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Twin and Family Studies of Epigenetics

Twin and Family Studies of Epigenetics
  • Author : Shuai Li,John Hopper
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-10-15
  • Total pages :408
  • ISBN : 0128209518
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Summary : In recent years, epigenetic modifications have been shown to play an important role in human development and disease progression, and results from ongoing epidemiological studies are already driving advances in medicine and public health. Twin and family studies in epigenetics, by design, offer a unique ability to assess disease risk factors and evaluate interventions across the human lifespan. With Twin and Family Studies of Epigenetics, a new volume in the Translational Epigenetics series, Editors John Hopper and Shuai Li gather expert opinion on epigenetic twin and family study research methods, recent findings across various across disease areas, and future directions for research and clinical application. Here more than 15 leaders in the field provide in-depth coverage of epigenetics fundamentals, twin and family epigenetic study design, and the broader role of epigenetics in answering our questions on the developmental origins of health and disease. Throughout the volume, twin and family studies are employed to examine causes of epigenetic variation, the relationship between epigenetic modifications and mental illness, cancers, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and high blood pressure, among other diseases and disorders. Emerging research methods applied in twin and family studies discussed include imaging epigenetics, exposure-specific DNA methylation changes, and unravelling time trends in epigenetic effects. Offers a practical, interdisciplinary approach across epigenetics, epidemiology, and various disease specialties Applies epigenetics twin and family studies to determine relationship between epigenetics and mental illness, cancers, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and high blood pressure, among other diseases and disorders Features chapter contributions from a wide range of international researchers in the field

Twin and Family Studies of Epigenetics

Twin and Family Studies of Epigenetics
  • Author : Shuai Li,John Hopper
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-10-01
  • Total pages :408
  • ISBN : 9780128209523
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Summary : Twin and Family Studies of Epigenetics, Volume 29, the latest release in the Translational Epigenetics series, gathers expert opinions on epigenetic twin and family study research methods, recent findings across various disease areas, and future directions. The book provides in-depth coverage of epigenetics fundamentals, twin and family epigenetic study design, and the broader role of epigenetics in answering questions on the developmental origins of health and disease. Throughout the volume, twin and family studies are employed to examine causes of epigenetic variation, the relationship between epigenetic modifications and mental illness, cancers, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure, and more. Emerging research methods applied in twin and family studies discussed include imaging epigenetics, exposure-specific DNA methylation changes, and unravelling time trends in epigenetic effects. Offers a practical, interdisciplinary approach across epigenetics, epidemiology and various disease specialties Applies epigenetic twin and family studies to determine the relationship between epigenetics and mental illness, cancers, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity and high blood pressure, among other diseases and disorders Features chapter contributions from a wide range of international researchers in the field

Medical Epigenetics

Medical Epigenetics
  • Author : Trygve Tollefsbol
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-06-21
  • Total pages :924
  • ISBN : 9780128032404
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Summary : Medical Epigenetics provides a comprehensive analysis of the importance of epigenetics to health management. The purpose of this book is to fill a current need for a comprehensive volume on the medical aspects of epigenetics with a focus on human systems, epigenetic diseases that affect these systems and modes of treating epigenetic-based disorders and diseases. The intent of this book is to provide a stand-alone comprehensive volume that will cover all human systems relevant to epigenetic maladies and all major aspects of medical epigenetics. The overall goal is to provide the leading book on medical epigenetics that will be useful not only to physicians, nurses, medical students and many others directly involved with health care, but also investigators in life sciences, biotech companies, graduate students and many others who are interested in more applied aspects of epigenetics. Research in the area of translational epigenetics is a cornerstone of this volume. Critical reviews dedicated to the burgeoning role of epigenetics in medical practice Coverage of emerging topics including twin epigenetics as well as epigenetics of gastrointestinal disease, muscle disorders, endocrine disorders, ocular medicine, pediatric diseases, sports medicine, noncoding RNA therapeutics, pain management and regenerative medicine Encompasses a disease-oriented perspective of medical epigenetics as well as diagnostic and prognostic epigenetic approaches to applied medicine

