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Waste to Energy Conversion Technology

Waste to Energy Conversion Technology
  • Author : Naomi B Klinghoffer,Marco J Castaldi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-15
  • Total pages :256
  • ISBN : 9780857096364
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Summary : Increasing global consumerism and population has led to an increase in the levels of waste produced. Waste to energy (WTE) conversion technologies can be employed to convert residual wastes into clean energy, rather than sending these wastes directly to landfill. Waste to energy conversion technology explores the systems, technology and impacts of waste to energy conversion. Part one provides an introduction to WTE conversion and reviews the waste hierarchy and WTE systems options along with the corresponding environmental, regulatory and techno-economic issues facing this technology. Part two goes on to explore further specific aspects of WTE systems, engineering and technology and includes chapters on municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion plants and WTE systems for district heating. Finally, part three highlights pollution control systems for waste to energy technologies. Waste to energy conversion technology is a standard reference book for plant managers, building engineers and consultants requiring an understanding of WTE technologies, and researchers, scientists and academics interested in the field. Reviews the waste hierarchy and waste to energy systems options along with the environmental and social impact of WTE conversion plants Explores the engineering and technology behind WTE systems including considerations of municipal solid waste (MSW) its treatment, combustion and gasification Considers pollution control systems for WTE technologies including the transformation of wast combustion facilities from major polluters to pollution sinks

Municipal Solid Waste to Energy Conversion Processes

Municipal Solid Waste to Energy Conversion Processes
  • Author : Gary C. Young
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-11-29
  • Total pages :396
  • ISBN : 1118029275
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Summary : A technical and economic review of emerging waste disposal technologies Intended for a wide audience ranging from engineers and academics to decision-makers in both the public and private sectors, Municipal Solid Waste to Energy Conversion Processes: Economic, Technical, and Renewable Comparisons reviews the current state of the solid waste disposal industry. It details how the proven plasma gasification technology can be used to manage Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and to generate energy and revenues for local communities in an environmentally safe manner with essentially no wastes. Beginning with an introduction to pyrolysis/gasification and combustion technologies, the book provides many case studies on various waste-to-energy (WTE) technologies and creates an economic and technical baseline from which all current and emerging WTE technologies could be compared and evaluated. Topics include: Pyrolysis/gasification technology, the most suitable and economically viable approach for the management of wastes Combustion technology Other renewable energy resources including wind and hydroelectric energy Plasma economics Cash flows as a revenue source for waste solids-to-energy management Plant operations, with an independent case study of Eco-Valley plant in Utashinai, Japan Extensive case studies of garbage to liquid fuels, wastes to electricity, and wastes to power ethanol plants illustrate how currently generated MSW and past wastes in landfills can be processed with proven plasma gasification technology to eliminate air and water pollution from landfills.

Municipal Solid Waste Energy Conversion in Emerging Countries

Municipal Solid Waste Energy Conversion in Emerging Countries
  • Author : Suani Teixeira Coelho,Alessandro Sanches Pereira,Shyamala Mani,Daniel Hugo Bouille,William H.L. Stafford
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-09-15
  • Total pages :300
  • ISBN : 0128134194
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Summary : Municipal Solid Waste Energy Conversion in Emerging Countries: Technologies, Best Practices, Challenges and Policy presents contributions from authors from India, Brazil, South Africa and China who come together to present the most reliable technologies for the energy conversion of municipal solid waste. The book addresses existing economic and policy scenarios and possible pathways to increase energy access and reduce the negative impacts of inadequate disposal. The book's authors discuss anaerobic digestion and other MSW conversion technologies, such as incineration and gasification. The environmental and social impacts of their introduction in small villages in emerging countries is also explored. Due to its focus on local authors and its pragmatic approach, this book is indispensable for bioenergy researchers and practitioners in emerging economies, as well as researchers, graduate students and professionals interested in developing waste to energy technology that can be implemented in those regions. It is also particularly useful to professionals interested in energy policy and economics, due to its assessment of policy and recommendations. Explores the opportunities and challenges for municipal solid waste to energy technology implementation in emerging economies, such as Brazil, India, South Africa and China Presents a detailed and updated overview of the commercial technologies available in these countries and their economic, environmental and social aspects Includes case studies which highlight best practices and successful local experiences Examines current economics and policy barriers for these technologies

Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste by Thermal Conversion Technologies

Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste by Thermal Conversion Technologies
  • Author : P. Jayarama Reddy
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-03-30
  • Total pages :238
  • ISBN : 9781498777049
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Summary : This book presents an overview of the technology that allows millions and millions of tons of municipal solid waste generated globally to be perceived as an asset which, after materials recovery for recycling, can be used to generate clean power, transport fuels that can substitute fossil fuels, and value-based chemicals with minimal environmental impact. It also explains how hazardous wastes and sewage sludge can be treated and disposed of without affecting human and environmental health. It does so by providing a full discussion of established thermal conversion technologies generating heat, electricity, liquid fuels and useful chemicals from solid waste. Featuring case studies describing worldwide waste-to-energy plants in successful operation, it offers highly suited supporting material for an introductory course on waste thermal conversion processes.

Waste-to-Energy

Waste-to-Energy
  • Author : Marc J. Rogoff,Francois Screve
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-06-17
  • Total pages :184
  • ISBN : 9781437778724
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Summary : This book covers in detail programs and technologies for converting traditionally landfilled solid wastes into energy through waste-to-energy projects Modern Waste-to-Energy plants are being built around the world to reduce the levels of solid waste going into landfill sites and contribute to renewable energy and carbon reduction targets. The latest technologies have also reduced the pollution levels seen from early waste incineration plants by over 99% With case studies from around the world, Rogoff and Screve provide an insight into the different approaches taken to the planning and implementation of WTE The second edition includes coverage of the latest technologies and practical engineering challenges as well as an exploration of the economic and regulatory context for the development of WTE

Advances in Waste-to-Energy Technologies

Advances in Waste-to-Energy Technologies
  • Author : Rajeev Pratap Singh,Vishal Prasad,Barkha Vaish
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-11-14
  • Total pages :270
  • ISBN : 9780429751806
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Summary : As global populations continue to increase, the application of biotechnological processes for disposal and control of waste has gained importance in recent years. Advances in Waste-to-Energy Technologies presents the latest developments in the areas of solid waste management, Waste-to-Energy (WTE) technologies, biotechnological approaches, and their global challenges. It combines biotechnological procedures, sophisticated modeling, and techno-economic analysis of waste, and examines the current need for the maximum recovery of energy from wastes as well as the associated biotechnological and environmental impacts. Features: Presents numerous waste management practices and methods to recover resources from waste using the best biotechnological approaches available. Addresses the challenges, management, and policy issues of waste management and WTE initiatives. Includes practical case studies from around the world. Serves as a useful resource for professionals and students involved in cross-disciplinary and trans-disciplinary research programs and related courses. Discusses the economic and regulatory contexts for managing waste. This book will serve as a valuable reference for researchers, academicians, municipal authorities, government bodies, waste managers, building engineers, and environmental consultants requiring an understanding of waste management and the latest WTE technologies.

Sustainable Food Waste-to-Energy Systems

Sustainable Food Waste-to-Energy Systems
  • Author : Thomas Trabold,Callie W. Babbitt
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-09-05
  • Total pages :292
  • ISBN : 9780128111581
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Summary : Sustainable Food Waste-to-Energy Systems assesses the utilization of food waste in sustainable energy conversion systems. It explores all sources of waste generated in the food supply chain (downstream from agriculture), with coverage of industrial, commercial, institutional and residential sources. It provides a detailed analysis of the conventional pathways for food waste disposal and utilization, including composting, incineration, landfilling and wastewater treatment. Next, users will find valuable sections on the chemical, biochemical and thermochemical waste-to-energy conversion processes applicable for food waste and an assessment of commercially available sustainable food waste-to-energy conversion technologies. Sustainability aspects, including consideration of environmental, economic and social impacts are also explored. The book concludes with an analysis of how deploying waste-to-energy systems is dependent on cross-cutting research methods, including geographical information systems and big data. It is a useful resource for professionals working in waste-to-energy technologies, as well as those in the food industry and food waste management sector planning and implementing these systems, but is also ideal for researchers, graduate students, energy policymakers and energy analysts interested in the most recent advances in the field. Provides guidance on how specific food waste characteristics drive possible waste-to-energy conversion processes Presents methodologies for selecting among different waste-to-energy options, based on waste volumes, distribution and properties, local energy demand (electrical/thermal/steam), opportunities for industrial symbiosis, regulations and incentives and social acceptance, etc. Contains tools to assess potential environmental and economic performance of deployed systems Links to publicly available resources on food waste data for energy conversion

