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Urban Heat Island Modeling for Tropical Climates

Urban Heat Island Modeling for Tropical Climates
  • Author : Ansar Khan,Soumendu Chatterjee,Yupeng Wang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-11-17
  • Total pages :298
  • ISBN : 9780128225585
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Summary : Urban Heat Island Modeling for Tropical Climates takes into account the different urban physics in tropical environments, presenting a way of UHI scaling for tropical cities. Topics include measuring, modeling and proper mitigation strategies, which account for the surface energy balance of tropics. Tropical cities are more susceptible to the effects of projected global warming because of conditions in tropical climates and the rapid growth of so many cities in this zone. The need for research on measuring, modeling and mitigation of UHI effects in tropical cities is of growing importance. This book walks through the basics of Urban Heat Islands, including causes, measurement and analysis then expands upon issues as well as the novel techniques that can be used to address issues specific to the region. Reviews topics related to understanding the fundamentals of modeling and impacts of urban heat islands Covers many techniques, from remote sensing, to numerical modeling and then applying them to urban climate studies in general, and in tropical cities Describes the scaling of urban heat islands based on long-term seasonal thermal parameters as feature-based classification systems using a probabilistic and fuzzy logic approach, unlike local climate zones (LCZs)

The Urban Heat Island

The Urban Heat Island
  • Author : Iain D. Stewart,Gerald Mills
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-05-28
  • Total pages :182
  • ISBN : 9780128156902
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Summary : The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is an area of growing interest for many people studying the urban environment and local/global climate change. The UHI has been scientifically studied for 200 years and, although it is an apparently simple phenomenon, there is considerable confusion around the different types of UHI and their assessment. The Urban Heat Island—A Guidebook provides simple instructions for measuring and analysing the phenomenon, as well as greater context for defining the UHI and the impacts it can have. Readers will be empowered to work within a set of guidelines that enable direct comparison of UHI effects across diverse settings, while informing a wide range of climate mitigation and adaptation programs to modify human behaviour and the built form. This opens the door to true global assessments of local climate change in cities. Urban planning and design strategies can then be evaluated for their effectiveness at mitigating these changes. Covers both on-surface and near-surface, or canopy, measurements and impacts of Urban Heat Islands (UHI) Provides a set of best practices and guidelines for UHI observation and analysis Includes both conceptual overviews and practical instructions for a wide range of uses

Climate Change, Hazards and Adaptation Options

Climate Change, Hazards and Adaptation Options
  • Author : Walter Leal Filho,Gustavo J. Nagy,Marco Borga,Pastor David Chávez Muñoz,Artur Magnuszewski
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-02-14
  • Total pages :1084
  • ISBN : 9783030374259
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Summary : This book addresses the issue of climate change risks and hazards holistically. Climate change adaptation aims at managing climate risks and hazards to an acceptable level, taking advantage of any positive opportunities that may arise. At the same time, developing suitable responses to hazards for communities and users of climate services is important in ensuring the success of adaptation measures. But despite this, knowledge about adaptation options, including possible actions that can be implemented to improve adaptation and reduce the impacts of climate change hazards, is still limited. Addressing this need, the book presents studies and research findings and offers a catalogue of potential adaptation options that can be explored. It also includes case studies providing illustrative and inspiring examples of how we can adapt to a changing climate.

