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Viruses in Food and Water

Viruses in Food and Water
  • Author : N Cook
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-10
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 9780857098870
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Summary : Viruses can be highly infectious and are capable of causing widespread disease outbreaks. The significance of viral pathogens in food and waterborne illness is increasingly being recognised and viruses transferred by these routes are important areas of research. Viruses in food and water reviews the risks, surveillance and control of food and waterborne viral disease. Part one provides an introduction to food and environmental virology. Part two goes on to explore methods of detection, surveillance and risk assessment of viruses in food and water; it includes chapters on molecular detection of viruses in foods and food processing environments, quality control in the analytical laboratory, and quantitative risk assessment for food and waterborne viruses. Part three focuses on virus transmission routes and control of food and water contamination. It contains chapters on fresh produce, shellfish and viral presence, and control methods in waste water and sewage. Finally, part four highlights particular pathogens including norovirus, hepatitis A and emerging zoonotic viruses. Viruses in food and water is a standard reference book for microbiologists in academia, analytical labs and the food and water treatment industries, as well as environmental health professionals and researchers working on foodborne viruses. Explores methods of detection, surveilance and risk assessment of viruses in food and water Considers virus transmission routes and control of food and water contamination Highlights advances in the understanding of specific pathogens, including norovirus, hepatitis A and rotaviruses and the advances in vaccine development

Viruses in Foods

Viruses in Foods
  • Author : Sagar Goyal
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-01-15
  • Total pages :345
  • ISBN : 9780387292519
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Summary : This is the first book to focus entirely on viruses in foods. It collates information on the occurrence, detection, transmission, and epidemiology of viruses in various foods. Although methods for bacterial detection in food are available, methods for detection of viruses in food, with the exception of shellfish, are not available. It is important, therefore, to develop methods for direct examination of food for viruses and to explore alternate indicators that can accurately reflect the virological quality of food. This book addresses these issues along with strategies for the prevention and control of viral contamination of food.

Viruses in Food and Water: Risks, Surveillance and Control

Viruses in Food and Water: Risks, Surveillance and Control
  • Author : N. Cook
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-11-13
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 0081015577
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Summary : Viruses can be highly infectious and are capable of causing widespread disease outbreaks. The significance of viral pathogens in food and waterborne illness is increasingly being recognised and viruses transferred by these routes are important areas of research. Viruses in food and water reviews the risks, surveillance and control of food and waterborne viral disease. Part one provides an introduction to food and environmental virology. Part two goes on to explore methods of detection, surveillance and risk assessment of viruses in food and water; it includes chapters on molecular detection of viruses in foods and food processing environments, quality control in the analytical laboratory, and quantitative risk assessment for food and waterborne viruses. Part three focuses on virus transmission routes and control of food and water contamination. It contains chapters on fresh produce, shellfish and viral presence, and control methods in waste water and sewage. Finally, part four highlights particular pathogens including norovirus, hepatitis A and emerging zoonotic viruses. Viruses in food and water is a standard reference book for microbiologists in academia, analytical labs and the food and water treatment industries, as well as environmental health professionals and researchers working on foodborne viruses. Explores methods of detection, surveilance and risk assessment of viruses in food and waterConsiders virus transmission routes and control of food and water contaminationHighlights advances in the understanding of specific pathogens, including norovirus, hepatitis A and rotaviruses and the advances in vaccine development

Viruses in Food and Drinking Water

Viruses in Food and Drinking Water
  • Author : Roland Lindqvist
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1997
  • Total pages :56
  • ISBN : 9289300426
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Summary :

Food-borne Viruses

Food-borne Viruses
  • Author : M. P. G. Koopmans,Dean O. Cliver,Albert Bosch
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008
  • Total pages :245
  • ISBN : 1555814646
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Summary : Food-borne viruses are recognized as a major health concern, but their distribution, definition, and impact are poorly understood. The volume Food-Borne Viruses goes a long way in correcting that problem. Written by leading scientists in the field, it brings together the latest knowledge on these viral strains, their detection and control, and associated challenges.

