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Toxicological Evaluation of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Products

Toxicological Evaluation of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Products
  • Author : Manuel C. Peitsch,Julia Hoeng
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-01-14
  • Total pages :620
  • ISBN : 9780128209356
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Summary : Toxicological Evaluation of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Products (ENDP) discusses the scientific basis for the toxicological assessment and evaluation of ENDPs. The book covers aerosol chemistry, in vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical studies. It provides the basis for the evaluation of short and long term-effects, along with relative risks. It also examines the potential role of ENDPs in tobacco harm reduction and how they may reduce the risk of disease in smokers who switch to them. This book is a comprehensive resource for toxicologists, health practitioners and public health professionals who want the scientific information necessary to assess the relative risk of ENDPs when compared with cigarette smoking and cessation. Delivers a comprehensive overview of current state of science Offers an integrated analysis of e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products Provides guidance for methodologies

Public Health Consequences of E-Cigarettes

Public Health Consequences of E-Cigarettes
  • Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice,Committee on the Review of the Health Effects of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-05-18
  • Total pages :774
  • ISBN : 9780309468374
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Summary : Millions of Americans use e-cigarettes. Despite their popularity, little is known about their health effects. Some suggest that e-cigarettes likely confer lower risk compared to combustible tobacco cigarettes, because they do not expose users to toxicants produced through combustion. Proponents of e-cigarette use also tout the potential benefits of e-cigarettes as devices that could help combustible tobacco cigarette smokers to quit and thereby reduce tobacco-related health risks. Others are concerned about the exposure to potentially toxic substances contained in e-cigarette emissions, especially in individuals who have never used tobacco products such as youth and young adults. Given their relatively recent introduction, there has been little time for a scientific body of evidence to develop on the health effects of e-cigarettes. Public Health Consequences of E-Cigarettes reviews and critically assesses the state of the emerging evidence about e-cigarettes and health. This report makes recommendations for the improvement of this research and highlights gaps that are a priority for future research.

How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease

How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease
  • Author : U. s. Department of Health and Human Services Staff
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010
  • Total pages :704
  • ISBN : UCSD:31822037817723
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Summary : This report considers the biological and behavioral mechanisms that may underlie the pathogenicity of tobacco smoke. Many Surgeon General's reports have considered research findings on mechanisms in assessing the biological plausibility of associations observed in epidemiologic studies. Mechanisms of disease are important because they may provide plausibility, which is one of the guideline criteria for assessing evidence on causation. This report specifically reviews the evidence on the potential mechanisms by which smoking causes diseases and considers whether a mechanism is likely to be operative in the production of human disease by tobacco smoke. This evidence is relevant to understanding how smoking causes disease, to identifying those who may be particularly susceptible, and to assessing the potential risks of tobacco products.

Public Health Consequences of E-Cigarettes

Public Health Consequences of E-Cigarettes
  • Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice,Committee on the Review of the Health Effects of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-05-18
  • Total pages :774
  • ISBN : 9780309468374
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Summary : Millions of Americans use e-cigarettes. Despite their popularity, little is known about their health effects. Some suggest that e-cigarettes likely confer lower risk compared to combustible tobacco cigarettes, because they do not expose users to toxicants produced through combustion. Proponents of e-cigarette use also tout the potential benefits of e-cigarettes as devices that could help combustible tobacco cigarette smokers to quit and thereby reduce tobacco-related health risks. Others are concerned about the exposure to potentially toxic substances contained in e-cigarette emissions, especially in individuals who have never used tobacco products such as youth and young adults. Given their relatively recent introduction, there has been little time for a scientific body of evidence to develop on the health effects of e-cigarettes. Public Health Consequences of E-Cigarettes reviews and critically assesses the state of the emerging evidence about e-cigarettes and health. This report makes recommendations for the improvement of this research and highlights gaps that are a priority for future research.

