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Bioenergy

Bioenergy
  • Author : Anju Dahiya
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-04-09
  • Total pages :890
  • ISBN : 9780128154984
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Summary : Bioenergy: Biomass to Biofuels and Waste to Energy, 2nd Edition presents a complete overview of the bioenergy value chain, from feedstock to end products. It examines current and emerging feedstocks and advanced processes and technologies enabling the development of all possible alternative energy sources. Divided into seven parts, bioenergy gives thorough consideration to topics such as feedstocks, biomass production and utilization, life-cycle analysis, energy return on invested, integrated sustainability assessments, conversions technologies, biofuels economics, business, and policy. In addition, contributions from leading industry professionals and academics, augmented by related service-learning case studies and quizzes, provide readers with a comprehensive resource that connect theory to real-world implementation. Bioenergy: Biomass to Biofuels and Waste to Energy, 2nd Edition provides engineers, researchers, undergraduate and graduate students, and business professionals in the bioenergy field with valuable, practical information that can be applied to implementing renewable energy projects, choosing among competing feedstocks, technologies, and products. It also serves as a basic resource for civic leaders, economic development professionals, farmers, investors, fleet managers, and reporters interested in an organized introduction to the language, feedstocks, technologies, and products in the biobased renewable energy world. • Includes current and renewed subject matter, project case studies from real world, and topic-specific sections on the impacts of biomass use for energy production from all sorts of biomass feedstocks including organic waste of all kinds. • Provides a comprehensive overview and in-depth technical information of all possible bioenergy resources: solid (wood energy, grass energy, waste, and other biomass), liquid (biodiesel, algae biofuel, ethanol, waste to oils, etc.), and gaseous/electric (biogas, syngas, biopower, RNG), and cutting-edge topics such as advanced fuels. • Integrates current state of art coverage on feedstocks, cost-effective conversion processes, biofuels economic analysis, environmental policy, and triple bottom line. • Features quizzes for each section derived from the implementation of actual hands-on biofuel projects as part of service learning.

Biofuels from Food Waste

Biofuels from Food Waste
  • Author : Antoine Prandota Trzcinski
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017
  • Total pages :125
  • ISBN : 1138093726
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Summary : 4.3.1 Effects of Substrate on Glucoamylase Production -- 4.3.2 Effects of Temperature -- 4.3.3 Effects of Particle Size -- 4.3.4 Effects of Substrate Loading -- 4.3.5 Volume Reduction of Food Waste after Enzymatic Hydrolysis -- 4.3.6 Utilization of Crude Enzymes for Food Waste Saccharification -- 4.3.7 Optimization of Glucoamylase Production by Response Surface Methodology -- 4.3.8 Validation of the Response Model -- 4.4 Conclusions -- Chapter 5: Enhancing the Hydrolysis and Methane Production Potential of Mixed Food Wastes by an Effective Enzymatic Pretreatment -- 5.1 Introduction -- 5.2 Materials and Methods -- 5.2.1 Cake Waste for the Production of Fungal Mash -- 5.2.2 Production of Fungal Mash -- 5.2.3 Hydrolysis of Food Waste -- 5.2.4 Anaerobic Digestion of Enzymatically Pretreated Food Waste -- 5.2.5 Analytical Methods -- 5.2.6 Data Analysis -- 5.3 Results and Discussion -- 5.3.1 Production of Glucose and Free Amino Nitrogen from Food Waste Pretreated with Fungal Mash -- 5.3.2 Release of Soluble COD in Food Waste Pretreatment with Fungal Mash -- 5.3.3 Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste Pretreated with Fungal Mash -- 5.4 Conclusions and Future Prospects -- References -- Index