Environmental Epigenetics

Environmental Epigenetics
  • Author : L. Joseph Su,Tung-chin Chiang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-05-18
  • Total pages :321
  • ISBN : 9781447166788
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Summary : This book examines the toxicological and health implications of environmental epigenetics and provides knowledge through an interdisciplinary approach. Included in this volume are chapters outlining various environmental risk factors such as phthalates and dietary components, life states such as pregnancy and ageing, hormonal and metabolic considerations and specific disease risks such as cancer cardiovascular diseases and other non-communicable diseases. Environmental Epigenetics imparts integrative knowledge of the science of epigenetics and the issues raised in environmental epidemiology. This book is intended to serve both as a reference compendium on environmental epigenetics for scientists in academia, industry and laboratories and as a textbook for graduate level environmental health courses. Environmental Epigenetics imparts integrative knowledge of the science of epigenetics and the issues raised in environmental epidemiology. This book is intended to serve both as a reference compendium on environmental epigenetics for scientists in academia, industry and laboratories and as a textbook for graduate level environmental health courses.

Epigenetics in Human Disease

Epigenetics in Human Disease
  • Author : Trygve O. Tollefsbol
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012
  • Total pages :577
  • ISBN : 9780123884152
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Summary : Epigenetics is one of the fastest growing fields of sciences, illuminating studies of human diseases by looking beyond genetic make-up and acknowledging that outside factors play a role in gene expression. The goal of this volume is to highlight those diseases or conditions for which we have advanced knowledge of epigenetic factors such as cancer, autoimmune disorders and aging as well as those that are yielding exciting breakthroughs in epigenetics such as diabetes, neurobiological disorders and cardiovascular disease. Where applicable, attempts are made to not only detail the role of epigenetics in the etiology, progression, diagnosis and prognosis of these diseases, but also novel epigenetic approaches to the treatment of these diseases. Chapters are also presented on human imprinting disorders, respiratory diseases, infectious diseases and gynecological and reproductive diseases. Since epigenetics plays a major role in the aging process, advances in the epigenetics of aging are highly relevant to many age-related human diseases. Therefore, this volume closes with chapters on aging epigenetics and breakthroughs that have been made to delay the aging process through epigenetic approaches. With its translational focus, this book will serve as valuable reference for both basic scientists and clinicians alike. Comprehensive coverage of fundamental and emergent science and clinical usage Side-by-side coverage of the basis of epigenetic diseases and their treatments Evaluation of recent epigenetic clinical breakthroughs

The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide

The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide
  • Author : Yogesh Dwivedi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-06-25
  • Total pages :482
  • ISBN : 9781439838815
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Summary : With recent studies using genetic, epigenetic, and other molecular and neurochemical approaches, a new era has begun in understanding pathophysiology of suicide. Emerging evidence suggests that neurobiological factors are not only critical in providing potential risk factors but also provide a promising approach to develop more effective treatment and prevention strategies. The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide discusses the most recent findings in suicide neurobiology. Psychological, psychosocial, and cultural factors are important in determining the risk factors for suicide; however, they offer weak prediction and can be of little clinical use. Interestingly, cognitive characteristics are different among depressed suicidal and depressed nonsuicidal subjects, and could be involved in the development of suicidal behavior. The characterization of the neurobiological basis of suicide is in delineating the risk factors associated with suicide. The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide focuses on how and why these neurobiological factors are crucial in the pathogenic mechanisms of suicidal behavior and how these findings can be transformed into potential therapeutic applications.

Epigenetics in Society

Epigenetics in Society
  • Author : Windsor Epigenetics Study Group
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-10-26
  • Total pages :327
  • ISBN : 9780920233726
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Summary : This is a book written by students of diverse disciplines, and intended for students and educated lay people. We intend this book to serve several functions. First, we want to make the field of epigenetics accessible to lay readers. Second, and more importantly, we want to excite further interest and concern regarding the social, ethical, legal, health, and policy implications that this field will have for all arenas of our lives. Third, we want to arm our readers with knowledge and wariness so that they can understand and critique the nuanced debates that will inevitably arise when costs and benefits must be weighed: while the effects of epigenetics upon us as individuals may be subtle, the demographic implications and costs are huge.