Solar Energy at Urban Scale

Solar Energy at Urban Scale
  • Author : Benoit Beckers
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-03-04
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9781118614365
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Summary : Increasing urbanization throughout the world, the depletion offossil fuels and concerns about global warming have transformed thecity into a physical problem of prime importance. This bookproposes a multi-disciplinary and systematic approach concerningspecialities as different as meteorology, geography, architectureand urban engineering systems, all surrounding the essentialproblem of solar radiation. It collects the points of view of 18 specialists from around theworld on the interaction between solar energy and constructions,combining territorial, urban and architectural scales to betterregulate energetic efficiency and light comfort for the sustainablecity. The main subjects covered are: measures and models of solarirradiance (satellite observations, territorial and urban groundmeasurements, sky models, satellite data and urban mock-up),radiative contribution to the urban climate (local heat balance,radiative-aerodynamics coupling, evapotranspiration, Urban HeatIsland), light and heat modeling (climate-based daylight modeling,geometrical models of the city, solar radiation modeling for urbanenvironments, thermal simulation methods and algorithms) and urbanplanning, with special considerations for solar potential, solarimpact and daylight rights in the temperate, northern and tropicalclimates, and the requirement of urban solar regulation. Contents 1. The Odyssey of Remote Sensing from Space: Half a Century ofSatellites for Earth Observations, Théo Pirard. 2. Territorial and Urban Measurements, Marius Paulescu and ViorelBadescu. 3. Sky Luminance Models, Matej Kobav and Grega Bizjak. 4. Satellite Images Applied to Surface Solar Radiation Estimation,Bella Espinar and Philippe Blanc. 5. Worldwide Aspects of Solar Radiation Impact, BenoitBeckers. 6. Local Energy Balance, Pierre Kastendeuch. 7. Evapotranspiration, Marjorie Musy. 8. Multiscale Daylight Modeling for Urban Environments, JohnMardaljevic and George Janes. 9. Geometrical Models of the City, Daniel G. Aliaga. 10. Radiative Simulation Methods, Pierre Beckers and BenoitBeckers. 11. Radiation Modeling Using the Finite Element Method, Tom vanEekelen. 12. Dense Cities in the Tropical Zone, Edward Ng. 13. Dense Cities in Temperate Climates: Solar and Daylight Rights,Guedi Capeluto. 14. Solar Potential and Solar Impact, Frédéric Monetteand Benoit Beckers. Appendix 1. Table of Europe’s Platforms (Micro- andMinisatellites) for Earth Observations, Théo Pirard. Appendix 2. Commercial Operators of Earth Observation (EO)Satellites (as of January 1, 2012), Théo Pirard. Appendix 3. Earth’s Annual Global Mean Energy Budget, BenoitBeckers.

Urban Heat Island Mitigation Strategies in an Arid Climate. In Outdoor Thermal Comfort Reacheable

Urban Heat Island Mitigation Strategies in an Arid Climate. In Outdoor Thermal Comfort Reacheable
  • Author : Suaad Ridha
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017
  • Total pages :143
  • ISBN : OCLC:1008569264
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Summary : Numerous studies over the past several decades focused on the effect of the Urban Heat Island. Initial efforts on understanding the factors affecting UHI contributed to proceed the appropriate solutions and mitigation strategies. Mitigation strategies comprise increase both urban albedo (reflectivity to solar radiation), and evapotranspiration. Albedo increases are obtained through high albedo roofing and paving technologies. An increase in evapotranspiration is achieved through a combination of decreasing the fraction of impervious surfaces and planting vegetation in urban areas. The outdoor thermal comfort is influenced by the perception and satisfaction of the pedestrians, especially in hot and arid climates. Consequently, this work focuses on the appropriate methods for reducing the Urban Heat Island and thus to enhance the pedestrians outdoor thermal comfort. However, there is limited research conducted on the outdoor thermal comfort in hot and arid climate. The studies on the mitigation the Urban Heat Island and the outdoor thermal comfort are almost non-existent for Baghdad city. Baghdad has a complex urban fabric with modern design constructions buildings, traditional and heritage houses. The climate in summer is hot, and summer months are considered the longest season with nearly 7 months of the year. This study focuses on investigating possible mitigation strategies to ensure how pedestrian comfort is affected by the constructions design choices comparing a traditional district to a modern one, and on how vegetation and shading patterns contribute to reducing the effect of UHI and improving the outdoor thermal comfort. Four different scenarios are designed to assess the role of vegetation elements such as trees, grass, and different shading patterns. The evaluation was performed on the hottest day in summer, the mean radiant temperature, specific humidity, air temperature, and wind speed distributions have been analyzed using ENVI-met software. Thermal comfort is assessed using the thermal indices the Physiological Equivalent Temperature PET and the Predicted Mean Vote PMV. Also, a proposal model is designed to evaluate the thermal comfort on the hottest day and the typical day in summer. The results revealed an improvement on thermal comfort in the typical day in summer. The study shows how the urban factors such as the aspect ratio, vegetation cover, shadings, and geometry of the canyon are crucial elements that urban planners and municipalities have to take into account, especially for new urban developments in hot, arid climate.