Biofuels from Agricultural Wastes and Byproducts

Biofuels from Agricultural Wastes and Byproducts
  • Author : Hans P. Blaschek,Thaddeus C. Ezeji,Jürgen Scheffran
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-06-14
  • Total pages :276
  • ISBN : 9780470961681
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Summary : Traditional agriculture and emerging biofuels technology produce a number of wastes and by-products, ranging from corn fiber and glycerin to animal manure, that have the potential to serve as the basis for additional sources of bioenergy that includes both liquid biofuels and biogas. Biofuels from Agricultural Wastes and Byproducts is the first book to focus solely on the production of biofuels primarily from agricultural waste and by-products. The book is divided roughly into two sections. The first section looks at liquid biofuel production from agricultural byproducts, densification of agricultural residues, and the delivery from farm to processing plant of waste and byproducts for use in biofuel production. The second section focuses on anaerobic digestion of food and animal wastes, microbial diversity, molecular and biochemical aspects of methanogensis. Together these sections solidify Biofuels from Agricultural Wastes and Byproducts as a definitive source of information on the use of agricultural waste and by-products in biofuel production.

Green Energy to Sustainability: Strategies for Global Industries

Green Energy to Sustainability: Strategies for Global Industries
  • Author : Alain A. Vertes,Nasib Qureshi,Hans P. Blaschek,Hideaki Yukawa
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-03-25
  • Total pages :704
  • ISBN : 9781119152040
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Summary : Reviews the latest advances in biofuel manufacturing technologies and discusses the deployment of other renewable energy for transportation Aimed at providing an interface useful to business and scientific managers, this book focuses on the key challenges that still impede the realization of the billion-ton renewable fuels vision. It places great emphasis on a global view of the topic, reviewing deployment and green energy technology in different countries across Africa, Asia, South America, the EU, and the USA. It also integrates scientific, technological, and business development perspectives to highlight the key developments that are necessary for the global replacement of fossil fuels with green energy solutions. Green Energy to Sustainability: Strategies for Global Industries examines the most recent developments in biofuel manufacturing technologies in light of business, financial, value chain, and supply chain concerns. It also covers the use of other renewable energy sources like solar energy for transportation and proposes a view of the challenges over the next two to five decades, and how these will deeply modify the industrial world in the third millennium. The coming of age of electric vehicles is also looked at, as is the impact of their deployment on the biomass to biofuels value chain. Offers extensive updates on the field of green energy for global industries Covers the structure of the energy business; chemicals and diesel from biomass; ethanol and butanol; hydrogen and methane; and more Provides an expanded focus on the next generation of energy technologies Reviews the latest advances in biofuel manufacturing technologies Integrates scientific, technological and business perspectives Highlights important developments needed for replacing fossil fuels with green energy Green Energy to Sustainability: Strategies for Global Industries will appeal to academic researchers working on the production of fuels from renewable feedstocks and those working in green and sustainable chemistry, and chemical/process engineering. It is also an excellent textbook for courses in bioprocessing technology, renewable resources, green energy, and sustainable chemistry.

Recycling of Solid Waste for Biofuels and Bio-chemicals

Recycling of Solid Waste for Biofuels and Bio-chemicals
  • Author : Obulisamy Parthiba Karthikeyan,Kirsten Heimann,Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-08-10
  • Total pages :422
  • ISBN : 9789811001505
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Summary : This book presents the latest advances in and current research perspectives on the field of urban/industrial solid waste recycling for bio-energy and bio-fuel recovery. It chiefly focuses on five main thematic areas, namely bioreactor landfills coupled with energy and nutrient recovery; microbial insights into anaerobic digestion; greenhouse emission assessment; pyrolysis techniques for special waste treatment; and industrial waste stabilization options. In addition, it compiles the results of case studies and solid waste management perspectives from different countries.

Energy from Toxic Organic Waste for Heat and Power Generation

Energy from Toxic Organic Waste for Heat and Power Generation
  • Author : Debabrata Barik
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-11-07
  • Total pages :225
  • ISBN : 9780081025291
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Summary : Energy from Toxic Organic Waste for Heat and Power Generation presents a detailed analysis on using scientific methods to recover and reuse energy from Toxic waste. Dr. Barik and his team of expert authors recognize that there has been a growing rise in the quantum and diversity of toxic waste materials produced by human activity, and as such there is an increasing need to adopt new methods for the safe regeneration and minimization of waste produce around the world. It is predominately broken down into 5 sections: The first section provides and overview on the Toxic waste generation addressing the main components for the imbalance in ecosystem derived from human activity The second section sets out ways in which toxic waste can be managed through various methods such as chemical treatment, cracking and Electro-beam treatment The final 3 sections deliver an insight in to how energy can be extracted and recycled into power from waste energy and the challenges that these may offer This book is essential reference for engineering industry workers and students seeking to adopt new techniques for reducing toxic waste and in turn extracting energy from it whilst complying with pollution control standards from across the world. Presents techniques which can be adopted to reduce toxic organic waste while complying with regulations and extract useable energy it Includes case studies of various global industries such as nuclear, medical and research laboratories to further enhance the readers understanding of efficient planning, toxic organic waste reduction methods and energy conversion techniques Analyses methods of extracting and recycling energy from toxic organic waste products