Analytical Assessment of e-Cigarettes

Analytical Assessment of e-Cigarettes
  • Author : Konstantinos E. Farsalinos,I. Gene Gillman,Stephen S. Hecht,Riccardo Polosa,Jonathan Thornburg
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-11-16
  • Total pages :162
  • ISBN : 9780128112427
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Summary : A volume in the Emerging Issues in Analytical Chemistry series, Analytical Assessment of E-Cigarettes: From Contents to Chemical and Particle Exposure Profiles addresses the many issues surrounding electronic cigarettes in an unprecedented level of scientific detail. The plethora of product devices, formulations, and flavors, combined with the lack of industry standards and labeling requirements, quality control, and limited product oversight, has given rise to public concern about initiation of use and potential for adverse exposure and negative long-term health outcomes. This volume discusses how analytical methods can address these issues and support the manufacturing, labeling, distribution, testing, regulation, and monitoring for consistency of products with known chemical content and demonstrated performance characteristics. The book begins with the background on aerosol drug delivery services and e-cigarettes, constituents of nicotine-containing liquid dosing formulations, typical use scenarios and associated aerosol emissions, and chemical exposures and pharmacological and toxicological effect profiles, and then continues with descriptions of the analytical methods used to characterize the chemicals in formulations and emissions from e-cigarettes, including their stability, physical particle-size distribution and thermal degradation under commonly employed conditions of use. Analytical methods enabling detection of biomarkers of exposure and harm in complex biological matrices are discussed, with an emphasis on constituents or emissions of current medicinal interest or with potential to produce harm. Opportunities and challenges for analytical chemistry in supporting the continued development and use of safe and consistent dosage formulations as alternatives to tobacco products are also explored, with a concluding section describing an analytical approach to a risk-benefit assessment of e-cigarette use on human health. The Emerging Issues in Analytical Chemistry series is published in partnership with RTI International and edited by Brian F. Thomas. Please be sure to check out our other featured volumes: Thomas, Brian F. and ElSohly, Mahmoud. The Analytical Chemistry of Cannabis: Quality Assessment, Assurance, and Regulation of Medicinal Marijuana and Cannabinoid Preparations, 9780128046463, December 2015. Hackney, Anthony C. Exercise, Sport, and Bioanalytical Chemistry: Principles and Practice, 9780128092064, March 2016. Tanna, Sangeeta and Lawson, Graham. Analytical Chemistry for Assessing Medication Adherence, 9780128054635, April 2016. Rao, Vikram; Knight, Rob; and Stoner, Brian. Sustainable Shale Oil and Gas: Analytical Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Geochemistry Methods, 9780128103890, September 2016. Discusses the chemistry and physics involved in aerosol production, inhalation, deposition, chemical exposure, and effect assessment Contains current information and state-of-the-science methods on e-cigarette emissions, exposures, and harm assessment Offers an authoritative, objective perspective from five of the most well-recognized scientists in their areas of expertise who have no personal stake in the e-cigarette industry or the opposition Includes a foreword written by Dr. Neal Benowitz

WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation

WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation
  • Author : WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation. Meeting,World Health Organization
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009
  • Total pages :41
  • ISBN : 9789241209557
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Summary : This report makes available the findings of an international group of experts that provide WHO with the latest scientific and technical advice in the area of product regulation. The third report presents the conclusions reached and recommendations made by the members of the WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation at its fifth meeting, during which it reviewed two background papers specially commissioned for the meeting and which dealt, respectively, with the following two themes: devices designed for the purpose of nicotine delivery to the respiratory system in which tobacco is not necessary for their operation and setting regulatory limits for carcinogens in smokeless tobacco. The Study Group's recommendations in relation to each theme are set out at the end of the section dealing with that theme. Its overall recommendations are summarized in section 4. The Study Group intends this new set of recommendations to be useful to WHO Member States and national policymakers and regulators in shaping tobacco control policy.

Comparative Risk Assessment of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems ('e-cigarettes') and Conventional Cigarettes

Comparative Risk Assessment of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems ('e-cigarettes') and Conventional Cigarettes
  • Author : Jinsong Chen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016
  • Total pages :246
  • ISBN : OCLC:953389495
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Summary : Introduction: The use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) is controversial. Among the issues of concern is safety: some people think ECs are safer alternatives to conventional cigarettes (CCs), while others are concerned about the possible health effects of using ECs. Although many studies have identified hazards in EC emissions, there is only limited information about exposure levels and the likely health risks of using ECs. Methods: This study aimed to characterise the health risks of using ECs and compare them with the risks of using CCs by utilizing the U.S. EPA health risk assessment model. Hazards were identified and profiled (toxicological and exposure) using document review. The risk from exposure to hazards was thus identified and the overall health risks of using ECs and CCs were compared, and then benchmarked with international guideline levels for each hazard to evaluate whether the detected hazards might pose a significant health risk to users or not, given comparable exposures. Results: Exposures to toxicants of concern identified in EC emissions (acetaldehyde, acrolein, formaldehyde, diethylene glycol, propylene glycol, cadmium, nickel, NNK, and NNN) are almost all far lower than in CC emissions, indicating EC use under standard use conditions is likely to be far safer than smoking. As most hazards’ exposure levels in EC emissions are lower than the defined guideline levels, ECs are also likely to be of low risk to health. Conclusions & Recommendations: The health risks of using ECs are lower than CCs. In a few studies of some ECs, some toxicant levels exceeded levels regarded as safe by international standards. However, studies of ECs lack standardisation in the assessment methods for EC product performance, usage patterns and exposure. Future studies should adhere to a standard methodology to enable ready comparisons. Regulation of EC manufacture and sales is needed to prevent the sale of low quality ECs. Lastly, health professionals and the general public need more information on ECs as safer alternatives to cigarette smoking.