Born Together—Reared Apart

Born Together—Reared Apart
  • Author : Nancy L. Segal
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-06-18
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9780674065154
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Summary : The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart startled scientists by demonstrating that twins reared apart are as alike, across a number of personality traits and other measures, as those raised together, suggesting that genetic influence is pervasive. Segal offers an overview of the study’s scientific contributions and effect on public consciousness.

The Epigenetics of Autoimmunity

The Epigenetics of Autoimmunity
  • Author : Rongxin Zhang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-04-25
  • Total pages :432
  • ISBN : 9780128099285
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Summary : The Epigenetics of Autoimmunity covers a topic directly related to translational epigenetics. Via epigenetic mechanisms, a number of internal and external environmental risk factors, including smoking, nutrition, viral infection and the exposure to chemicals, could exert their influence on the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Such factors could impact the epigenetic mechanisms, which, in turn, build relationship with the regulation of gene expression, and eventually triggering immunologic events that result in instability of immune system. Since epigenetic aberrations are known to play a key role in a long list of human diseases, the translational significance of autoimmunity epigenetics is very high. To bridge the gap between environmental and genetic factors, over the past few years, great progress has been made in identifying detailed epigenetic mechanisms for autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, with rapid advances in technological development, high-throughput screening approaches and other novel technologies support the systematic investigations and facilitate the epigenetic identification. This book covers autoimmunity epigenetics from a disease-oriented perspective and several chapters are presented that provide advances in wide-spread disorders or diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), type 1 diabetes (T1DM), systemic sclerosis (SSc), primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) and autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs). These emerging epigenetic studies provide new insights into autoimmune diseases, raising great expectations among researchers and clinicians. This seminal book on this topic comprehensively covers the most recent advances in this exciting and rapidly developing new science. They might reveal not only new clinical biomarkers for diagnosis and disease progression, but also novel targets for potential epigenetic therapeutic treatment. Provides the accurate and cutting-edge information on autoimmunity epigenetics Wide coverage appeals to those interested in fundamental epigenetics and inheritance to those with more clinical interests Critical reviews of the mean of deriving and analysing autoimmunity epigenetics information as well as its translational potential Up-to-date coverage of emerging topics in autoimmunity epigenetics

The Gene

The Gene
  • Author : Siddhartha Mukherjee
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-05-17
  • Total pages :608
  • ISBN : 9781476733531
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Summary : The #1 NEW YORK TIMES Bestseller The basis for the PBS Ken Burns Documentary The Gene: An Intimate History From the Pulitzer Prize–winning author of The Emperor of All Maladies—a fascinating history of the gene and “a magisterial account of how human minds have laboriously, ingeniously picked apart what makes us tick” (Elle). "Sid Mukherjee has the uncanny ability to bring together science, history, and the future in a way that is understandable and riveting, guiding us through both time and the mystery of life itself." –Ken Burns “Dr. Siddhartha Mukherjee dazzled readers with his Pulitzer Prize-winning The Emperor of All Maladies in 2010. That achievement was evidently just a warm-up for his virtuoso performance in The Gene: An Intimate History, in which he braids science, history, and memoir into an epic with all the range and biblical thunder of Paradise Lost” (The New York Times). In this biography Mukherjee brings to life the quest to understand human heredity and its surprising influence on our lives, personalities, identities, fates, and choices. “Mukherjee expresses abstract intellectual ideas through emotional stories…[and] swaddles his medical rigor with rhapsodic tenderness, surprising vulnerability, and occasional flashes of pure poetry” (The Washington Post). Throughout, the story of Mukherjee’s own family—with its tragic and bewildering history of mental illness—reminds us of the questions that hang over our ability to translate the science of genetics from the laboratory to the real world. In riveting and dramatic prose, he describes the centuries of research and experimentation—from Aristotle and Pythagoras to Mendel and Darwin, from Boveri and Morgan to Crick, Watson and Franklin, all the way through the revolutionary twenty-first century innovators who mapped the human genome. “A fascinating and often sobering history of how humans came to understand the roles of genes in making us who we are—and what our manipulation of those genes might mean for our future” (Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel), The Gene is the revelatory and magisterial history of a scientific idea coming to life, the most crucial science of our time, intimately explained by a master. “The Gene is a book we all should read” (USA TODAY).