Urban Climates

Urban Climates
  • Author : T. R. Oke,G. Mills,A. Christen,J. A. Voogt
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-09-14
  • Total pages :582
  • ISBN : 9780521849500
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Summary : Urban Climates is the first full synthesis of modern scientific and applied research on urban climates. The book begins with an outline of what constitutes an urban ecosystem. It develops a comprehensive terminology for the subject using scale and surface classification as key constructs. It explains the physical principles governing the creation of distinct urban climates, such as airflow around buildings, the heat island, precipitation modification and air pollution, and it then illustrates how this knowledge can be applied to moderate the undesirable consequences of urban development and help create more sustainable and resilient cities. With urban climate science now a fully-fledged field, this timely book fulfills the need to bring together the disparate parts of climate research on cities into a coherent framework. It is an ideal resource for students and researchers in fields such as climatology, urban hydrology, air quality, environmental engineering and urban design.

Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design

Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design
  • Author : Baruch Givoni
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1998-01-20
  • Total pages :480
  • ISBN : 0471291773
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Summary : Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design Baruch Givoni Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design is the most comprehensive, up-to-date reference available on building and urban climatology. Written in clear, common-sense language by Baruch Givoni, the leading authority in the field, this book is a far-reaching look at a variety of climatic influences and their effects on individuals, buildings, and communities. Aimed at architecture and urban planning professionals and students alike, Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design offers real-life solutions to climatological site planning and design issues, helping to settle disputes about site orientation, site organization, and the assembly of building materials. Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design is organized into three parts. The first, Building Climatology, analyzes human thermal comfort and the effect of architectural and structural design features including layout, window orientation, and shading, and ventilation conditions on the indoor climate. Then, Urban Climatology explores the ways in which the climate in densely built areas can differ from surrounding regional climactic conditions, for example, in temperature, wind speed, and humidity. This part further explores the effects of urban design elements, such as urban density and building height, on a city's outdoor climate. Finally, Building and Urban Design Guidelines applies the body of available research on building climatology and the effects of physical planning on the urban and indoor climates to suggest design guidelines for different regions--for example, hot-dry and hot-humid climates. Filled with lists, tables, and graphs for easy cross-referencing, as well as hundreds of visuals, Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design offers readers the ability to perform a quick check of a proposed scheme against authoritative criteria. Mr. Givoni's latest volume is a unique, indispensable guide to the relationship between building design, urban planning, and climate.

Sustainable Building and Built Environments to Mitigate Climate Change in the Tropics

Sustainable Building and Built Environments to Mitigate Climate Change in the Tropics
  • Author : Tri Harso Karyono,Robert Vale,Brenda Vale
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-02-21
  • Total pages :273
  • ISBN : 9783319496016
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Summary : This book offers a selection of the best papers presented during the International conference on Mitigating and Adapting Built Environments for Climate Change in the Tropics, held at Tanri Abeng University (TAU), Jakarta, Indonesia, March 2015. The book is divided into four main parts. The first part deals with the general issue of climate change, the cause and the ways to mitigate and to adapt the built environment for climate change in a number of countries. Part 2 deals with the conceptual ways to mitigate building for climate change. The ways to reduce cooling energy in tropical buildings by means of passive design. Part 3 offers papers that examine the way to overcome disasters in the city caused by climate change. The final part deals with the role of plants in mitigating and adapting built environments to climate change - the use of plants, trees and bushes to directly and indirectly reduce carbon emissions are discussed.

Tropical Urban Heat Islands

Tropical Urban Heat Islands
  • Author : Nyuk Hien Wong,Yu Chen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-08-29
  • Total pages :272
  • ISBN : 9781134221103
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Summary : Conventional air conditioning is not a sustainable solution to the challenge of a hot or humid climate. The climate problem is compounded in so-called Urban Heat Islands, urban areas where the air can be 3–5°C hotter than its surrounding areas and where pollution levels are consequently raised. Including a colour section with thermal images and maps, this book explores the complex relationships between climate, buildings and plants, especially in urban heat islands. These relationships bear very critically on a range of environmental issues and point to some corresponding solutions. One chapter highlights some of the extensive research work carried out in Singapore, especially investigating the thermal benefits of greenery in buildings in the urban setting. Though several books have been written on urban heat islands, this work uniquely examines the linkages between climate, buildings and plants. It forms a reference for researchers and professionals such as architects, architectural science, landscape architects, building services engineers, urban planners and urban climatologists. It may also be useful for final year undergraduates or graduate students in these disciplines.