Biofuel Energy: spent coffee grounds biodiesel, bioethanol and solid fuel

Biofuel Energy: spent coffee grounds biodiesel, bioethanol and solid fuel
  • Author : Mebrahtu Haile
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-08-08
  • Total pages :103
  • ISBN : 9783954898053
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Summary : In this study, the use of waste coffee grounds for biodiesel producution, its solid by-product after oil extraction for bioethanol generation, and the second by-product after bioethanol generation for solid fuel generation is explored. For the study, waste coffee grounds samples were gathered from TOMOCA PLC, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The oil was then concentrated utilizing n-hexane and brought about an oil yield of 19.73 %w/w. The biodiesel was acquired by a two-stage process, i.e. acid catalyzed esterification followed by base catalyzed transesterification utilizing catalysts sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide respectively. The change, after esterification of waste coffee grounds oil into biodiesel, was about 80.4%w/w. Different parameters that are fundamental for biodiesel quality were assessed utilizing the American Standard for Testing Material (ASTM D 6751- 09) and revealed that all quality parameters are inside the extent pointed out aside from acid value. Also, the strong waste staying after oil extraction was researched for conceivable use as a feedstock for the generation of bioethanol and brought about a bioethanol yield of 8.3 %v/v. Moreover, the solid waste staying after bioethanol generation was assessed for solid fuel (20.8 MJ/Kg) applications.

Waste and Biodiesel

Waste and Biodiesel
  • Author : Bhaskar Singh,Abhishek Guldhe
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-11-15
  • Total pages :250
  • ISBN : 0128239581
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Summary : Waste and Biodiesel: Feedstocks and Precursors for Catalysts is a comprehensive reference on waste material utilization at various stages of the biodiesel production process, providing a critical evaluation of the potential applications and technological advances of wastes for biodiesel production. The book discusses the technologies for converting cooking oil and waste animal fats to biodiesel, and the efficacy of municipal waste derived lipids in biodiesel production. The use of wastewater-grown microalgae feedstock, oleaginous fungi, bacteria & yeast produced using waste substrate are also discussed. The use of various catalysts is addressed, including CaO derived from waste shell materials, fish and animal waste, inorganic waste materials like red mud and cement waste, and whole cell enzymes using waste substrate. The utilization of waste glycerol derived from biodiesel is also discussed as a substrate for the production of oil. Each chapter addresses the challenges of high production costs at a pilot and industrial scale and offers methods of cost reduction as well as waste remediation. Waste and Biodiesel: Feedstocks and Precursors for Catalysts is a valuable resource for researchers and industry professionals in environmental science, energy and renewable energy, and chemical engineering interested in waste remediation, biofuel production, and the circular economy. Provides a comprehensive assessment of waste for biodiesel production, including novel feedstocks such as waste cooking oil, animal fats, and municipal waste Discusses the synthesis of cost-effective catalysts from various waste materials such as animal bones, fish scales, shells, red mud and cement waste Presents multiple methods of cost reduction in biodiesel production, e.g. by utilizing waste as a nutrient source for olegenous algae and fungi

