror that is life in the camp. When Jewish leader Freddy Hirsch asks Dita to take charge of the eight precious books the prisoners have managed to smuggle past the guards, she agrees. And so Dita becomes the secret librarian of Auschwitz, responsible for the safekeeping of the small collection of titles, as well as the ‘living books’ - prisoners of Auschwitz who know certain books so well, they too can be ‘borrowed’ to educate the children in the camp. But books are extremely dangerous. They make people think. And nowhere are they more dangerous than in Block 31 of Auschwitz, the children’s block, where the slightest transgression can result in execution, no matter how young the transgressor... The Sunday Times bestseller for readers of The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas, The Tattooist of Auschwitz and The Choice. Based on the incredible and moving true story of Dita Kraus, holocaust survivor and secret librarian for the children's block in Auschwitz.

The Boy Who Followed His Father into Auschwitz

The Boy Who Followed His Father into Auschwitz
  • Author : Jeremy Dronfield
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-05-26
  • Total pages :464
  • ISBN : 9780063019300
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : The #1 Sunday Times bestseller—a remarkable story of the heroic and unbreakable bond between a father and son that is as inspirational as The Tattooist of Auschwitz and as mesmerizing as The Choice. Where there is family, there is hope In 1939, Gustav Kleinmann, a Jewish upholster from Vienna, and his sixteen-year-old son Fritz are arrested by the Gestapo and sent to Germany. Imprisoned in the Buchenwald concentration camp, they miraculously survive the Nazis’ murderous brutality. Then Gustav learns he is being sent to Auschwitz—and certain death. For Fritz, letting his father go is unthinkable. Desperate to remain together, Fritz makes an incredible choice: he insists he must go too. To the Nazis, one death camp is the same as another, and so the boy is allowed to follow. Throughout the six years of horror they witness and immeasurable suffering they endure as victims of the camps, one constant keeps them alive: their love and hope for the future. Based on the secret diary that Gustav kept as well as meticulous archival research and interviews with members of the Kleinmann family, including Fritz’s younger brother Kurt, sent to the United States at age eleven to escape the war, The Boy Who Followed His Father into Auschwitz is Gustav and Fritz’s story—an extraordinary account of courage, loyalty, survival, and love that is unforgettable.

The Note Through the Wire

The Note Through the Wire
  • Author : Doug Gold
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-03-16
  • Total pages :336
  • ISBN : 9780063012301
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Praised as an “unforgettable love story” by Heather Morris, New York Times bestselling author of The Tattooist of Auschwitz, this is the real-life, unlikely romance between a resistance fighter and prisoner of war set in World War II Europe. In this true love story that defies all odds, Josefine Lobnik, a Yugoslav partisan heroine, and Bruce Murray, a New Zealand soldier, discover love in the midst of a brutal war. In the heart of Nazi-occupied Europe, two people meet fleetingly in a chance encounter. One an underground resistance fighter, a bold young woman determined to vanquish the enemy occupiers; the other a prisoner of war, a man longing to escape the confines of the camp so he can battle again. A crumpled note passes between these two strangers, slipped through the wire of the compound, and sets them on a course that will change their lives forever. Woven through their tales of great bravery, daring escapes, betrayal, torture, and retaliation is their remarkable love story that survived against all odds. This is an extraordinary account of two ordinary people who find unexpected love during the unimaginable hardships of Hitler’s barbaric regime.

Stories of Hope

Stories of Hope
  • Author : Heather Morris
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-09-17
  • Total pages :352
  • ISBN : 9781786580504
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : The Tattooist of Auschwitz is one of the bestselling books of the 21st Century. Now, in this essential companion, Heather Morris presents an inspiring manual for life, with a series of tales of the remarkable people she has met, the incredible stories they have shared with her, and the lessons they hold for us all. In Stories of Hope, Heather will explore her extraordinary talents as a listener - a skill she employed when she first met Lale Sokolov, the tattooist at Auschwitz-Birkenau and the inspiration for her bestselling novel. It was this ability that led Lale to entrust Heather with his story, which she told in her novel The Tattooist of Auschwitz and the bestselling follow up, Cilka's Journey. Now Heather shares the story behind her inspirational writing journey and the defining experiences of her life, including her profound friendship with Lale, and explores how she learned to really listen to the stories people told her - skills she believes we can all learn. 'Stories are what connect us and remind us that hope is always possible.' Heather Morris Includes an exciting sneak peek extract from the upcoming fiction title from Heather Morris. An international phenomenon, The Tattooist of Auschwitz has sold over five million copies. Cilka's Journey has sold over a million copies worldwide.

The Saboteur of Auschwitz

The Saboteur of Auschwitz
  • Author : Colin Rushton
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-07-11
  • Total pages :288
  • ISBN : 9781787833852
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : In 1942, young British soldier Arthur Dodd was taken prisoner by the German Army and transported to Oswiecim in Polish Upper Silesia. The Germans gave it another name, now synonymous with mankind’s darkest hours. They called it Auschwitz. Forced to do hard labour, starved and savagely beaten, Arthur thought his life would end in Auschwitz. Determined to go down fighting, he sabotaged Nazi industrial work, risked his life to alleviate the suffering of the Jewish prisoners and aided a partisan group planning a mass break-out. This shocking true story sheds new light on the operations at the camp, exposes a hierarchy of prisoner treatment by the SS and presents the largely unknown story of the military POWs held there.