Counteracting Urban Heat Island Effects in a Global Climate Change Scenario

Counteracting Urban Heat Island Effects in a Global Climate Change Scenario
  • Author : Francesco Musco
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-08-30
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 9783319104256
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Summary : Urban heat islands are a new type of microclimatic phenomenon that causes a significant increase in the temperature of cities compared to surrounding areas. The phenomenon has been enforced by the current trend towards climate change. Although experts consider urban heat islands an urgent European Union public health concern, there are too few policies that address it. The EU carried out a project to learn more about this phenomenon through pilot initiatives. The pilots included feasibility studies and strategies for appropriately altering planning rules and governance to tackle the problem of urban heat islands. The pilots were carried out in eight metropolitan areas: Bologna/Modena, Budapest, Ljubljana, Lodz, Prague, Stuttgart, Venice/Padova, and Vienna. The feasibility studies carried out in these pilot areas focused on the specific morphology of EU urban areas, which are often characterised by the presence of historical old towns.

The Urban Climate

The Urban Climate
  • Author : Helmut E. Landsberg
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1981-08-28
  • Total pages :275
  • ISBN : 0080924190
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Summary : The Urban Climate aims to summarize analytical studies directed toward physical understanding of the rural-urban differences in the atmospheric boundary layer. Attempts to quantify conditions have met with some success. There is certainly a clear understanding of the physical relations that create the climatic differences of urbanized areas. Although some of the earlier classical studies are cited here, the emphasis is on the work done during the last decade and a half. This volume comprises 11 chapters, beginning with an introductory chapter discussing the literature surrounding the topic, its historical development, and the problem of local climate modification. The second chapter presents an assessment of the urban atmosphere on a synoptic and local scale, and examines the observational procedures involved. The following chapters then go on to discuss urban air composition; urban energy fluxes; the urban heat island; the urban wind field; models of urban temperature and wind fields; moisture, clouds, and hydrometeors; urban hydrology; special aspects of urban climate; and finally, urban planning. This book will be of interest to practitioners in the fields of meteorology, urban planning, and urban climatology.

Urban Climate Challenges in the Tropics

Urban Climate Challenges in the Tropics
  • Author : Rohinton Emmanuel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-03-11
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9781783268429
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Summary : Among the places worst hit by climate change are areas of high urban growth in the warm, humid tropics of Asia and Latin America. In these places, the global trend of rapid urbanisation and conditions of local warming compound the effects of climate change. This three-part book explores the unique local climate consequences of urban growth trajectories of tropical cities and provides strategies and design approaches to enhance the quality of life of tropical urban dwellers in the face of urban warming. Part One considers the philosophical basis of the climate challenge in this context and investigates tropical urbanism from the viewpoints of urban activity patterns and the notion of 'thermal pleasure'. Part Two explores specific, practical techniques in enhancing ventilation, shading and greenery as well as the challenges in local climate assessment in the tropics. Part Three explores the barriers and future opportunities for climate-sensitive urban planning and presents specific examples of good practice, contextualized within the wider global debate on adapting to climate change. Urban Climate Challenges in the Tropics is an indispensable companion for planners, designers, architects and students of all levels. Contents:Introduction (Rohinton Emmanuel)Achieving Thermal Pleasure in Tropical Urban Outdoors (Rohinton Emmanuel)Management of Shading and Public Places (Tzu-Ping Lin)Urban Air Ventilation in High-Density Cities in the Tropics (Edward Ng)Vegetation and Climate-sensitive Public Places (Denise H S Duarte)Urban Thermal Comfort in the Tropics (Erik Johansson)Urban Climate Mapping in the Tropics Narein Perera)Urban Climate Modeling: Challenges in the Tropics (Renganathan Giridharan)Urban Exemplars of Climate-sensitive Design (Patricia Drach)Integration of Climate Knowledge in Urban Design and Planning (Gerald Mills) Readership: Planners, designers, architects and advanced undergraduate and graduate students of architecture or planning and environmental management with a focus on the tropics. Key Features:Places the urban climate amelioration debate within the wider climate change debateFocuses specifically on an important and rapidly urbanizing region (the tropics)Provides practical advice to researchers and practitioners dealing with urban sustainability and climate sensitive design in the tropics