Introduction to Chemicals from Biomass

Introduction to Chemicals from Biomass
  • Author : James H. Clark,Fabien Deswarte
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-12-22
  • Total pages :344
  • ISBN : 9781118714454
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Summary : Introduction to Chemicals from Biomass, Second Edition presents an overview of the use of biorenewable resources in the 21st century for the manufacture of chemical products, materials and energy. The book demonstrates that biomass is essentially a rich mixture of chemicals and materials and, as such, has a tremendous potential as feedstock for making a wide range of chemicals and materials with applications in industries from pharmaceuticals to furniture. Completely revised and updated to reflect recent developments, this new edition begins with an introduction to the biorefinery concept, followed by chapters addressing the various types of available biomass feedstocks, including waste, and the different pre-treatment and processing technologies being developed to turn these feedstocks into platform chemicals, polymers, materials and energy. The book concludes with a discussion on the policies and strategies being put in place for delivering the so-called Bioeconomy. Introduction to Chemicals from Biomass is a valuable resource for academics, industrial scientists and policy-makers working in the areas of industrial biotechnology, biorenewables, chemical engineering, fine and bulk chemical production, agriculture technologies, plant science, and energy and power generation. We need to reduce our dependence on fossil resources and increasingly derive all the chemicals we take for granted and use in our daily life from biomass – and we must make sure that we do this using green chemistry and sustainable technologies! For more information on the Wiley Series in Renewable Resources, visit www.wiley.com/go/rrs Topics covered include: • The biorefinery concept • Biomass feedstocks • Pre-treatment technologies • Platform molecules from renewable resources • Polymers from bio-based monomers • Biomaterials • Bio-based energy production Praise for the 1st edition: “Drawing on the expertise of the authors the book involves a degree of plant biology and chemical engineering, which illustrates the multidisciplinary nature of the topic beautifully” - Chemistry World

Run Your Diesel Vehicle on Biofuels: A Do-It-Yourself Manual

Run Your Diesel Vehicle on Biofuels: A Do-It-Yourself Manual
  • Author : Jon Starbuck,Gavin Harper
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-12-01
  • Total pages :288
  • ISBN : 9780071600446
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Summary : CONVERT TO BIODIESEL FOR A MORE ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY RIDE Run Your Diesel Vehicle on Biofuels has everything you need to make the switch from expensive, environment-damaging carbon fuel to cheap (and, in many cases, free), clean fuel for your vehicle. Practical and decidedly apolitical, this unique guide focuses on technical details, parts, and instructions. Inside, you'll find step-by-step instructions accompanied by helpful illustrations for such projects as building and properly using a homemade biodiesel reactor, which enables you to drive you car on vegetable oil purchased at a fraction of the price of gas or even on second-hand oil obtained from restaurants free of charge. Run Your Diesel Vehicle on Biofuels also includes a list of international parts suppliers and various manufacturers' warranty statuses regarding vehicles converted to biodiesel. Projects include: Collecting waste oil Building a waste-oil processor Creating biodiesel fuel Converting your car to professional standards Constructing heat exchangers Run Your Diesel Vehicle on Biofuels covers: • History and functions of the diesel engine • Benefits of biofuel • Where to obtain raw ingredients • Theory of fuel conversion • Existing conversion kits o Blends, emulsions, and thinners • Processing and discarding waste oil • Laws and regulations • Green retail o Health and safety • Limitations of environmental benefits

Waste Biorefinery

Waste Biorefinery
  • Author : Thallada Bhaskar,Sunita Varjani,Ashok Pandey,Eldon R. Rene
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-03-05
  • Total pages :536
  • ISBN : 9780128218945
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Summary : Waste Biorefinery: Value Addition through Resources Utilization provides scientific and technical information surrounding the most advanced and innovative processing technologies used for the conversion of biogenic waste to biofuels, energy products and biochemicals. The book covers recent developments and achievements in the field of biochemical, thermo-chemical and hybrid methods and the necessities and potentials generated by different kinds of residual streams, including biomass in presumably more decentralized biorefineries. An assortment of case-studies from developing and developed countries illustrate the topics presented, covering energy, chemicals, fuels, food for animal recovery from different waste matrices, and more. Finally, the advantages and limitations of different technologies are discussed, considering local energy demand, government policies, environmental impacts and education in bioenergy. This book will serve as an excellent resource for science graduates, chemical engineers, environmental engineers, biotechnologists and industrial experts in these areas. Provides information on the most advanced and innovative processes for biomass conversion Covers information on biochemical and thermochemical processes and product developments surrounding the principles of biorefining Presents information on the integration of processes and technologies for the production of biofuels, energy products and biochemicals

Biodiesel Production

Biodiesel Production
  • Author : Biodiesel Production Technologies Challenges and Future Prospects Task Committee
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019
  • Total pages :848
  • ISBN : 078441534X
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Summary : Biodiesel Production: Technologies, Challenges, and Future Prospects provides in-depth information on fundamentals, approaches, technologies, source materials and associated socio-economic and political impacts of biodiesel production.

