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Wood-Polymer Composites

Wood-Polymer Composites
  • Author : K O Niska,M. Sain
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-05-29
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9781845694579
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Summary : Wood-polymer composites (WPC) are materials in which wood is impregnated with monomers that are then polymerised in the wood to tailor the material for special applications. The resulting properties of these materials, from lightness and enhanced mechanical properties to greater sustainability, has meant a growing number of applications in such areas as building, construction and automotive engineering. This important book reviews the manufacture of wood-polymer composites, how their properties can be assessed and improved and their range of uses. After an introductory chapter, the book reviews key aspects of manufacture, including raw materials, manufacturing technologies and interactions between wood and synthetic polymers. Building on this foundation, the following group of chapters discusses mechanical and other properties such as durability, creep behaviour and processing performance. The book concludes by looking at orientated wood-polymer composites, wood-polymer composite foams, at ways of assessing performance and at the range of current and future applications. With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Wood-polymer composites is a valuable reference for all those using and studying these important materials. Provides a comprehensive survey of major new developments in wood-polymer composites Reviews the key aspects of manufacture, including raw materials and manufacturing technologies Discusses properties such as durability, creep behaviour and processing performance

Wood-polymers Composites

Wood-polymers Composites
  • Author : K. Oksman,M. Sain
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-06-24
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 1420076116
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Summary : Wood-polymer composites (WPC) are materials in which wood is impregnated with monomers that are then polymerized in the wood to tailor the material for special applications. The resulting properties of these materials, from lightness and enhanced mechanical properties to greater sustainability, has meant a growing number of applications in such areas as building, construction and automotive engineering. This important book reviews the manufacture of wood-polymer composites, how their properties can be assessed and improved and their range of uses. After an introductory chapter, the book reviews key aspects of manufacture, including raw materials, manufacturing technologies and interactions between wood and synthetic polymers. Building on this foundation, the following group of chapters discusses mechanical and other properties such as durability, creep behavior and processing performance. The book concludes by looking at orientated wood-polymer composites, wood-polymer composite foams, at ways of assessing performance and at the range of current and future applications. With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Wood-polymer composites will be a valuable reference for all those using and studying these important materials.

Wood-polymer Composites

Wood-polymer Composites
  • Author : Kristiina Oksman Niska,Institute of Materials, Minerals, and Mining
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008
  • Total pages :366
  • ISBN : 1845692721
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Summary : Wood-polymer composites (WPC) are materials in which wood is impregnated with monomers that are then polymerised in the wood to tailor the material for special applications. The resulting properties of these materials, from lightness and enhanced mechanical properties to greater sustainability, has meant a growing number of applications in such areas as building, construction and automotive engineering. This important book reviews the manufacture of wood-polymer composites, how their properties can be assessed and improved and their range of uses. After an introductory chapter, the book reviews key aspects of manufacture, including raw materials, manufacturing technologies and interactions between wood and synthetic polymers. Building on this foundation, the following group of chapters discusses mechanical and other properties such as durability, creep behaviour and processing performance. The book concludes by looking at orientated wood-polymer composites, wood-polymer composite foams, at ways of assessing performance and at the range of current and future applications. With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Wood-polymer composites is a valuable reference for all those using and studying these important materials. Provides a comprehensive survey of major new developments in wood-polymer composites Reviews the key aspects of manufacture, including raw materials and manufacturing technologies Discusses properties such as durability, creep behaviour and processing performance

Structure and Properties of Wood-Polymer Composites (WPC)