Waste-to-Energy

Waste-to-Energy
  • Author : Marc J. Rogoff,Francois Screve
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-03-09
  • Total pages :228
  • ISBN : 9780128160800
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Summary : Waste-to-Energy: Technologies and Project Implementation, Third Edition covers the programs and technologies that are available for converting traditionally landfilled solid wastes into energy through waste-to-energy projects. It includes coverage of the latest technologies and practical engineering challenges, along with an exploration of the economic and regulatory context for the development of WTE. In addition to technology itself, the book explores implementation concepts, waste feedstock characterization and flow control. It also delves into some of the key issues surrounding the implementation of waste-to-energy systems, such as site selection, regulatory aspects, and financial and economic implications. Professionals working on planning and implementing waste-to-energy systems will find the book’s practical approach and strong coverage of technical aspects a big help to their initiatives. This is a must-have reference for engineers and energy researchers developing and implementing waste-to-energy conversion systems. Explores the most currently available technology for waste-to-energy conversion from municipal solid wastes Includes recent case studies from around the world that provide insights into the different approaches to planning and implementation of WTE Completely updated with the latest technology Expanded to include information on thermochemical and biochemical conversion systems

Biomass to Energy Conversion Technologies

Biomass to Energy Conversion Technologies
  • Author : Pratima Bajpai
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-10-22
  • Total pages :264
  • ISBN : 9780128184011
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Summary : Biomass to Energy Conversion Technologies: The Road to Commercialization examines biomass production, biomass types, properties and characterization, and energy conversion technologies with an emphasis on the production of a gaseous fuel to supplement the gas derived from the landfilling of organic wastes (landfill gas) and used in gas engines to produce electricity. The book discusses the integration of both fermentation and anaerobic digestion in a biorefinery concept that allows the production of ethanol—along with biogas—to be used to produce heat and electricity, thus improving overall energy balance. Included case studies based on worldwide projects discuss both risks and challenges. The main studies on the combination of both bioethanol and biogas production processes are reviewed and the strength and weakness of the integrated treatment for industrial application are highlighted. The book also considers gasification technologies and their potential for biomass gasification and lists the advantages and disadvantages of using of biomass as a source of energy, the path of commercialization of the various processes, energy related environmental issues. Highlights commercialization and technological risks Discusses challenges, limitations and future prospects of third- and fourth generation biofuels Includes integration of both fermentation and anaerobic digestion in a biorefinery concept Discusses energy related environment issues (Greenhouse effect, acid rain, air pollution)

Gasification of Waste Materials

Gasification of Waste Materials
  • Author : Simona Ciuta,Demetra Tsiamis,Marco J. Castaldi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-10-24
  • Total pages :162
  • ISBN : 9780128127179
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Summary : Gasification of Waste Materials: Technologies for Generating Energy, Gas and Chemicals from MSW, Biomass, Non-recycled Plastics, Sludges and Wet Solid Wastes explores the most recent gasification technologies developing worldwide to convert waste solids to energy and synthesis gas and chemical products. The authors examine the thermodynamic aspects, accepted reaction mechanisms and kinetic constraints of using municipal solid waste (MSW), biomass, non-recycled plastics (NRP), sludges and wet solid wastes as feedstock. They identify the distinctions between pyrolysis, gasification, plasma, hydrothermal gasification, and supercritical systems. A comprehensive summary of laboratory and demonstration activities is presented, as well as field scale systems that have been in operation using solid waste streams as input, highlighting their areas of disconnect and alignment. The book also provides a summary of information on emissions from the stack, comparing them with other thermal conversion systems using similar feedstock. It then goes on to assess the areas that must be improved to ensure gasification systems become as successful as combustion systems operating on waste streams, ranging from feedstock processing to gasifier output gas clean-up, downstream system requirements and corrosion. The economics and future projections for waste gasification systems are also discussed. For its consolidation of the current technical knowledge, this text is recommended for engineering researchers, graduate students, industry professionals, municipal engineers and decision makers when planning, designing and deploying waste to energy projects, especially those using MSW as feedstock. Provides field demonstrations of large scale systems, their results and the challenges that need to be overcome when developing commercial applications and possible solutions Presents the most recent technologies in lab and demonstration scale Examines the critical development needs and real life challenges for the deployment of waste to energy technologies Provides information on the economics and sustainability of these technologies, as well as their future perspectives