Epigenetics of Aging

Epigenetics of Aging
  • Author : Trygve O. Tollefsbol
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-11-11
  • Total pages :469
  • ISBN : 1441906398
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Summary : Recent studies have indicated that epigenetic processes may play a major role in both cellular and organismal aging. These epigenetic processes include not only DNA methylation and histone modifications, but also extend to many other epigenetic mediators such as the polycomb group proteins, chromosomal position effects, and noncoding RNA. The topics of this book range from fundamental changes in DNA methylation in aging to the most recent research on intervention into epigenetic modifications to modulate the aging process. The major topics of epigenetics and aging covered in this book are: 1) DNA methylation and histone modifications in aging; 2) Other epigenetic processes and aging; 3) Impact of epigenetics on aging; 4) Epigenetics of age-related diseases; 5) Epigenetic interventions and aging: and 6) Future directions in epigenetic aging research. The most studied of epigenetic processes, DNA methylation, has been associated with cellular aging and aging of organisms for many years. It is now apparent that both global and gene-specific alterations occur not only in DNA methylation during aging, but also in several histone alterations. Many epigenetic alterations can have an impact on aging processes such as stem cell aging, control of telomerase, modifications of telomeres, and epigenetic drift can impact the aging process as evident in the recent studies of aging monozygotic twins. Numerous age-related diseases are affected by epigenetic mechanisms. For example, recent studies have shown that DNA methylation is altered in Alzheimer’s disease and autoimmunity. Other prevalent diseases that have been associated with age-related epigenetic changes include cancer and diabetes. Paternal age and epigenetic changes appear to have an effect on schizophrenia and epigenetic silencing has been associated with several of the progeroid syndromes of premature aging. Moreover, the impact of dietary or drug intervention into epigenetic processes as they affect normal aging or age-related diseases is becoming increasingly feasible.

Behavior Genetics of Psychopathology

Behavior Genetics of Psychopathology
  • Author : Soo Hyun Rhee,Angelica Ronald
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-02-03
  • Total pages :344
  • ISBN : 9781461495093
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Summary : As a dynamic, interdisciplinary field, behavior genetics and its evolution are being followed closely by scientists across the psychological and medical domains. The discoveries surrounding the human genome and the advancement in molecular genetic technologies have led to studies becoming increasingly sophisticated and yielding yet more conclusive and useful results. This is certainly the case in the area of child and adult psychopathology. Behavior Genetics of Psychopathology summarizes the state of the field, examining the role of genes and environment as they affect common neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions. Emphasizing key research areas (comorbidities, twin studies, the integration of methods), the book assesses the current literature, offers up-to-date findings, sorts through lingering controversies, and identifies a clear future agenda for the field. Expertly-written chapters focus on issues of both general salience that shape behavior genetics of psychopathology, to specific disorders of major clinical importance, among them: ADHD: the view from quantitative genetic research. Autism spectrum disorders and their complex heterogeneity Genetic influences on anxiety and depression in childhood and adolescence. Evidence for etiologically-defined subgroups within the construct of antisocial behavior. Sleep and psychopathology: the reasons for their co-occurrence. Behavioral genetic approaches to the etiology of comorbidity. Epigenetics of psychopathology. This combination of timeliness and depth of coverage make Behavior Genetics of Psychopathology a frontline resource for behavior geneticists, psychologists, psychiatrists, and neuroscientists, and is perfectly suited to graduate students looking to join these fields.

Epigenetic Epidemiology

Epigenetic Epidemiology
  • Author : Karin B. Michels
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-01-02
  • Total pages :448
  • ISBN : 9789400724952
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Summary : The exploding field of epigenetics is challenging the dogma of traditional Mendelian inheritance. Epigenetics plays an important role in shaping who we are and contributes to our prospects of health and disease. While early epigenetic research focused on plant and animal models and in vitro experiments, population-based epidemiologic studies increasingly incorporate epigenetic components. The relevance of epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, genomic imprinting, and histone modification for disease causation has yet to be fully explored. This book covers the basic concepts of epigenetic epidemiology, discusses challenges in study design, analysis, and interpretation, epigenetic laboratory techniques, the influence of of age and environmental factors on shaping the epigenome, the role of epigenetics in the developmental origins hypothesis, and provides the state of the art on the epigenetic epidemiology of various health conditions including childhood syndromes, cancer, infectious diseases, inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders, psychiatric disorders, diabetes, obesity and metabolic disorders, and atherosclerosis. With contributions from: Peter Jones, Jean-Pierre Issa, Gavin Kelsey, Robert Waterland, and many other experts in epigenetics!