Structure and Properties of Wood-Polymer Composites (WPC)
  • Author : Andrey Askadskii,Tatyana Matseevich,Alexander Askadskii
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-03-05
  • Total pages :230
  • ISBN : 9781527530652
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Summary : At present, the use of polymer composites filled with wood (WPC) is becoming increasingly popular. In particular, flooring of terraced premises, siding, decorative fences, fence systems, steps, universal profiles, among others are made from WPC. In 1977, the first enterprise for the production of WPC appeared in Sweden. The first experience was not very successful – the demand turned out to be low, and the wear of technological equipment was very high. Therefore, developments in this field were resumed only in the 1990s and continue to this day. This book describes the basic physical and mechanical properties of modern WPC, such as tensile and compression strength, and hardness. Also, the influence of climatic factors on the performance properties of products from WPC is described, while the thermal and rheological properties of WPC materials are considered, which directly affect the consumer characteristics of the products. The book contains theoretical developments related to the prediction of the mechanical and thermal properties of polymers and composites. The Van der Waals volume and the energy of the intermolecular interaction are estimated. This book will be of interest to representatives of the WPC market, designers, and architects, as well as technology engineers, students and post-graduate students of higher educational institutions in the fields of chemistry and physics of composite polymer materials.

Wood-Plastic Composites

Wood-Plastic Composites
  • Author : Anatole A. Klyosov
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-10-12
  • Total pages :728
  • ISBN : 0470165928
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Summary : A comprehensive, practical guide to wood-plastic composites and their properties This is the first book that presents an overview of the main principles underlying the composition of wood-plastic composite (WPC) materials and their performance in the real world. Focusing on the characteristics of WPC materials rather than their manufacture, this guide bridges the gap between laboratory-based research and testing and the properties WPC materials exhibit when they're used in decks, railing systems, fences, and other common applications. Complete with practical examples and case studies, this guide: Describes compositions of WPC materials, including thermoplastics, cellulose fiber, minerals, additives, and their properties Covers mechanical properties, microbial resistance, water absorption, flammability, slip resistance, thermal expansion-contraction, sensitivity to oxidation and solar radiation, and rheological properties of hot melts of WPC Covers subjects that determine esthetics, properties, performance, and durability of wood-plastic composite products Includes comparisons of different ASTM methods and procedures that apply to specific properties This is a comprehensive, hands-on reference for scientists, engineers, and researchers working with wood-plastic composites in plastics and polymers, materials science, microbiology, rheology, plastic technology, and chemical engineering, as well as an outstanding text for graduate students in these disciplines. It's also an excellent resource for suppliers and WPC manufacturers, and an accessible guide for developers, homebuilders, and landscape architects who want to know more about wood-plastic composites and their performance in the real world.

Recent Advances in the Processing of Wood-Plastic Composites

Recent Advances in the Processing of Wood-Plastic Composites
  • Author : Jin Kuk Kim,Kaushik Pal
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-12-16
  • Total pages :176
  • ISBN : 3642148778
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Summary : Wood-plastic composite (WPC) is a non-recyclable composite material lumber or timber made of recycled plastic and wood wastes which has become one of the most dynamic sectors of the plastics industry in this decade. It is used in numerous applications, such as, outdoor deck floors, railings, fences, landscaping timbers, park benches, window and door frames. This book starts with a brief glimpse at the basic structures and properties of WPCs. Aspects such as surface treatment, machinery used and testing types of WPCs are also covered. The following chapters of the book give a view of foam technology, flame retardant properties and colour retardant properties of WPCs. The way morphology affects or controls the physical and mechanical behaviours of the finished materials is discussed. Finally, the authors give an overview of the applications of wood-plastic composites in daily life. The book may serve as a source book for scientists wishing to work in this field.