The Lost Family

The Lost Family
  • Author : Jenna Blum
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-06-05
  • Total pages :432
  • ISBN : 9780062742186
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : The Lost Family is an extraordinary read, the kind of book that makes you sob and smile, the kind that gives you hope…. It is compassionate, masterful and disturbingly contemporary."—Tatiana de Rosnay, bestselling author of Sarah’s Key The New York Times bestselling author of Those Who Save Us creates a vivid portrait of marriage, family, and the haunting grief of World War II in this emotionally charged, beautifully rendered story that spans a generation, from the 1960s to the 1980s. In 1965 Manhattan, patrons flock to Masha’s to savor its brisket bourguignon and impeccable service and to admire its dashing owner and head chef Peter Rashkin. With his movie-star good looks and tragic past, Peter, a survivor of Auschwitz, is the most eligible bachelor in town. But Peter does not care for the parade of eligible women who come to the restaurant hoping to catch his eye. He has resigned himself to a solitary life. Running Masha’s consumes him, as does his terrible guilt over surviving the horrors of the Nazi death camp while his wife, Masha—the restaurant’s namesake—and two young daughters perished. Then exquisitely beautiful June Bouquet, an up-and-coming young model, appears at the restaurant, piercing Peter’s guard. Though she is twenty years his junior, the two begin a passionate, whirlwind courtship. When June unexpectedly becomes pregnant, Peter proposes, believing that beginning a new family with the woman he loves will allow him to let go of the horror of the past. But over the next twenty years, the indelible sadness of those memories will overshadow Peter, June, and their daughter Elsbeth, transforming them in shocking, heartbreaking, and unexpected ways. Jenna Blum artfully brings to the page a husband devastated by a grief he cannot name, a frustrated wife struggling to compete with a ghost she cannot banish, and a daughter sensitive to the pain of both her own family and another lost before she was born. Spanning three cinematic decades, The Lost Family is a charming, funny, and elegantly bittersweet study of the repercussions of loss and love.

Surviving the Angel of Death

Surviving the Angel of Death
  • Author : Eva Mozes Kor,Lisa Rojany Buccieri
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-10-13
  • Total pages :192
  • ISBN : 9781939100528
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Eva Mozes Kor was just ten years old when she arrived in Auschwitz. While her parents and two older sisters were taken to the gas chambers, she and her twin, Miriam, were herded into the care of the man known as the Angel of Death, Dr. Josef Mengele. Subjected to sadistic medical experiments, she was forced to fight daily for her and her twin's survival. In this incredible true story written for young adults, readers learn of a child's endurance and survival in the face of truly extraordinary evil and Eva's recovery and her controversial but often misunderstood decision to publicly forgive the Nazis. Readers will learn of how she triumphed over unfathomable pain and suffering into a life-long work for peace, human rights, and Holocaust education. The new edition provides interesting details and important context to the events related in the original story. A new Afterword by publisher Peggy Porter Tierney offers a richer portrayal of Eva as a person, the truth behind the controversies, and the eventful last ten years of her life.

Those Who Save Us

Those Who Save Us
  • Author : Jenna Blum
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-05-02
  • Total pages :496
  • ISBN : 0156035006
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : For fifty years, Anna Schlemmer has refused to talk about her life in Germany during World War II. Her daughter, Trudy, was only three when she and her mother were liberated by an American soldier and went to live with him in Minnesota. Trudy's sole evidence of the past is an old photograph: a family portrait showing Anna, Trudy, and a Nazi officer, the Obersturmfuhrer of Buchenwald. Driven by the guilt of her heritage, Trudy, now a professor of German history, begins investigating the past and finally unearths the dramatic and heartbreaking truth of her mother's life. Combining a passionate, doomed love story, a vivid evocation of life during the war, and a poignant mother/daughter drama, Those Who Save Us is a profound exploration of what we endure to survive and the legacy of shame.

The Children's Block

The Children's Block
  • Author : Otto B Kraus
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-10-17
  • Total pages :320
  • ISBN : 9781473573222
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : 'We lived on a bunk built for four but in times of overcrowding, it slept seven and at times even eight. There was so little space on the berth that when one of us wanted to ease his hip, we all had to turn in a tangle of legs and chests and hollow bellies as if we were one many-limbed creature, a Hindu god or a centipede. We grow intimate not only in body but also in mind because we knew that though we were not born of one womb, we would certainly die together.' Alex Ehren is poet, a prisoner and a teacher in block 31 in Auschwitz-Birkenau, the children’s block. He spends his days trying to survive while illegally giving lessons to his young charges while shielding them as best he can from the impossible horrors of the camp. But trying to teach the children is not the only illicit activity that Alex is involved in. Alex is keeping a diary... Originally published as THE PAINTED WALL, Otto Kraus’s autobiographical novel, tells the true story of 500 Jewish children who lived in the Czech Family Camp in Auschwitz-Birkenau between September 1943 and June 1944.