Development of Heterogeneous Catalyst from Waste for Biodiesel Production

Development of Heterogeneous Catalyst from Waste for Biodiesel Production
  • Author : Beenish Shah
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015
  • Total pages :204
  • ISBN : OCLC:957281846
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Summary : Homogeneous catalysts have several disadvantages in biodiesel production such as large amount of soap production, it is corrosive to equipment, cannot be reused, produces large amount of wastewater for purification steps, hence increasing the overall cost of biodiesel production. To overcome these problems in production of biodiesel this study looks into alternatives of employing heterogeneous catalyst from waste resources. The waste food material namely crab shell, egg shell and fish bone is selected as heterogeneous catalysts, for biodiesel synthesis by transesterification reaction to determine the source providing the highest biodiesel yield. The solid oxide materials were calcined at 900°C for 2-4 hrs to convert CaCO3 to CaO species. Transesterification was carried out at 65°C for 4 hrs with varied methanol to oil ratio. The optimum calcination time and methanol:oil ratio for transesterification reaction was 3hrs and 12:1 respectively. It was found that although egg shell and crab shell gave average biodiesel yields, fish bone provided the highest yield of the three catalysts. Fish bone catalyst was further chemically treated with Al(NO3)3.9H2O to develop a support for the catalyst in order to enhance the yield and quality of biodiesel. The experiment is designed by face-centered central composite design (FCCCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). The input parameters for process conditions were CaO loading, calcination time for chemically treated catalyst and catalyst wt%. The highest yield of 94.30% was achieved with the optimum conditions at calcination time of 6.11hrs, catalyst wt% of 4.02w/w% and CaO loading of 34.49w/w%. estimated by RSM. This research signifies successful application of waste resources as an emerging prospective for economical preparation of heterogeneous catalyst, developing an unconventional avenue for reusing of this solid waste.

Biofuels

Biofuels
  • Author : Krzysztof Biernat
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-09-30
  • Total pages :582
  • ISBN : 9789535121770
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Summary : The edited volume presents the progress of first and second generation biofuel production technology in selected countries. Possibility of producing alternative fuels containing biocomponents and selected research methods of biofuels exploitation characteristics (also aviation fuels) was characterized. The book shows also some aspects of the environmental impact of the production and biofuels using, and describes perspectives of biofuel production technology development. It provides the review of biorefinery processes with a particular focus on pretreatment methods of selected primary and secondary raw materials. The discussion includes also a possibility of sustainable development of presented advanced biorefinery processes.