Wood Composites

Wood Composites
  • Author : Martin P Ansell
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-07-24
  • Total pages :444
  • ISBN : 9781782424772
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Summary : Recent progress in enhancing and refining the performance and properties of wood composites by chemical and thermal modification and the application of smart multi-functional coatings have made them a particular area of interest for researchers. Wood Composites comprehensively reviews the whole field of wood composites, with particular focus on their materials, applications and engineering and scientific advances, including solutions inspired biomimetrically by the structure of wood and wood composites. Part One covers the materials used for wood composites and examines wood microstructure, and wood processing and adhesives for wood composites. Part Two explores the many applications of wood composites, for example plywood, fibreboard, chipboard, glulam, cross-laminated timber, I-beams and wood-polymer composites. The final part investigates advances in wood composites and looks at the preservation and modification of wood composites, environmental impacts and legislative obligations, nano-coatings and plasma treatment, biomimetic composite materials, the integration of wood composites with other materials and carbonized and mineralized wood composites. Comprehensively reviews the entire field of wood composites in a single volume Examines recent progress in enhancing and refining the performance and properties of wood composites by chemical and thermal modification and the application of smart multi-functional coatings Explores the range of wood composites, including both new and traditional products

Wood-polymer Composites

Wood-polymer Composites
  • Author : Rozman Hj Din
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1989
  • Total pages :126
  • ISBN : OCLC:23822065
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Summary :

Wood in Civil Engineering

Wood in Civil Engineering
  • Author : Giovanna Concu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-03-01
  • Total pages :250
  • ISBN : 9789535129851
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Summary : Wood is a natural building material: if used in building elements, it can play structural, functional and aesthetic roles at the same time. The use of wood in buildings, which goes back to the oldest of times, is now experiencing a period of strong expansion in virtue of the sustainable dimension of wood buildings from the environmental, economic and social standpoints. However, its use as an engineering material calls for constant development of theoretical and experimental research to respond properly to the issues involved in this. In the single chapters written by experts in different fields, the book aims to contribute to knowledge in the application of wood in the building industry.

Advances in Wood Composites

Advances in Wood Composites
  • Author : Antonios N. Papadopoulos
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-04-17
  • Total pages :210
  • ISBN : 9783039285846
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Summary : Wood composites have shown very good performance, and substantial service lives when correctly specified for the exposure risks present. Selection of an appropriate product for the job should be accompanied by decisions about the appropriate protection, whether this is by design, by preservative treatment or by wood modification techniques. This Special Issue, Advances in Wood Composites presents recent progress in enhancing and refining the performance and properties of wood composites by chemical and thermal modification and the application of smart nanomaterials, which have made them a particular area of interest for researchers. In addition, it reviews some important aspects in the field of wood composites, with particular focus on their materials, applications, and engineering and scientific advances, including solutions inspired biomimetrically by the structure of wood and wood composites. This Special Issue, with a collection of 13 original contributions, provides selected examples of recent Advances in Wood Composites

Wood-fiber/polymer Composites

Wood-fiber/polymer Composites
  • Author : Michael P. Wolcott,Forest Products Society
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1993
  • Total pages :134
  • ISBN : MINN:31951D010515731
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Summary :

Improvement of selected properties of Wood-Polymer Composites (WPC) – Silane modification of wood particles