Barile’s Clinical Toxicology

Barile’s Clinical Toxicology
  • Author : Frank A. Barile
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-04-24
  • Total pages :584
  • ISBN : 9781498765381
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Summary : As with the two previous editions, Barile’s Clinical Toxicology: Principles and Mechanisms, Third edition, examines the complex interactions associated with clinical toxicological events as a result of therapeutic drug administration or chemical exposure. With special emphasis placed on signs and symptoms of diseases and pathology caused by toxins and clinical drugs, the new edition, examines the complex interactions associated with clinical toxicological events as a result of therapeutic drug administration or chemical exposure. The new edition presents the latest, up-to-date protocols for managing various toxic ingestions, and the antidotes and treatments associated with their pathology. In addition, the effect of toxins on a limited number of body systems and drug-induced adverse drug reactions are also covered. KEY FEATURES • Discusses source of the drug or chemical, pharmacological and toxicological mechanisms of action, detection, identification, and treatment • Examines the complex interactions associated with clinical toxicological events • Emphasizes the signs and symptoms of diseases and pathology caused by toxins and clinical drugs • Covers effect of toxins on body systems and drug-induced adverse reactions • Offers a unique perspective for toxicology, pharmacology, pharmacy and health professions students The target audience for this book is undergraduate and graduate toxicology students, clinical pharmacy (Pharm.D.) students, emergency medical personnel, regulatory agencies, and other related health science professionals. It satisfies an essential need for a concise yet detailed authoritative, fundamental text addressing the current principles of clinical toxicology.

OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Section 4 Test No. 490: In Vitro Mammalian Cell Gene Mutation Tests Using the Thymidine Kinase Gene

OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Section 4 Test No. 490: In Vitro Mammalian Cell Gene Mutation Tests Using the Thymidine Kinase Gene
  • Author : OECD
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-07-29
  • Total pages :24
  • ISBN : 9789264264908
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Summary : This TG includes two distinct in vitro mammalian gene mutation assays requiring two specific tk heterozygous cells lines: L5178Y tk+/-3.7.2C cells for the mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) and TK6 tk+/- cells for the TK6 assay.

Haschek and Rousseaux's Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology

Haschek and Rousseaux's Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology
  • Author : Wanda M. Haschek,Colin G. Rousseaux,Matthew A. Wallig
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-01
  • Total pages :3054
  • ISBN : 9780124157651
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Summary : Haschek and Rousseaux's Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology is a key reference on the integration of structure and functional changes in tissues associated with the response to pharmaceuticals, chemicals and biologics. The 3e has been expanded by a full volume, and covers aspects of safety assessment not discussed in the 2e. Completely revised with many new chapters, it remains the most authoritative reference on toxicologic pathology for scientists and researchers studying and making decisions on drugs, biologics, medical devices and other chemicals, including agrochemicals and environmental contaminants. New topics include safety assessment, the drug life cycle, risk assessment, communication and management, carcinogenicity assessment, pharmacology and pharmacokinetics, biomarkers in toxicologic pathology, quality assurance, peer review, agrochemicals, nanotechnology, food and toxicologic pathology, the environment and toxicologic pathology and more. Provides new chapters and in-depth discussion of timely topics in the area of toxicologic pathology and broadens the scope of the audience to include toxicologists and pathologists working in a variety of settings Offers high-quality and trusted content in a multi-contributed work written by leading international authorities in all areas of toxicologic pathology Features hundreds of full color images in both the print and electronic versions of the book to highlight difficult concepts with clear illustrations

WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality

WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality
  • Author : World Health Organization
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009
  • Total pages :228
  • ISBN : 9789289041683
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Summary : Microbial pollution is a key element of indoor air pollution. It is caused by hundreds of species of bacteria and fungi, in particular filamentous fungi (mould), growing indoors when sufficient moisture is available. This document provides a comprehensive review of the scientific evidence on health problems associated with building moisture and biological agents. The review concludes that the most important effects are increased prevalences of respiratory symptoms, allergies and asthma as well as perturbation of the immunological system. The document also summarizes the available information on the conditions that determine the presence of mould and measures to control their growth indoors. WHO guidelines for protecting public health are formulated on the basis of the review. The most important means for avoiding adverse health effects is the prevention (or minimization) of persistent dampness and microbial growth on interior surfaces and in building structures. [Ed.]