Waste Cooking Oil-to-biodiesel Conversion for Space Heating Applications

Waste Cooking Oil-to-biodiesel Conversion for Space Heating Applications
  • Author : Daniel J. Bruton
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014
  • Total pages :338
  • ISBN : OCLC:881521770
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Summary : "Transesterification is a process that converts triglycerides, like vegetable oil, into fatty acid methyl esters, commonly known as biodiesel. This conversion reaction requires the triglyceride feedstock, an alcohol, and an alkali-catalyst to produce the biodiesel. Biodiesel is a versatile biofuel that is renewable, biodegradable, and environmentally beneficial in the sense that combustion adds only biogenic carbon to the atmosphere. The main limitation of commercialization of biodiesel is cost. However, developing closed-loop systems that have an available triglyceride supply, such as waste cooking oil, as well as demand for diesel based fuels, can achieve substantial emissions reductions and energy avoidance, while simultaneously solving a waste disposal issue. Thus, an analysis of the development of a closed-loop waste cooking to biodiesel fuel production process is warranted. A waste-to-energy (WtE) system like this offers great potential to institutions. Thus, this analysis includes the development of a waste cooking oil to biodiesel fuel program utilizing the available waste cooking oil of a university, the production of the fuel, the internal use of the fuel, and subsequent analysis of the fuel characteristics, emissions, and the life cycle environmental and energy impacts of the production process and ultimate use. The results show that the waste cooking oil derived biodiesel meets the required American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard specifically for biodiesel, ASTM D6751. The produced biodiesel was blended with commercially available fuel oil, which met the ASTM specification D396-13b. Therefore, a blend of these two ASTM compliant fuels also met the required ASTM standards. The ASTM standards require high quality fuel characteristics and ensure proper utilization and combustion. Biodiesel blended heating fuels were utilized in two distinct heating facilities, both showing comparable emissions to conventional fuel oil. Small (500 mL) and large (1L) volume biodiesel blends were utilized in a conventional residential furnace. Emissions data were obtained through the exhaust ducting with a combustion gas analyzer. The same fuel blends were utilized in a lab-scale burner apparatus without a heat exchanger, which enabled near-flame interrogation and visualization of the combustion process. The emissions of both heating facilities were comparable to the incumbent fuel oil. The life cycle assessment results demonstrate the benefits of increasing the approved blends of biodiesel heating fuels. Currently, most oil burners are only approved up to a B5 blend (5% biodiesel, 95% fuel oil). The results show higher blends achieve substantial life cycle reduction in global warming potential and cumulative energy demand, as well as an energy return on investment of above 4, indicating more energy is obtained from the fuel than required to produce it."--Abstract.

Biodiesel Basics and Beyond

Biodiesel Basics and Beyond
  • Author : William Kemp
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006-09-05
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : 1505404630
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Summary : Biodiesel, ( a clean, renewable diesel-like fuel that minimizes exhaust emissions and air toxins) is one of the most thoroughly tested alternative fuels, with over 400 million miles of in-field use. Large-scale biodiesel production capacity in North America now exceeds 300 million gallons and continues to grow annually. Simultaneously, there has been a surge in the production of "underground" biodiesel. Home brewers discovered that by collecting waste restaurant fryer oils and performing a chemical transformation process they could manufacture low-cost, crude biodiesel for transportation and home heating. What has followed is a flood of guidebooks and web-based misinformation about the ease of producing poor-quality biofuel while leaving an environmental mess of toxic waste products behind. Biodiesel Basics and Beyond draws on the collective experience of North American and European researchers, with the author making the case for biodiesel use in society. Later chapters detail the step-by-step processes and equipment necessary for micro and small-scale production of biodiesel meeting established quality and byproduct management standards. Every statement or method developed by the author is backed up by independent government or university laboratory verification, ensuring the reader of the accuracy of both the data and processes provided. The 600 page, 6 x 9 inch format book is filled with hundreds of photographs and charts presented in a logically organized format and written for those who are merely curious or are industry experts.