Improvement of selected properties of Wood-Polymer Composites (WPC) – Silane modification of wood particles
  • Author : Timo Grüneberg
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-11-22
  • Total pages :196
  • ISBN : 9783736935617
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Summary : Wood Polymer Composites are a new group of hybrid materials, which combine the advantages of synthetic polymers such as polyolefines and natural polymers such as wood; whereas the synthetic polymer is used as matrix material and the wood as reinforcement material or filler. As matrix material, principally every thermoplastic polymer with a processing temperature below 200°C can be used due to the temperature sensivity of wood. Wood Polymer Composites are processed typically with processing technologies from the plastic industry such as extrusion and injection molding. The present study was conducted to explore the possibility of wood particle modification with different types of silanes. It was the aim to contribute the silanes as compatibilizers or coupling agent and therefore improve the mechanical properties and the resistance against water. Norway spruce (Picea abies) as representative wood species was used in three different particle types. The size distribution for the wood particles ranges from 70-2500 µm. Four commercial available silanes with various functional groups (amino, di-amino, alkyl) were used as modification agents. The concentrations varied between 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5% and 7.5%. As reference system commonly used maleated acid anhydride based coupling agents were used. The pre-treated wood particles were compounded via extrusion with polypropylene and samples were produced via injection and compression molding. The following properties were tested; tensile, bending, and impact strength, water uptake (cold and boiling water test), descent rate, weathering tests and durability test against basidiomycetes. SEM-EDX investigations proved the presence of silane either in the cell wall structure, or on the wood particle surface. Due to the structure and the functionality of the silanes it was expected that the silane treated wood particles are able to improve the mechanical properties. It was shown that the silanes had no significant effect as compatibilizer or coupling agent. The mechanical properties strongly increase with the usage of coupling agent. Both coupling agents were based on maleic acid anhydride grafted on a polymer backbone, whereas Type I reaches an optimum regarding the mechanical properties at 3%, the coupling agent Type II still improves the mechanical properties up to a ratio of 4.5% with no clear optimum. The silane pretreatment influences the improvement not significantly, compare to the improvement caused by the coupling agent. The used wood particles showed mechanical degradation during the compounding process. The biggest degradation was monitored for the wood particles of Lignocel® Type 9. Due to its fine structure it can be assumed that the Arbocel® C100 wood particles consist of only cell wall fragments of the wooden cell wall, which express a better resistance against mechanical destruction during the process. The Wood Polymer Composites showed a lower decay rate compared to solid wood. The moisture content within the Wood Polymer Composite samples ranges at the low optimum level for fungi attack and were not significantly improved by an accelerated wetting before the test. The core remains relatively dry. The main protection seems to come from the encapsulation by the polymer. The weathered Wood Polymer Composite samples showed a strong color change within a relatively short period of exposure. The color changed independently from the silane type or the silane ratio. Also an increase of cracks and gaps on the sample surface was observed compared to the unexposed sample and the pure polymer reference.

Extrusion of Wood-polymer Composites [microform]

Extrusion of Wood-polymer Composites [microform]
  • Author : Kang Karen Xiao
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005
  • Total pages :564
  • ISBN : 0494095407
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Summary :

Direct Current Resistance of Wood Polymer Composites [microform]

Direct Current Resistance of Wood Polymer Composites [microform]
  • Author : Ian Duncan Hartley
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1988
  • Total pages :148
  • ISBN : OCLC:270662634
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Summary :

Lightweight Polymer Composite Structures

Lightweight Polymer Composite Structures
  • Author : Sanjay Mavinkere Rangappa,Jyotishkumar Parameswaranpillai,Suchart Siengchin,Lothar Kroll
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-09-01
  • Total pages :394
  • ISBN : 9780429520822
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Summary : This book provides a comprehensive account of developments in the area of lightweight polymer composites. It encompasses design and manufacturing methods for the lightweight polymer structures, various techniques, and a broad spectrum of applications. The book highlights fundamental research in lightweight polymer structures and integrates various aspects from synthesis to applications of these materials. Features Serves as a one stop reference with contributions from leading researchers from industry, academy, government, and private research institutions across the globe Explores all important aspects of lightweight polymer composite structures Offers an update of concepts, advancements, challenges, and application of lightweight structures Current status, trends, future directions, and opportunities are discussed, making it friendly for both new and experienced researchers.

Chemical Coupling in Wood-polymer Composites

Chemical Coupling in Wood-polymer Composites
  • Author : John Ziqiang Lu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:54447519
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Summary :

Handbook on Coal, Coke, Cotton, Lignin, Hemicellulose, Wood, Wood-Polymer Composites, Lignocellulosic-Plastic Composites from Recycled Materials, Wood Fiber, Rosin and Rosin Derivatives