Principles of Psychiatric Genetics

Principles of Psychiatric Genetics
  • Author : John I. Nurnberger, Jr,Wade Berrettini
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-09-13
  • Total pages :402
  • ISBN : 9780521896498
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Summary : A comprehensive, up-to-date resource providing information about genetic influences on disorders of behavior.

Twin Studies

Twin Studies
  • Author : Grant C. Townsend,Sandra K. Pinkerton,James R. Rogers,Michelle R. Bockmann,Toby E. Hughes
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-09-01
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 192526114X
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Summary : This volume is about an ongoing long-term research initiative led by researchers from the School of Dentistry at the University of Adelaide. The aim of this book is to provide an overview of the studies of the teeth and faces of Australian twins and their families that have extended over more than thirty years.

Accidental Brothers

Accidental Brothers
  • Author : Dr. Nancy L. Segal,Yesika S. Montoya
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-04-17
  • Total pages :256
  • ISBN : 9781250101914
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Summary : "A unique window into human behavior and development." —Steven Pinker The riveting story of two sets of identical twins separated at birth and improbably reunited as adults, a dream case for exploring nature and nurture. Accidental Brothers tells the unique story of two sets of identical Colombian twin brothers who discovered at age 25 that they were mistakenly raised as fraternal twins—when they were not even biological brothers. Due to an oversight that presumably occurred in the hospital nursery, one twin in each pair was switched with a twin in the other pair. The result was two sets of unrelated “fraternal” twins—Jorge and Carlos, who were raised in the lively city of Bogotá; and William and Wilber, who were raised in the remote rural village of La Paz, 150 miles away. Their parents and siblings were aware of the enormous physical and behavioral differences between the members of each set, but never doubted that the two belonged in their biological families. Everyone’s life unraveled when one of the twins—William—was mistaken by a young woman for his real identical twin, Jorge. Her “discovery” led to the truth—that the alleged twins were not twins at all, but rather unrelated individuals who ended up with the wrong families. Blending great science and human interest, Accidental Brothers by Nancy L. Segal and Yesika S. Montoya will inform and entertain anyone interested in how twin studies illuminate the origins of human behavior, as well as mother-infant identification and the chance events that can have profound consequences on our lives.

The Epigenetics Revolution

The Epigenetics Revolution
  • Author : Nessa Carey
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-03-06
  • Total pages :352
  • ISBN : 9780231530712
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Summary : Epigenetics can potentially revolutionize our understanding of the structure and behavior of biological life on Earth. It explains why mapping an organism's genetic code is not enough to determine how it develops or acts and shows how nurture combines with nature to engineer biological diversity. Surveying the twenty-year history of the field while also highlighting its latest findings and innovations, this volume provides a readily understandable introduction to the foundations of epigenetics. Nessa Carey, a leading epigenetics researcher, connects the field's arguments to such diverse phenomena as how ants and queen bees control their colonies; why tortoiseshell cats are always female; why some plants need cold weather before they can flower; and how our bodies age and develop disease. Reaching beyond biology, epigenetics now informs work on drug addiction, the long-term effects of famine, and the physical and psychological consequences of childhood trauma. Carey concludes with a discussion of the future directions for this research and its ability to improve human health and well-being.

Methodology for Genetic Studies of Twins and Families

Methodology for Genetic Studies of Twins and Families
  • Author : M. Neale,L.R. Cardon
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-03-09
  • Total pages :496
  • ISBN : 9789401580182
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Summary : Few would dispute the truth of the statement `People are Different', but there is much controversy over why. This book authoritatively explains the methods used to understand human variation, and extends them far beyond the primary `nature or nurture' question. After chapters on basic statistics, biometrical genetics, matrix algebra and path analysis, there is a state-of-the-art account of how to fit genetic models using the LISREL package. The authors explain not only the assumptions of the twin method, but how to test them. The elementary model is expanded to cover sex limitation, sibling interaction, multivariate and longitudinal data, observer ratings, and twin-family studies. Throughout, the methods are illustrated by applications to diverse areas such as obesity, major depression, alcohol comsumption, delinquency, allergies, and common fears.