The Brothers of Auschwitz

The Brothers of Auschwitz
  • Author : Malka Adler
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-08-25
  • Total pages :464
  • ISBN : 9780008391485
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : My brother’s tears left a delicate, clean line on his face. I stroked his cheek, whispered, it’s really you ...

The Wedding in Auschwitz

The Wedding in Auschwitz
  • Author : Erich Hackl
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009
  • Total pages :148
  • ISBN : 9781852429836
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Rudi Friemel fights for the International Brigades in the Spanish Civil War. When the Republican Front collapses, he is interned in France, sent to a Gestapo prison in Vienna, and then on to Auschwitz. From the camp, he petitions to be allowed to marry Marga, his sweetheart and the mother of his child. Eventually his petition is granted. The officials who spend all their time registering the deaths now register a marriage. A survivor reports: 'It was a victory - a proof that we were still alive - though we knew our lives hung by a thread, a whim.' Restrained and compassionate, based on real events, The Wedding in Auschwitz is a stark reminder of how, in the middle of the twentieth century, history determined the lives of individuals.

My Family's Survival

My Family's Survival
  • Author : Aviva Gat
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-01-21
  • Total pages :375
  • ISBN : 1794470204
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : For the Shwartz family, survival was the only option. Their will to live, and a bit a luck, kept the family safe during the Holocaust, bringing them across Eastern Europe all the way to Israel. In 1937, the Shwartz family lived a calm life in their small village in Poland. Fifteen-year-old Rachel liked to sing and go out dancing at a local night club, while her older brother David was busy running a farm and raising a family with his wife Hinda. But all that changed when the war reached Butla. First, the Russians came and kicked them out of their house. Then, the Nazis came to cart them off. But the Shwartz family resisted. David decided that no matter what, his family would not be taken captive. Instead, he snuck his family out of their village, through a large forest, and into Hungary, a place that was supposed to be safe. But that didn't last long. Again the Shwartz family found themselves on the run, escaping prison, Nazis, and bombings. My Family's Survival is the incredible true story of how the Shwartz family survived the Holocaust. It is a powerful tale of one family's triumph during history's darkest moments. Fans of The Tattooist of Auschwitz and We Were the Lucky Ones will enjoy this riveting saga where hope prevails.

Bitter Reckoning

Bitter Reckoning
  • Author : Dan Porat
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-10-15
  • Total pages :272
  • ISBN : 9780674243132
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Digging into newly declassified archives, Dan Porat unearths the story of Jews prosecuted by the State of Israel for Nazi collaboration. Over time courts and the public came to see Jewish ghetto administrators or kapos as tragic figures. Rigorous yet humane, Porat invites us to rethink ideas about victimhood, justice, and collective memory.

Auschwitz Lullaby

Auschwitz Lullaby
  • Author : Mario Escobar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-08-07
  • Total pages :304
  • ISBN : 9780785219941
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Based on the true story of a brave German nurse tasked with caring for Auschwitz’s youngest prisoners, Auschwitz Lullaby brings to life the story of Helene Hannemann—a woman who sacrificed everything for family and fought furiously for the children she hoped to save. On an otherwise ordinary morning in 1943, Helene Hannemann is preparing her five children for the day when the German police arrive at her home. Helene’s worst fears come true when the police, under strict orders from the SS, demand that her children and husband, all of Romani heritage, be taken into custody. Though Helene is German and safe from the forces invading her home, she refuses to leave her family—sealing her fate in a way she never could have imagined. After a terrifying trek across the continent, Helene and her family arrive at Auschwitz and are thrown into the chaos of the camp. Her husband, Johann, is separated from them, but Helene remains fiercely protective of her children and those around her. When the powers-that-be discover that Helene is not only a German but also a trained nurse, she is forced into service at the camp hospital, which is overseen by the notorious Dr. Mengele himself. Helene is under no illusions in terms of Dr. Mengele’s intentions, but she agrees to cooperate when he asks her to organize a day care and school for the Romani children in the camp. Though physically and emotionally brutalized by the conditions at Auschwitz, Helene musters the strength to protect the children in her care at any cost. Through sheer force of will, Helene provides a haven for the children of Auschwitz—an act of kindness and selflessness so great that it illuminates the darkest night of human history. Based on a true story, Mario Escobar’s Auschwitz Lullaby demonstrates the power of sacrifice and the strength of human dignity—even when all hope seems lost. “Auschwitz Lullaby grabbed my heart and drew me in. A great choice for readers of historical fiction.” —Irma Joubert, author of The Girl from the Train An international bestseller Full-length World War II historical novel A finalist for 2019’s Empik Award for Literature Includes discussion questions for book clubs, research notes from the author, and a historical timeline