II Nordic Workshop on Viruses in Water and Food

II Nordic Workshop on Viruses in Water and Food
  • Author : Marja Kukkula
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1998
  • Total pages :46
  • ISBN : 9289302089
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Summary :

Third Nordic Workshop on Viruses in Food and Water

Third Nordic Workshop on Viruses in Food and Water
  • Author : Mette Myrmel,Espen Rimstad
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001
  • Total pages :51
  • ISBN : 9289306696
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Summary :

Foodborne Viruses

Foodborne Viruses
  • Author : Marion Koopmans,Erwin Duizer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003-12-31
  • Total pages :32
  • ISBN : 1578811309
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Summary :

Food borne viruses and prions and their significance for public health

Food borne viruses and prions and their significance for public health
  • Author : Frans Smulders,Birgit Nørrung,Herbert Budka
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-01
  • Total pages :376
  • ISBN : 9789086867806
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Summary : Many risk management plans as currently implemented by the food industry, appear to be primarily designed to address bacteriological concerns. Hence, these often fail to function when public health risks associated with biological agents such as viruses and prions are to be addressed. Similarly, veterinary education in food hygiene mainly focusses on bacterial agents transferred by domestic animal species via meat and milk and the products manufactured therefrom. Additionally, training rarely includes the dangers associated with other (non-animal based) food ingredients as processed in ready-to-eat meals. It thus appears that food safety professionals - employed by industry or serving as governmental officials commissioned to inspect and audit food manufacturing enterprises - would benefit from being updated on the public health risks associated with foodborne viruses and prions. This book, the sixth in the series Food Safety Assurance and Veterinary Public Health, provides this update. This volume - authored by recognised experts - is targeted at animal and food scientists, students in (veterinary) public health, public health officials and risk managers active in the food industry.

Fourth Nordic Workshop on Food and Waterborne Viruses

Fourth Nordic Workshop on Food and Waterborne Viruses
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-03-31
  • Total pages :46
  • ISBN : 9789289314817
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Summary :

Optimisation and Assessment of Real-time PCR Techniques for the Detection of Selected Food- and Waterborne Viruses

Optimisation and Assessment of Real-time PCR Techniques for the Detection of Selected Food- and Waterborne Viruses
  • Author : Rembuluwani Netshikweta
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:956373194
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Summary : The transmission of human pathogens by faecally contaminated fruit and vegetables is well established, but the burden of disease caused by foodborne pathogens is unknown. Fresh produce can be contaminated through the use of polluted irrigation water or by the handling of the produce by infected individuals either pre- or post harvest. There is very little known regarding the extent of viral contamination of irrigation water and fresh produce in South Africa. Noroviruses (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are recognized as leading causes of foodborne viral disease. These viruses are transmitted predominantly via the faecal oral route, primarily person-to-person by direct contact with an infected person, or indirectly by ingestion of contaminated food and water. The detection of enteric viruses in food or water is problematical and complex as many foodborne viruses, including HAV and NoV, cannot be readily isolated in cell culture. The aim of this investigation was to develop and optimise simple and efficient methods for the concentration and detection of NoV GII and HAV in irrigation water and fresh produce. These methods would then be applied to field samples of irrigation water and fresh produce to try and establish a link between viral contamination detected in irrigation water and that on associated irrigated fresh produce. The efficiency of different commercial real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction amplification kits for the realtime detection of HAV, NoV GI and NoV GII was assessed, and standard curves for the quantitative detection of these viruses were constructed using the most appropriate kit. Using two types of fresh produce, three different elution buffers, each at two pHs, with two different elution times were compared to establish which buffer was the most efficient for the extraction of viruses from the fresh produce. The tris-glycine beef extract buffer (pH 9.5) with an elution time of 20 minutes most efficient for the extraction of the selected enteric viruses from fresh produce. From April 2008 to November 2009, 86 irrigation water and 72 fresh produce samples were collected from commercial and subsistence farms, street vendors and commercial outlets. All the irrigation water and fresh produce samples were analysed for HAV, NoV GI and NoV GII. Overall, 16.3 % (13/86) and 12.5 % (9/72) of irrigation water and fresh produce samples tested positive for one or more human pathogenic viruses, namely NoV GII and HAV, respectively. Nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the HAV and NoV GII strains identified clinically relevant viruses in the irrigation water and on the fresh produce. A direct link between contaminated irrigation water and contamination of fresh produce could not be established, but irrigation water was identified as a possible source of contamination of the fresh produce. The results also suggested that food handlers contributed significantly to the viral contamination of the fresh produce. This study highlights the potential health risk posed by fresh produce to consumers in South Africa and highlights the need for further in depth studies to quantify the risk to consumers. This study represents new data on the occurrence of enteric viruses in food and water in South Africa and is crucial for the development of effective intervention and control strategies for food safety in South Africa. Copyright.