Biodiesel Fuels Based on Edible and Nonedible Feedstocks, Wastes, and Algae

Biodiesel Fuels Based on Edible and Nonedible Feedstocks, Wastes, and Algae
  • Author : Ozcan Konur
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-05-06
  • Total pages :418
  • ISBN : 9781000348668
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Summary : This second volume of the Handbook of Biodiesel and Petrodiesel Fuels presents a representative sample of the population papers in the field of feedstock-specific biodiesel fuels. The research on feedstocks for biodiesel fuels has first focused on the edible oils as first-generation biodiesel fuels. However, the public concerns about the competition with foods based on these feedstocks and adverse impact on the ecological diversity and deforestation have resulted in the exploration of nonedible-oil-based biodiesel fuels as second-generation biodiesel fuels in the first instance. Due to the ecological and cost benefits of treating wastes, waste oil-based biodiesel fuels as third-generation biodiesel fuels have emerged. Furthermore, following a series of influential review papers, the research has focused on the algal oil-based biodiesel fuels in recent years. Since the cost of feedstocks in general constitutes 85% of the total biodiesel production costs, the research focused more on improving biomass and lipid productivity in these research fields. Furthermore, since water, CO2, and nutrients (primarily N and P) have been major ingredients for the algal biomass and lipid production, the research has also intensified in the use of wastewaters and flue gases for algal biomass production to reduce the ecological burdens and the production costs. Part 1 presents a representative sample of the population papers in the field of edible oil-based biodiesel fuels covering major research fronts. It covers soybean oil-based biodiesel fuels, palm oil-based biodiesel fuels, and rapeseed oil-based biodiesel fuels as case studies besides an overview paper. Part 2 presents a representative sample of the population papers in the field of nonedible oil-based biodiesel fuels covering major research fronts. It covers Jatropha oil-based biodiesel fuels, polanga oil-based biodiesel fuels, and moringa oil-based biodiesel fuels as case studies besides an overview paper. Part 3 presents a representative sample of the population papers in the field of waste oil-based biodiesel fuels covering major research fronts. It covers wastewater sludge-based biodiesel fuels, waste cooking oil-based biodiesel fuels, and microbial oil-based biodiesel fuels as case studies besides an overview paper. Part 4 presents a representative sample of the population papers in the field of algal oil-based biodiesel fuels covering major research fronts. It covers algal biomass production in general, algal biomass production in wastewaters, algal lipid production, hydrothermal liquefaction of algal biomass, algal lipid extraction, and algal biodiesel production besides an overview paper. This book will be useful to academics and professionals in the fields of Energy Fuels, Chemical Engineering, Physical Chemistry, Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology, Environmental Sciences, and Thermodynamics. Ozcan Konur is both a materials scientist and social scientist by training. He has published around 200 journal papers, book chapters, and conference papers. He has focused on the bioenergy and biofuels in recent years. In 2018, he edited ‘Bioenergy and Biofuels’, that brought together the work of over 30 experts in their respective field. He also edited ‘Handbook of Algal Science, Technology, and Medicine’ with a strong section on the algal biofuels in 2020.

Transportation Biofuels

Transportation Biofuels
  • Author : Alwin Hoogendoorn,Han van Kasteren
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-04-14
  • Total pages :212
  • ISBN : 9781788015042
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Summary : The transportation industry is still largely reliant on fossil fuels, whose use and extraction have significant environmental costs. Biofuels produced from renewable resources biomass offer a more sustainable alternative. However, it is important that production methods should be energy efficient and that feedstocks should not compete with food sources. Biofuels that meet these criteria are sometimes referred to as second-generation biofuels. The new edition of this book provides updates on the three previously discussed non-conventional pathways for second-generation biofuels, including new experimental results and pilot plant studies. It also includes a completely new chapter looking at developments in combining renewable electricity with fuel production and possible future directions for the transportation industry. It is a useful read for researchers and industrialists working in biofuel development as well as postgraduate students studying fuel alternatives.