Waste-to-Energy

Waste-to-Energy
  • Author : Jingzheng Ren
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-05-12
  • Total pages :406
  • ISBN : 9780128166130
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Summary : Waste-to-Energy: Multi-criteria Decision Analysis for Sustainability Assessment and Ranking offers a comprehensive view of the technologies and processes for energy generation as a path for waste treatment, presenting all the necessary information and tools for selecting the most sustainable waste-to-energy solution under varying conditions. The book combines methods such as lifecycle assessment, sustainability assessment, multi-criteria decision-making, and multi-objective optimization modes. In addition, it provides an overview of waste-to-energy feedstocks, technologies and implementation, then goes on to investigate the critical factors and key enablers that influence the sustainable development of the waste-to-energy industry. The book proposes several decision-making methods for the ranking and selection of waste-to-energy scenarios under different levels of certainty and information availability, including multi-criteria, multi-actor and multi-attribute methods. Finally, the book employs lifecycle tools that allow the assessment of economic, environmental and social sustainability of waste-to-energy systems. Explores existing and state-of-the-art waste to energy technologies and systems, as well as their feedstock requirements Presents a wide perspective of sustainability issues of waste-to-energy technologies, also discussing critical influential factors or key enablers for promoting the sustainable development of waste-to-energy solutions Provides multi-dimensional decision-making techniques for choosing the most suitable and sustainable waste-to-energy technologies for different scenarios

Energy Recovery Processes from Wastes

Energy Recovery Processes from Wastes
  • Author : Sadhan Kumar Ghosh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-09-09
  • Total pages :250
  • ISBN : 9789813292284
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Summary : The book focuses on a global issue—municipal solid waste management (MSWM) and presents the most effective solutions based on energy recovery processes. There is huge potential in employing different technologies and modern management methodology for recovering energy from various waste streams to establish a sustainable and circular economy. In several countries, energy recovery from municipal solid wastes (MSW) is seen as a way of reducing the negative impact of waste on the environment and also reducing the burden on land resources. The book primarily focuses on highlighting the latest insights into energy recovery from various waste streams in different countries, with a particular emphasis on India. Further, it paves the way for sustainability in the energy sector as a whole by addressing waste management issues and simultaneous energy recovery. The chapters present high-quality research papers selected and presented in the conference, IconSWM 2018.

Energy from Waste

Energy from Waste
  • Author : Paul Breeze
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-10-27
  • Total pages :100
  • ISBN : 9780128095133
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Summary : Energy from Waste is a concise, up-to-date and accessible guide on how to create power from both urban and industrial waste. The book explores the types of waste that, instead of going to landfill, can be converted to energy, also discussing the most up-to-date technologies for doing so. The book contains a strong emphasis on the related environmental impacts and economic factors involved in the various methods of generating electricity, making this a valuable and insightful read for those involved in the management and conversion of waste, including energy engineers, managers and technicians. Explores both urban and industrial waste, its composition and how it is collected, enabling readers to better understand which power generation technologies can be used to convert it into power Discusses the most up-to-date technologies, along with the impacts they have on the environment, including solid residue, chemicals and dust from the flue-gas treatment (and the flue gas itself) Evaluates the economic impact of converting energy from waste and implementing and managing waste plants

Gasification for Low-grade Feedstock

Gasification for Low-grade Feedstock
  • Author : Yongseung Yun
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-07-11
  • Total pages :288
  • ISBN : 9781789232882
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Summary : Most coveted energy forms nowadays are gas in nature and electricity due to their environmental cleanness and convenience. Recently, gasification market trend is starting to switch to low-grade feedstock such as biomass, wastes, and low-rank coal that are still not properly utilized. In this sense, the most promising area of development in gasification field lies in low-grade feedstock that should be converted to more user-friendly gas or electricity form in utilization. This book tried to shed light on the works on gasification from many parts of the world and thus can feel the technology status and the areas of interest regarding gasification for low-grade feedstock.