Significance, Prevention and Control of Food Related Diseases

Significance, Prevention and Control of Food Related Diseases
  • Author : Hussaini Makun
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-04-13
  • Total pages :314
  • ISBN : 9789535122777
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Summary : Food-borne diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. It is estimated that about 2.2 million people die yearly due to food and water contamination. Food safety and consequently food security are therefore of immense importance to public health, international trade and world economy. This book, which has 10 chapters, provides information on the incidence, health implications and effective prevention and control strategies of food-related diseases. The book will be useful to undergraduate and postgraduate students, educators and researchers in the fields of life sciences, medicine, agriculture, food science and technology, trade and economics. Policy makers and food regulatory officers will also find it useful in the course of their duties.

Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach

Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach
  • Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-10-10
  • Total pages :418
  • ISBN : 9780309259330
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Summary : Globalization of the food supply has created conditions favorable for the emergence, reemergence, and spread of food-borne pathogens-compounding the challenge of anticipating, detecting, and effectively responding to food-borne threats to health. In the United States, food-borne agents affect 1 out of 6 individuals and cause approximately 48 million illnesses, 128,000 hospitalizations, and 3,000 deaths each year. This figure likely represents just the tip of the iceberg, because it fails to account for the broad array of food-borne illnesses or for their wide-ranging repercussions for consumers, government, and the food industry-both domestically and internationally. A One Health approach to food safety may hold the promise of harnessing and integrating the expertise and resources from across the spectrum of multiple health domains including the human and veterinary medical and plant pathology communities with those of the wildlife and aquatic health and ecology communities. The IOM's Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a public workshop on December 13 and 14, 2011 that examined issues critical to the protection of the nation's food supply. The workshop explored existing knowledge and unanswered questions on the nature and extent of food-borne threats to health. Participants discussed the globalization of the U.S. food supply and the burden of illness associated with foodborne threats to health; considered the spectrum of food-borne threats as well as illustrative case studies; reviewed existing research, policies, and practices to prevent and mitigate foodborne threats; and, identified opportunities to reduce future threats to the nation's food supply through the use of a "One Health" approach to food safety. Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach: Workshop Summary covers the events of the workshop and explains the recommendations for future related workshops.

Fourth Nordic Workshop on Food and Waterborne Viruses

Fourth Nordic Workshop on Food and Waterborne Viruses
  • Author : Birgit Nørrung
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9289335165
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Summary : Why are there no standardised methods for the detection of enteric viruses in food and water?This is a repeated question raised by the industry and food authority in particular in connection with the recent norovirus outbreaks associated with imported oysters and raspberries. The food industry feels abandoned, as without standardised methods they have no tools to convincingly demonstrate that the food prepared at their factories will be safe for the consumer. Because currently no methods are available to measure the infectivity of norovirus, the food authority lacks the needed data for performing appropriate risk assessment and risk analysis studies. In the last couple of years, laboratory methods to detect noroviruses in foods have been greatly improved resulting in increased knowledge on which steps in the concentration, detection and typing of noroviruses need to be further optimized before international validated methods can be routinely used. This report presents the most important issues regarding the challenges of detecting enteric viruses (including noroviruses) in food and water that were discussed at the 4th Nordic Workshop. At this meeting researchers from Nordic countries and leading international experts concluded that it is important to not only focus on the epidemiology of foodborne and waterborne viral infections but also increase efforts to improve, harmonize and standardize laboratory methods for the detection of enteric viruses direct in potentially contaminated food such as oysters and raspberries