Climate Conscious Low-Energy Tropical Built Environment (Penerbit USM)

Climate Conscious Low-Energy Tropical Built Environment (Penerbit USM)
  • Author : Abdul Malek Abdul Rahman ,Karam Mustafa Al-Obaidi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-08-09
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9789674613365
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Summary : Climate Conscious Low-Energy Tropical Built Environment is a welcome addition to the knowledge on green and sustainable architecture. Both the authors shared their vast knowledge and experience on low-energy and passive solar design. The approach is on the technology adapted and applied to ‘welcoming the sun’ as well as to ‘rejecting the sun’, with the emphasis on the passive elements design. As the world now is facing the rapid increase of population, the architects need to consider the future path of the built environment. A good knowledge in low-energy built environment in order to sustain the well-being of the earth is essential, before considering on the aspects of mechanical components. This book is written in a clear and engaging style to suit all readers, the architecture and built environment students and professions as well as readers in general. As there are many books on this topic, but none emphasize the context of tropical climate. This is the first book on the low-energy built environment within the context of tropical climate. Abdul Malek Abdul Rahman was interested in indoor thermal comfort while researching his PhD topic on “Design for Natural Ventilation in Low-Cost Housing in Tropical Climate”. With a firm belief that to be thermally comfortable without mechanical aids in tropical climates, one should be under shade and receiving ample air movement concurrently, which is not naturally possible. Therefore, he sets out for further researches, literatures and acute observations on this issue. With university research funds, he investigated in hypothesis and experimented on low-cost cooling technologies, attended and read books and references on related topics. Equipped with reliable cameras, he captured ideas and happenings spontaneously to confirm his conviction. He believes that in order to re-examine the philosophy of energy efficient architectural design, one has to detach oneself from architecture and to understand other related disciplines (mechanical engineering, to be exact) in order to value add and upgrade the architecture towards sustainability. He finds the future is very challenging on this issue as population increase is real and that when left uncheck would affect the comfort of human psyche. Technology now is the solution and research must include latest technology available during the particular time of change. Karam Mustafa Al-Obaidi has interest in architectural design systems specifically in the tropics. He focuses on dynamic environment in relation with surroundings. His research is towards energy and how it influences the architectural form. With university research funds, he implemented experimental investigation to obtain reliable examination of the built environment. The future of architecture in terms of technology is challenging in this tropical region. He finds that understanding energy in both consumption and efficiency is limited due to the climatic constraints. Therefore, he believes that creating a platform to integrate related disciplines could provide solutions regarding the issue of energy efficiency. In his opinion, nature is the main source of inspiration, thus designing models that respond to tropical environment could provide comfort and durability for users and buildings.

Sustainable Houses and Living in the Hot-Humid Climates of Asia

Sustainable Houses and Living in the Hot-Humid Climates of Asia
  • Author : Tetsu Kubota,Hom Bahadur Rijal,Hiroto Takaguchi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-06-21
  • Total pages :559
  • ISBN : 9789811084652
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Summary : This book provides information on the latest research findings that are useful in the context of designing sustainable houses and living in rapidly growing Asian cities. The book is composed of seven parts, comprising a total of 50 chapters written by 53 authors from various countries, mainly in the Asian region. Part I introduces vernacular houses in different Asian countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, India, Nepal, China, Thailand and Laos. Parts II and III then explore in depth indoor adaptive thermal comfort and occupants’ adaptive behavior, focusing especially on those in hot-humid climates. Part IV presents detailed survey results on household energy consumption in various tropical Asian cities, while Part V analyses the indoor thermal conditions in both traditional houses and modern houses in these countries. Several real-world sustainable housing practices in Asian cities are reviewed in the following part. The final part then discusses the vulnerability of expanding Asian cities to climate change and urban heat island. Today, approximately 35-40% of global energy is consumed in Asia, and this percentage is expected to rise further. Energy consumption has increased, particularly in the residential sector, in line with the rapid rise of the middle class. The majority of growing Asian cities are located in hot and humid climate regions, and as such there is an urgent need for designers to provide healthy and comfortable indoor environments that do not consume non-renewable energy or resources excessively. This book is essential reading for anyone with an interest in sustainable house design in the growing cities of Asia.