Golden Holocaust

Golden Holocaust
  • Author : Robert N. Proctor
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-02-28
  • Total pages :752
  • ISBN : 9780520950436
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Summary : The cigarette is the deadliest artifact in the history of human civilization. It is also one of the most beguiling, thanks to more than a century of manipulation at the hands of tobacco industry chemists. In Golden Holocaust, Robert N. Proctor draws on reams of formerly-secret industry documents to explore how the cigarette came to be the most widely-used drug on the planet, with six trillion sticks sold per year. He paints a harrowing picture of tobacco manufacturers conspiring to block the recognition of tobacco-cancer hazards, even as they ensnare legions of scientists and politicians in a web of denial. Proctor tells heretofore untold stories of fraud and subterfuge, and he makes the strongest case to date for a simple yet ambitious remedy: a ban on the manufacture and sale of cigarettes.

Food

Food
  • Author : Warren Belasco
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-10-15
  • Total pages :158
  • ISBN : 9781845206734
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Summary : Food: The Key Concepts presents an exciting, coherent and interdisciplinary introduction to food studies for the beginning reader. Food Studies is an increasingly complex field, drawing on disciplines as diverse as Sociology, Anthropology and Cultural Studies at one end and Economics, Politics and Agricultural Science at the other. In order to clarify the issues, Food: The Key Concepts distills food choices down to three competing considerations: consumer identity; matters of convenience and price; and an awareness of the consequences of what is consumed. The book concludes with an examination of two very different future scenarios for feeding the world's population: the technological fix, which looks to science to provide the solution to our future food needs; and the anthropological fix, which hopes to change our expectations and behaviors. Throughout, the analysis is illustrated with lively case studies. Bulleted chapter summaries, questions and guides to further reading are also provided.

WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2013

WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2013
  • Author : World Health Organization
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013
  • Total pages :202
  • ISBN : 9789241505871
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Summary : "The continued success in global tobacco control is detailed in this year’s WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2013. The fourth in the series, this year’s report presents the status of the MPOWER measures, with country-specific data updated and aggregated through 2012. In addition, the report provides a special focus on legislation to ban tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS) in WHO Member States and an in-depth analyses of TAPS bans were performed, allowing for a more detailed understanding of progress and future challenges in this area."--Website summary.

Illustrated Handbook of Toxicology

Illustrated Handbook of Toxicology
  • Author : Franz-Xaver Reichl,Leonard Ritter
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-12-15
  • Total pages :360
  • ISBN : 9783131495914
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Summary : The Illustrated Handbook of Toxicology is an impressive introduction to the complex field of toxicology. It also serves as a hands-on guide to various poison treatments and offers supplemental public health information.Each two-page unit features concise text on the left complemented by full-color illustrations on the opposing page. The expert author distinguishes harmful toxic substances and catalogues their specific effects on the human body, plants, animals, and the surrounding environment. The handbook also addresses cutting-edge topics, including biological warfare, modern toxicological methods, and threshold values.Features: Succinct, user-friendly organization allows readers to navigate the content with ease Over 500 detailed images and diagrams arranged on 150 full-color plates illustrate exposures and toxicological effects on humans, plants, and animals Well-researched, objective risk analysis on toxic exposures accompanies relevant images Extensive glossary of key toxicological terms provides readers with the accurate information they need to avoid dangerous confusion This is the ideal text for all medical students who want to supplement the toxicological information covered in their coursework, as well as for first responders to chemical accidents and poisonings.