Soap and Water & Common Sense

Soap and Water & Common Sense
  • Author : Dr. Bonnie Henry
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-03-31
  • Total pages :288
  • ISBN : 9780887849374
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Summary : The definitive guide to fighting coronaviruses, colds, flus, pandemics, and deadly diseases, from one of North America’s leading public health authorities, now updated with a new introduction on protecting yourself and others from COVID-19. Dr. Bonnie Henry, a leading epidemiologist (microbe hunter) and public health doctor at the forefront of the fight against the worldwide COVID-19 coronavirus outbreak, has spent the better part of the last three decades chasing bugs all over the world — from Ebola in Uganda to polio in Pakistan, SARS in Toronto, and the H1N1 influenza outbreak across North America. Now she offers three simple rules to live by: wash your hands, cover your mouth when you cough, and stay at home when you have a fever. From viruses to bacteria to parasites and fungi, Dr. Henry takes us on a tour through the halls of Microbes Inc., providing up-to-date and accurate information on everything from the bugs we breathe, to the bugs we eat and drink, the bugs in our backyard, and beyond. Urgent and informative, Soap and Water & Common Sense is the definitive guide to staying healthy in a germ-filled world.

Foodborne Infections and Intoxications

Foodborne Infections and Intoxications
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-10-11
  • Total pages :928
  • ISBN : 0080454119
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Summary : The accelerated globalization of the food supply, coupled with toughening government standards, is putting global food production, distribution, and retail industries under a high-intensity spotlight. High publicity cases about foodborne illnesses over recent years have heightened public awareness of food safety issues, and momentum has been building to find new ways to detect and identify foodborne pathogens and eliminate food-related infections and intoxications. This extensively revised Third Edition covers how the incidence and impact of foodborne diseases is determined, foodborne intoxications with an introduction that notes common features among these diseases and control measures that are applicable before and after the basic foodstuff is harvested. * A summary of the foods most association with human infections * A discussion of the principles of laboratory detection of the agent considering the advantages and disadvantages of various procedure * A 'historical to present-day' section * A description of the infection in humans and animals, including reservoirs and the mode of transmission

Poisoning

Poisoning
  • Author : Ntambwe Malangu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-12-20
  • Total pages :218
  • ISBN : 9789535136811
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Summary : This book, which is the result of contributions from a team of international authors, presents a collection of materials that can be categorized into two groups. The first group of papers deals with clinical toxicology topics including poisoning by anticoagulant rodenticides, food toxins, carbon monoxide, the toxicity of beta-lactam antibiotics, acute neonicotinoid poisoning, occupational risk factors for acute pesticide poisoning, activating carbon fibers, and date pits for use in liver toxin adsorption. The second group of papers deals with forensic or analytical toxicology topics such as simplified methods for the analysis of gaseous toxic agents, rapid methods for the analysis and monitoring of pathogens in drinking water and water-based solutions, as well as the linkages between clinical and forensic toxicology. Each chapter presents new information on the topic discussed based on authors' experience while summarizing existing knowledge. As such, this book will be a good teaching aid and can be a prescribed or recommended reading for postgraduate students and professionals in the fields of public health, medicine, pharmacy, nursing, biology, toxicology, and forensic sciences.