Energy Conversion

Energy Conversion
  • Author : Ibrahim H. Al-Bahadly
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-01-16
  • Total pages :156
  • ISBN : 9781789849042
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Summary : Energy conversion technology has always been a main focus for researchers in order to meet the increasing demand as well as securing a clean, consistent and reliable energy supply. The constantly rising fuel price is another good reason to develop alternative systems such as wind turbines, hydropower, photovoltaic systems and other renewable energy solutions. This book contains a collection of selected research works in the areas of electric energy generation, renewable energy sources, hybrid system, electromechanical energy conversion, electric machines, power electronic converters and inverters, energy storage, smart grid and traditional energy conversion systems. The book intends to provide academic and industry professionals working in the field of energy conversion and related applications with an update in energy conversion technology, particularly from the applied perspective.

Waste-to-Energy

Waste-to-Energy
  • Author : Lisa Branchini
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-06-02
  • Total pages :143
  • ISBN : 9783319136080
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Summary : This book provides an overview of state-of-the-art technologies for energy conversion from waste, as well as a much-needed guide to new and advanced strategies to increase Waste-to-Energy (WTE) plant efficiency. Beginning with an overview of municipal solid waste production and disposal, basic concepts related to Waste-To-Energy conversion processes are described, highlighting the most relevant aspects impacting the thermodynamic efficiency of WTE power plants. The pervasive influences of main steam cycle parameters and plant configurations on WTE efficiency are detailed and quantified. Advanced hybrid technology applications, particularly the Hybrid Combined Cycle concept, are examined in detail, including an illuminating compare-and-contrast study of two basic types of hybrid dual-fuel combined cycle arrangements: steam/water side integrated HCC and windbox repowering.

Waste-to-Energy Technologies and Global Applications

Waste-to-Energy Technologies and Global Applications
  • Author : Efstratios N. Kalogirou
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-08-15
  • Total pages :244
  • ISBN : 9781351977913
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Summary : Through Waste-to-Energy (WtE) technology, plants use waste as a renewable fuel to co-produce electricity, heating, and cooling for urban utilization. This professional book presents the latest developments in WtE technologies and their global applications. The first part of the book covers thermal treatment technologies, including combustion, novel gasification, plasma gasification, and pyrolysis. It then examines 35 real-world WtE case studies from around the world, analyzing technical information behind planning, execution, goals, and national strategies. Results through the years show the benefits of the technology through the life cycle of the products. The book also examines financial and environmental aspects.

Waste Valorisation and Recycling

Waste Valorisation and Recycling
  • Author : Sadhan Kumar Ghosh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-01-29
  • Total pages :587
  • ISBN : 9789811327841
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Summary : This book gathers high-quality research papers presented at the Seventh International Conference on Solid Waste Management, held at Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Hyderabad on December 15-17, 2017. The Conference, IconSWM 2017, is as an official side event of the high-level Intergovernmental Eighth Regional 3R Forum in Asia and the Pacific. As a pre-event, it also aims to generate scientific inputs to the policy consultations at the Eighth Regional 3R Forum co-organised by the UNCRD/UNDESA, MoEFCC India, MOUD India and MOEJ, Japan. At the IconSWM 2017, researchers from more than 30 countries presented their work on Solid Waste Management. Divided into three volumes, this book shares their papers, which address various issues related to innovation and implementation in sustainable waste management, segregation, collection and transportation of waste, treatment technologies, policies and strategies, energy recovery, life cycle analysis, climate change, and research and business opportunities.