The Chemical Components of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke

The Chemical Components of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke
  • Author : Alan Rodgman,Thomas A. Perfetti
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-04-19
  • Total pages :2332
  • ISBN : 9781466515529
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Summary : Authored by two longtime researchers in tobacco science, The Chemical Components of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke, Second Edition chronicles the progress made from late 2008 through 2011 by scientists in the field of tobacco science. The book examines the isolation and characterization of each component. It explores developments in pertinent analytical

Cigarette Smoke Toxicity

Cigarette Smoke Toxicity
  • Author : David Bernhard
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-02-16
  • Total pages :388
  • ISBN : 9783527635337
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Summary : Smoking causes and contributes to a large number of human diseases, yet due to the large number of potentially hazardous compounds in cigarette smoke -- almost 5,000 chemicals have been identified, establishing the link between smoking and disease has often proved difficult. This unbiased and scientifically accurate overview of current knowledge begins with an overview of the chemical constituents in cigarette smoke, their fate in the human body, and their documented toxic effects on various cells and tissues. Recent results detailing the many ways components of cigarette smoke adversely affect human health are also presented, highlighting the role of smoking in cardiovascular, respiratory, infectious and other diseases. A final chapter discusses current strategies for the treatment and prevention of smoking-induced illness. Despite the obvious importance of the topic, this is the first comprehensive reference on tobacco smoke toxicity, making for essential reading for all toxicologists and healthcare professionals dealing with smoking-related diseases.

Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing

Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing
  • Author : Claudia Kuenzer,Stefan Dech
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-17
  • Total pages :537
  • ISBN : 9789400766396
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Summary : This book provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in the field of thermal infrared remote sensing. Temperature is one of the most important physical environmental variables monitored by earth observing remote sensing systems. Temperature ranges define the boundaries of habitats on our planet. Thermal hazards endanger our resources and well-being. In this book renowned international experts have contributed chapters on currently available thermal sensors as well as innovative plans for future missions. Further chapters discuss the underlying physics and image processing techniques for analyzing thermal data. Ground-breaking chapters on applications present a wide variety of case studies leading to a deepened understanding of land and sea surface temperature dynamics, urban heat island effects, forest fires, volcanic eruption precursors, underground coal fires, geothermal systems, soil moisture variability, and temperature-based mineral discrimination. ‘Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing: Sensors, Methods, Applications’ is unique because of the large field it spans, the potentials it reveals, and the detail it provides. This book is an indispensable volume for scientists, lecturers, and decision makers interested in thermal infrared technology, methods, and applications.

Phishing Exposed

Phishing Exposed
  • Author : Lance James
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-11-21
  • Total pages :450
  • ISBN : 0080489532
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Summary : Phishing Exposed unveils the techniques phishers employ that enable them to successfully commit fraudulent acts against the global financial industry. Also highlights the motivation, psychology and legal aspects encircling this deceptive art of exploitation. The External Threat Assessment Team will outline innovative forensic techniques employed in order to unveil the identities of these organized individuals, and does not hesitate to remain candid about the legal complications that make prevention and apprehension so difficult today. This title provides an in-depth, high-tech view from both sides of the playing field, and is a real eye-opener for the average internet user, the advanced security engineer, on up through the senior executive management of a financial institution. This is the book to provide the intelligence necessary to stay one step ahead of the enemy, and to successfully employ a pro-active and confident strategy against the evolving attacks against e-commerce and its customers. * Unveils the techniques phishers employ that enable them to successfully commit fraudulent acts * Offers an in-depth, high-tech view from both sides of the playing field to this current epidemic * Stay one step ahead of the enemy with all the latest information

Postmodern War

Postmodern War
  • Author : Chris Hables Gray
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-12
  • Total pages :288
  • ISBN : 9781317972921
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Summary : First published in 1997. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Financialization and Strategy

Financialization and Strategy
  • Author : Julie Froud,Sukhdev Johal,Adam Leaver,Karel Williams
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006-04-18
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9781134314546
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Summary : Considering the recent impact of the capital market on corporate strategy, this text analyzes, through argument and supportive case studies, how pressures from the capital bull market of the 1990s and bear market of the early 2000s, have reshaped management action and calculation in large, publicly quoted US and UK corporations. Beginning with the dissatisfaction with classical strategy and its limited engagement with the processes of financialization, the book moves on to cover three detailed company case studies (General Electric, Ford and GlaxoSmithKline) which use long run financial data and analysis of company and industry narratives to illustrate and explore key themes. The book emphasizes the importance of company and industry narrative, while also analyzing long term financial results, and helps to explain the limits of management action and the burden of expectations placed on corporate governance. Presenting financial and market information on trajectory in an accessible way, this book provides a distinctive, critical social science account of management in large UK and US corporations, and it is a valuable resource for students, scholars and researchers of business, management, political economy and non-mainstream economics. short listed for the 2007 IPEG Book Prize