Low Carbon Cities

Low Carbon Cities
  • Author : Steffen Lehmann
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-09-15
  • Total pages :446
  • ISBN : 9781317659136
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Summary : Low Carbon Cities is a book for practitioners, students and scholars in architecture, urban planning and design. It features essays on ecologically sustainable cities by leading exponents of urban sustainability, case studies of the new directions low carbon cities might take and investigations of how we can mitigate urban heat stress in our cities’ microclimates. The book explores the underlying dimensions of how existing cities can be transformed into low carbon urban systems and describes the design of low carbon cities in theory and practice. It considers the connections between low carbon cities and sustainable design, social and individual values, public space, housing affordability, public transport and urban microclimates. Given the rapid urbanisation underway globally, and the need for all our cities to operate more sustainably, we need to think about how spatial planning and design can help transform urban systems to create low carbon cities, and this book provides key insights.

Urban Microclimate Modelling for Comfort and Energy Studies

Urban Microclimate Modelling for Comfort and Energy Studies
  • Author : Massimo Palme
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9783030654214
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Summary :

Heat Islands

Heat Islands
  • Author : Lisa Mummery Gartland
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-05-16
  • Total pages :208
  • ISBN : 9781136564208
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Summary : Heat islands are urban and suburban areas that are significantly warmer than their surroundings. Traditional, highly absorptive construction materials and a lack of effective landscaping are their main causes. Heat island problems, in terms of increased energy consumption, reduced air quality and effects on human health and mortality, are becoming more pressing as cities continue to grow and sprawl. This comprehensive book brings together the latest information about heat islands and their mitigation. The book describes how heat islands are formed, what problems they cause, which technologies mitigate heat island effects and what policies and actions can be taken to cool communities. Internationally renowned expert Lisa Gartland offers a comprehensive source of information for turning heat islands into cool communities. The author includes sections on cool roofing and cool paving, explains their benefits in detail and provides practical guidelines for their selection and installation. The book also reviews how and why to incorporate trees and vegetation around buildings, in parking lots and on green roofs.

Urban Meteorology

Urban Meteorology
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Committee on Urban Meteorology: Scoping the Problem, Defining the Needs
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-06-13
  • Total pages :190
  • ISBN : 9780309252201
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Summary : According to the United Nations, three out of five people will be living in cities worldwide by the year 2030. The United States continues to experience urbanization with its vast urban corridors on the east and west coasts. Although urban weather is driven by large synoptic and meso-scale features, weather events unique to the urban environment arise from the characteristics of the typical urban setting, such as large areas covered by buildings of a variety of heights; paved streets and parking areas; means to supply electricity, natural gas, water, and raw materials; and generation of waste heat and materials. Urban Meteorology: Forecasting, Monitoring, and Meeting Users' Needs is based largely on the information provided at a Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate community workshop. This book describes the needs for end user communities, focusing in particular on needs that are not being met by current urban-level forecasting and monitoring. Urban Meteorology also describes current and emerging meteorological forecasting and monitoring capabilities that have had and will likely have the most impact on urban areas, some of which are not being utilized by the relevant end user communities. Urban Meteorology explains that users of urban meteorological information need high-quality information available in a wide variety of formats that foster its use and within time constraints set by users' decision processes. By advancing the science and technology related to urban meteorology with input from key end user communities, urban meteorologists can better meet the needs of diverse end users. To continue the advancement within the field of urban meteorology, there are both short-term needs-which might be addressed with small investments but promise large, quick returns-as well as future challenges that could require significant efforts and investments.