Advanced Technology for the Conversion of Waste into Fuels and Chemicals

Advanced Technology for the Conversion of Waste into Fuels and Chemicals
  • Author : Anish Khan,Mohammad Jawaid,A. Pizzi,Naved Azum,Abdullah M. Asiri,Illyas M.D. Isa
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-03-15
  • Total pages :300
  • ISBN : 0128231394
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Summary : Huge volumes of solid waste are produced globally while, at the same time, huge amounts of energy are produced from fossil fuels. Waste to energy (WTE) technologies are developing rapidly, holding out the potential to make clean, sustainable power from waste material. Energy producible from the burning of solid waste represents an elective energy supply that can help reduce reliance on ordinary petroleum derivatives. WTE advances physically convert waste material - beyond the commonplace notion of large incinerators used to produced heat from garbage - into increasingly valuable types of fuel that can be used to supply energy. These WTE procedures incorporate various methods and blended approaches, and present an enormous opportunity for clean, sustainable energy. Advanced Technology for the Conversion of Waste into Fuels and Chemicals presents advanced techniques and combined techniques - including combustion, gasification, paralysis, anaerobic digestion, and fermentation - that can be used to convert waste to energy. The title focuses on solid waste conversion to fuel and energy, and presents the latest advances in the design, manufacture, and application of conversion technologies. Contributors are brought together from the fields of physics, chemistry, metallurgy, engineering and manufacturing, to present a truly trans-disciplinary picture of the field of waste to energy conversion. Twenty-eight chapters cover every important aspect of advances in the conversion of solid waste into fuel and chemicals, describing how valuable energy can be recouped from various waste materials. Presents the latest advances in waste to energy techniques for converting solid waste to valuable fuel and energy Brings together contributors from physics, chemistry, metallurgy, engineering and the manufacturing industry Includes advanced techniques such as combustion, gasification, paralysis, anaerobic digestion, and fermentation Goes far beyond municipal waste, to the recouping of valuable energy from a variety of industrial waste materials Describes how waste to energy technologies present an enormous opportunity for clean, sustainable energy

Biomass to Energy Conversion Technologies

Biomass to Energy Conversion Technologies
  • Author : Pratima Bajpai
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-10-22
  • Total pages :264
  • ISBN : 9780128184011
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Summary : Biomass to Energy Conversion Technologies: The Road to Commercialization examines biomass production, biomass types, properties and characterization, and energy conversion technologies with an emphasis on the production of a gaseous fuel to supplement the gas derived from the landfilling of organic wastes (landfill gas) and used in gas engines to produce electricity. The book discusses the integration of both fermentation and anaerobic digestion in a biorefinery concept that allows the production of ethanol—along with biogas—to be used to produce heat and electricity, thus improving overall energy balance. Included case studies based on worldwide projects discuss both risks and challenges. The main studies on the combination of both bioethanol and biogas production processes are reviewed and the strength and weakness of the integrated treatment for industrial application are highlighted. The book also considers gasification technologies and their potential for biomass gasification and lists the advantages and disadvantages of using of biomass as a source of energy, the path of commercialization of the various processes, energy related environmental issues. Highlights commercialization and technological risks Discusses challenges, limitations and future prospects of third- and fourth generation biofuels Includes integration of both fermentation and anaerobic digestion in a biorefinery concept Discusses energy related environment issues (Greenhouse effect, acid rain, air pollution)

Energy Conversion

Energy Conversion
  • Author : D. Yogi Goswami,Frank Kreith
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-07-06
  • Total pages :1193
  • ISBN : 9781315356624
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Summary : This handbook surveys the range of methods and fuel types used in generating energy for industry, transportation, and heating and cooling of buildings. Solar, wind, biomass, nuclear, geothermal, ocean and fossil fuels are discussed and compared, and the thermodynamics of energy conversion is explained. Appendices are provided with fully updated data. Thoroughly revised, this second edition surveys the latest advances in energy conversion from a wide variety of currently available energy sources. It describes energy sources such as fossil fuels, biomass (including refuse-derived biomass fuels), nuclear, solar radiation, wind, geothermal, and ocean, then provides the terminology and units used for each energy resource and their equivalence. It includes an overview of the steam power cycles, gas turbines, internal combustion engines, hydraulic turbines, Stirling engines, advanced fossil fuel power systems, and combined-cycle power plants. It outlines the development, current use, and future of nuclear power.