CDC Yellow Book 2018: Health Information for International Travel

CDC Yellow Book 2018: Health Information for International Travel
  • Author : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-04-17
  • Total pages :672
  • ISBN : 9780190628635
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Summary : THE ESSENTIAL WORK IN TRAVEL MEDICINE -- NOW COMPLETELY UPDATED FOR 2018 As unprecedented numbers of travelers cross international borders each day, the need for up-to-date, practical information about the health challenges posed by travel has never been greater. For both international travelers and the health professionals who care for them, the CDC Yellow Book 2018: Health Information for International Travel is the definitive guide to staying safe and healthy anywhere in the world. The fully revised and updated 2018 edition codifies the U.S. government's most current health guidelines and information for international travelers, including pretravel vaccine recommendations, destination-specific health advice, and easy-to-reference maps, tables, and charts. The 2018 Yellow Book also addresses the needs of specific types of travelers, with dedicated sections on: · Precautions for pregnant travelers, immunocompromised travelers, and travelers with disabilities · Special considerations for newly arrived adoptees, immigrants, and refugees · Practical tips for last-minute or resource-limited travelers · Advice for air crews, humanitarian workers, missionaries, and others who provide care and support overseas Authored by a team of the world's most esteemed travel medicine experts, the Yellow Book is an essential resource for travelers -- and the clinicians overseeing their care -- at home and abroad.

Who Estimates of the Global Burden of Foodborne Diseases

Who Estimates of the Global Burden of Foodborne Diseases
  • Author : World Health Organization
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-01-30
  • Total pages :268
  • ISBN : 9241565160
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Summary : Up to now, the global burden of illness and deaths caused by foodborne disease has never been quantified. In order to fill this data vacuum, the World Health Organization (WHO) together with its partners launched in 2006 the Initiative to Estimate the Global Burden of Foodborne Diseases. After an initial consultation, WHO in 2007 established a Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) to lead the initiative. Six taskforces were established under FERG, focusing on groups of hazards or aspects of the methodology. These taskforces commissioned systematic reviews and other studies to provide the data from which to calculate the burden estimates. This report is an outcome of a decade of work by WHO key partners and a number of dedicated individuals. Some additional findings--which cannot be integrated into this report--will be published and user-friendly online tools made available separately. This report and related tools should enable governments and other stakeholders to draw public attention to this often under-estimated problem and mobilize political will and resources to combat foodborne diseases.

Foodborne Viral Pathogens

Foodborne Viral Pathogens
  • Author : Peter A. White,Natalie E. Netzler,Grant S. Hansman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-11-25
  • Total pages :262
  • ISBN : 9781315392288
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Summary : Viral transmission through contaminated food and water claims hundreds of thousands of lives every year, particularly affecting children in developing nations. Foodborne viral pathogens are associated with gastroenteritis and hepatitis, causing widespread epidemics that affect all populations and demographics worldwide. Foodborne Viral Pathogens comprehensively covers the predominant etiological viral agents of foodborne disease, including norovirus, hepatitis A virus, hepatitis E virus, astrovirus, sapovirus and rotavirus, and several emerging viruses and prions. By improving food safety awareness and viral detection, and through promotion of global food safety standards, our ability to cope with and control foodborne disease will be enhanced. Foodborne Viral Pathogens includes a detailed review of the molecular biology, potential vaccines, and available antiviral treatments of all major foodborne viral pathogens and prions. Written by specialists and leading virologists, this book features techniques used for typing, viral detection, strategies for control, and viral risk assessments. This book is intended as a detailed handbook for food microbiology and medical applications and will be a useful guide for anyone with an interest in foodborne disease.

Antimicrobial Food Packaging

Antimicrobial Food Packaging
  • Author : Jorge Barros-Velazquez
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-12-27
  • Total pages :676
  • ISBN : 9780128008102
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Summary : Antimicrobial Food Packaging takes an interdisciplinary approach to provide a complete and robust understanding of packaging from some of the most well-known international experts. This practical reference provides basic information and practical applications for the potential uses of various films in food packaging, describes the different types of microbial targets (fungal, bacteria, etc.), and focuses on the applicability of techniques to industry. Tactics on the monitoring of microbial activity that use antimicrobial packaging detection of food borne pathogens, the use of biosensors, and testing antimicrobial susceptibility are also included, along with food safety and good manufacturing practices. The book aims to curtail the development of microbiological contamination of food through anti-microbial packaging to improve the safety in the food supply chain. Presents the science behind anti-microbial packaging and films reflecting advancements in chemistry, microbiology, and food science Includes the most up-to-date information on regulatory aspects, consumer acceptance, research trends, cost analysis, risk analysis and quality control Discusses the uses of natural and unnatural compounds for food safety and defense