Identically Different

Identically Different
  • Author : Tim Spector
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-07-30
  • Total pages :352
  • ISBN : 9781468310405
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Summary : In this book, a geneticist who studies identical twins “treats the view that genes are destiny with skepticism” (The New York Times). How much are the things you choose to do every day determined by your genes and how much is your own free will? Drawing on his own cutting-edge research of identical twins, leading geneticist Tim Spector shows us how the same upbringing, the same environment, and even the same exact genes can lead to very different outcomes. Thought-provoking, entertaining, and enlightening, Identically Different helps us understand the science behind what makes each of us unique and so quintessentially human.

Psychotic Disorders

Psychotic Disorders
  • Author : Federico Durbano
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-06-27
  • Total pages :172
  • ISBN : 9781789233247
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Summary : In this book, with the involvement not only of clinical psychiatrists but also of neurobiologists, specific issues of psychotic disorders (mainly schizophrenia and mood disorders) are reviewed. The focus of attention ranges from therapeutics to the new frontiers of epigenetics. A special focus is on the individual reactions to psychosis (ranging from psychological ones to treatments and neurobiological basis). Because of the rapid development of neurosciences, which are showing common underling factors to different phenotypical expressions of mental illness, we are facing an enormous growth of biological data, which is not always easy to interpret. The risk is to forget that we are relating to other individuals, with their stories, and, most of all, with their environmental resources and interactions. The contributions to this book will range from individual experience (a personal history of illness) through some aspects of individual management of illness (insight), from correct use of available psychosocial resources to the environment-gene relationships (epigenetics).

Assessment of Genome-wide Genetic and Epigenetic de Novo Variation in Families with Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Schizophrenia

Assessment of Genome-wide Genetic and Epigenetic de Novo Variation in Families with Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Schizophrenia
  • Author : Christina Angela Castellani
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015
  • Total pages :624
  • ISBN : OCLC:1071999844
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Summary : Schizophrenia (OMIM: 181500) is a common, debilitating and life-altering disorder. It affects 1% of the population worldwide and most often presents in early adulthood leading to devastating effects for patients, their families and society. Despite thousands of studies performed on the underlying mechanisms of schizophrenia, the causes of the disease remain unknown. However, what is known is that environmental, genetic and epigenetic factors contribute to the development of this complex disorder. Although a genetic role in schizophrenia is well established, the search for schizophrenia genes using traditional approaches has remained challenging. Interestingly, monozygotic twins show concordance for schizophrenia only 50% of the time and therefore provide a unique scenario for genomic analysis. This Doctoral thesis examines the genetic and epigenetic contributions to schizophrenia discordance in monozygotic twins. In this thesis, I have identified and characterized genome-wide changes through the use of the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 Microarray, Complete Genomics whole genome sequencing and the Nimblegen Methylation 720k Microarray. Specifically, I have identified genetic and epigenetic differences between monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia. The results show multiple genetic and epigenetic changes between monozygotic twins with discordance for schizophrenia. Some of these differences are patient-specific and others are shared between affected twins in the study. In addition, some of these differences affected genes and others did not. Many of the genes and genomic regions have been previously implicated in schizophrenia and neurodevelopmental disorders. The findings reinforce the concept that individual genomes harbor extensive variability, some inherited and some acquired. Even monozygotic twins are not identical and each individual may be a mosaic; carrying different sequence variations in different cells. The results also suggest that discordance for schizophrenia in monozygotic twins may result from the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic mutations that lead to the disease threshold being met in one twin only. The results argue for the involvement of de novo mutations in genetic individuality and complex disease. Improved understanding of the genomic contributions to schizophrenia is critical for movement towards earlier and more accurate diagnosis, better treatment and further understanding of this complex mental health disorder.