Assessment of Selected Sustainability Aspects of Biodiesel Production

Assessment of Selected Sustainability Aspects of Biodiesel Production
  • Author : Qingshi Tu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012
  • Total pages :144
  • ISBN : OCLC:816351268
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Summary : Biodiesel has been in commercial use for more than a decade with several known benefits: reducing the nation's reliance on petroleum import, significant reduction in the emission of air pollutants and green house gases (GHGs), and comparable fuel properties to the petroleum diesel. However, expansion of the biodiesel industry has also resulted in some concerns. As an example, the "food vs. fuel" debate reflects the competition of biodiesel with food supply when edible seed-oils, such as soybean oil, are used for more profitable production. In order for the biodiesel industry to continue thriving in the future, various governments and organizations have imposed and suggested an array of sustainability factors for biodiesel supply chain, such as land use, water consumption, waste management, cost and availability of feedstocks, etc. This study addressed two major sustainability aspects regarding biodiesel production: (1) water consumption, and (2) utilization of waste materials. In detail, the following topics were investigated: (1) characterization of water consumption by soybean-derived biodiesel in plant growth and fuel production; (2) parametric study of reducing FFA (free fatty acid) in waste cooking oil; and (3) a preliminary evaluation on the utilization of waste coffee ground as biodiesel feedstock and purification material. Water consumption from biodiesel process was characterized as three stages: plant growth, soybean processing and biodiesel production. Result showed that the nationwide average irrigation accounted for 61.78 gallons of water per gallon of soybean biodiesel while soybean processing (0.17 gal/gal) and biodiesel production (0.36 gal/gal) stages consumed much less. A state-by-state analysis for irrigation water indicated that the water consumption was highly dependent on the location and climate. Overall, on a nationwide basis, the total water consumption for making biodiesel from soybean was approximately 808.7 million gallons water per year. In general, feedstock can account for up to 80% of the total cost for biodiesel production. This offers potentials for low cost and even waste materials, such as animal fats, waste cooking oil (WCO), and trap grease (brown grease). However, the high FFA content (>1 wt%) in these waste materials requires pretreatment prior to transesterification . Therefore, a parametric study on FFA reduction in WCO was performed to study the optimum conditions for FFA pretreatment. WCO with FFA level of 5±0.5 wt% was treated by acid catalytic esterificiation using sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The influence of temperature, methanol-to-FFA molar ratio, and catalyst concentration on the conversion rate was investigated. Results indicated that the optimal condition was 60±5°C, 40:1 methanol-to-FFA molar ratio, and 12.5 wt% H2SO4. Thirdly, a preliminary study was performed to investigate the feasibility of using waste coffee grounds (WCG) as both an oil source and purification material for biodiesel production. Results showed that the oil content of WCG was around 10 wt%. In addition, the post-extraction WCGs were found to be effective in removing impurities from crude biodiesel, such as free glycerin, methanol and metal ions. Results suggested that WCG may be comparable in purification capability to commercial materials. The use of waste as feedstock and purification material can greatly promote the sustainability of biodiesel production by lowering overall production cost, reducing waste generation (less/no additional purification material needed) and minimizing life cycle environmental impact (recycling/reusing wastes in each stage of the production life cycle).

Bioenergy Research: Biomass Waste to Energy

Bioenergy Research: Biomass Waste to Energy
  • Author : Manish Srivastava,Neha Srivastava,Rajeev Singh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-08-01
  • Total pages :272
  • ISBN : 9789811618628
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Summary : This volume is fourth part of the five-part set on bioenergy research. This volume covers biomass to bioenergy production concept. The book is focused on the possible and versatile biomass options available for the generation of bioenergy. Additionally, the book also explores different types of biomass for bioenergy generation at a commercial level. Further, the book elaborates on different kind of cellulose and sugar rich waste which can also be utilized for bioenergy production. It covers other relevant issues such as recent technological advancement in biomass to bioenergy conversion, waste management in the context of biomass to biofuels production technologies, green methods of energy production, alternates of fossil fuels in the near future. It also explores biomass waste valorization, utilizing microbial processes in bioenergy production. This is a useful reading material for students, researchers, industry and policy experts. Other four volumes of this set explore basic concepts, latest progress, commercial opportunities and integrated solution for bioenergy concerns.

Handbook of Biofuels Production

Handbook of Biofuels Production
  • Author : Rafael Luque,Carol Sze Ki Lin,Karen Wilson,James Clark
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-05-19
  • Total pages :770
  • ISBN : 9780081004562
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Summary : Handbook of Biofuels Production, Second Edition, discusses advanced chemical, biochemical, and thermochemical biofuels production routes that are fast being developed to address the global increase in energy usage. Research and development in this field is aimed at improving the quality and environmental impact of biofuels production, as well as the overall efficiency and output of biofuels production plants. The book provides a comprehensive and systematic reference on the range of biomass conversion processes and technology. Key changes for this second edition include increased coverage of emerging feedstocks, including microalgae, more emphasis on by-product valorization for biofuels’ production, additional chapters on emerging biofuel production methods, and discussion of the emissions associated with biofuel use in engines. The editorial team is strengthened by the addition of two extra members, and a number of new contributors have been invited to work with authors from the first edition to revise existing chapters, thus offering fresh perspectives. Provides systematic and detailed coverage of the processes and technologies being used for biofuel production Discusses advanced chemical, biochemical, and thermochemical biofuels production routes that are fast being developed to address the global increase in energy usage Reviews the production of both first and second generation biofuels Addresses integrated biofuel production in biorefineries and the use of waste materials as feedstocks