A GIS Approach to Analyzing Microclimate Variations and the Urban Heat Island Phenomenon in Hong Kong

A GIS Approach to Analyzing Microclimate Variations and the Urban Heat Island Phenomenon in Hong Kong
  • Author : Pui-Yun Paulina Wong,王沛欣
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-01-27
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 1361345411
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Summary : This dissertation, "A GIS Approach to Analyzing Microclimate Variations and the Urban Heat Island Phenomenon in Hong Kong" by Pui-yun, Paulina, Wong, 王沛欣, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: Urbanization is known to cause significant changes to the properties of local climate. The Urban Heat Island (UHI) has been shown to add an additional burden to the impacts of global warming, impose risks on human health, and indirectly worsen air and water qualities. Studies have shown that urban areas, compared to rural areas with less artificial buildup, experience higher local temperatures as a result of UHI. Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated cities in the world with a high proportion of her population residing in urbanized areas. The hot and humid sub-tropical monsoon climate echoed with densely packed high-rise buildings and a high traffic volume can give rise to severe local thermal discomfort. To fully characterize the spatial and temporal aspects of UHI within Hong Kong's urban areas, this study deployed 58 small, durable and low-cost logging sensors to measure road-side temperature/humidity measurements at 15-minute time intervals. The data collection was conducted over 17 consecutive days in the summer (September) and repeated in the winter (January) at two typical urban locations: Mong Kok and Causeway Bay. By employing the geographic information system (GIS) and global positioning system (GPS) software, the sampled data were mapped against urban structures and land uses to investigate the urban microclimate and the role of various environmental factors at the sampling locations. Official meteorological conditions for the duration of study were obtained from the Hong Kong Observatory to validate the sensors and to explore microclimate variations by comparing official (urban and rural monitoring stations) and sampled readings. Temporal variations of urban temperature were examined for daily, weekly and seasonal differences. Spatial and temporal variations were examined using spatial interpolation and hotspot analysis, as well as in a 3D representation with building models for better visualization. This empirical study establishes the methodological feasibility and reliability of employing small and inexpensive logging sensors for widespread deployment in places with hot and humid subtropical climates. The validation outcome indicated that road-side and control measurements were strongly correlated (r>0.81) and their average difference was well within the 1 C measurement accuracy claimed by the manufacturer. Significant microclimate variations within the urban area were observed and characterized by five environmental settings: major road, secondary road, public activity area, green park and tunnel. Temporal variations of UHI were evident for all time scales, with the daily highest UHI at around midnight and daily lowest at around noon to early afternoon which also exhibited urban cool island (UCI) effects. A UHI Threat Rating was introduced for better understanding of microclimate variations and easier appreciation of hotspots. A 3D-GIS building model enhanced spatial-temporal analysis of UHI over a near "real" and 3D environment. The study and its methodology set a sound foundation and provide essential framework for future studies on microclimate variation and UHI effects. Given that modern cities have mixed land uses and are increasingly vertical, this micro-level study helps address local issues on human comfort and brings in the broader picture of environmental health in an urban setting. DOI: 10.5353/

Boundary Layer Climates

Boundary Layer Climates
  • Author : T. R. Oke
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002-09-11
  • Total pages :464
  • ISBN : 9781134951345
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Summary : This modern climatology textbook explains those climates formed near the ground in terms of the cycling of energy and mass through systems.

The Urban Climatic Map

The Urban Climatic Map
  • Author : Edward Ng,Chao Ren
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-09-07
  • Total pages :476
  • ISBN : 9781317510529
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Summary : Rapid urbanization, higher density and more compact cities have brought about a new science of urban climatology. An understanding of the mapping of this phenomenon is crucial for urban planners. The book brings together experts in the field of Urban Climatic Mapping to provide the state of the art understanding on how urban climatic knowledge can be made available and utilized by urban planners. The book contains the technology, methodology, and various focuses and approaches of urban climatic map making. It illustrates this understanding with examples and case studies from around the world, and it explains how urban climatic information can be analysed, interpreted and applied in urban planning. The book attempts to bridge the gap between the science of urban climatology and the practice of urban planning. It provides a useful one-stop reference for postgraduates, academics and urban climatologists wishing to better understand the needs for urban climatic knowledge in city planning; and urban planners and policy makers interested in applying the knowledge to design future sustainable cities and quality urban spaces.