Handbook on Coal, Coke, Cotton, Lignin, Hemicellulose, Wood, Wood-Polymer Composites, Lignocellulosic-Plastic Composites from Recycled Materials, Wood Fiber, Rosin and Rosin Derivatives
  • Author : Dr. Himadri Panda
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-01-11
  • Total pages :512
  • ISBN : 9789381039861
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Summary : Coal is the product of plants, mainly trees that died tens or hundreds of millions of years ago. Coal is a fossil fuel and is the altered remains of prehistoric vegetation that originally accumulated in swamps and peat bogs. The energy we get from coal today comes from the energy that plants absorbed from the sun millions of years ago. Coal is used primarily as an energy source, either for heat or electricity. It was once heavily used to heat homes and power locomotives and factories. Bituminous coal is also used to produce coke for making steel and other industrial process heating. Lignin is a constituent of the cell walls of almost all dry land plant cell walls. It is the second most abundant natural polymer in the world, surpassed only by cellulose. Lignin is found in all vascular plants, mostly between the cells, but also within the cells, and in the cell walls. Wood is an aggregate of cells essentially cellulose in composition, which are cemented together by a substance called lignin. The cells are made of three substances called cellulose (about 50 percent), lignin (which makes up a fifth to a quarter of hardwoods but a quarter to a third of softwoods), and hemicellulose. Rosin refers to an extraction process that utilizes a combination of heat and pressure to nearly instantaneously squeeze resinous sap from your initial starting material In India's energy sector, coal accounts for the majority of primary commercial energy supply. With the economy poised to grow at the rate of 8-10% per annum, energy requirements will also rise at a reasonable level. The Indian coal industry aspires to reach the 1.5 billion tonne (BT) mark by FY 2020. In fore-coming years, the industry will naturally need to focus on building on the success, and be on track for reaching the FY 2020 goal. One of the primary goals of the Government of India is to ensure that it is able to meet the country's power generation needs. Another aim is to lower the country's reliance on coal imports by boosting the coal production quickly. The Major contents of the book are Coal, Analysis of Coal and Coke, Cotton, Lignin and Hemicelluloses, Degradation of Wood, CCA-Treated Wood, Wood-Polymer Composites, Lignocellulosic-Plastic Composites from Recycled Materials, Chemical Modification of Wood Fiber, Delignification of Wood with Pernitric Acid, Rosin and Rosin Derivatives, Polymerizable Half Esters of Rosin and Photographs of Plant & Machinery with Supplier’s Contact Details. It will be a standard reference book for professionals, entrepreneurs, those studying and researching in this important area and others interested in the field of these industries.

Environmental Impacts of Traditional and Innovative Forest-based Bioproducts

Environmental Impacts of Traditional and Innovative Forest-based Bioproducts
  • Author : Andreja Kutnar,Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-03-21
  • Total pages :248
  • ISBN : 9789811006555
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Summary : This book provides a comprehensive description of traditional and innovative forest-based bioproducts, from pulp and paper, wood-based composites and wood fuels to chemicals and fiber-based composites. The descriptions of different types of forest-based bioproducts are supplemented by the environmental impacts involved in their processing, use, and end-of-life phase. Further, the possibility of reusing, recycling and upgrading bioproducts at the end of their projected life cycle is discussed. As the intensity of demand for forest biomass is currently changing, forest-based industries need to respond with innovative products, business models, marketing and management. As such, the book concludes with a chapter on the bioproducts business and these products’ role in bioeconomies.

Lignin in Polymer Composites

Lignin in Polymer Composites
  • Author : Omar Faruk,Mohini Sain
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-10-24
  • Total pages :350
  • ISBN : 9780323355667
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Summary : Lignin in Polymer Composites presents the latest information on lignin, a natural polymer derived from renewable resources that has great potential as a reinforcement material in composites because it is non-toxic, inexpensive, available in large amounts, and is starting to be deployed in various materials applications due to its advantages over more traditional oil-based materials. This book reviews the state-of-the-art on the topic and their applications to composites, including thermoplastic, thermosets, rubber, foams, bioplastics, nanocomposites, and lignin-based carbon fiber composites. In addition, the book covers critical assessments on the economics of lignin, including a cost-performance analysis that discusses its strengths and weaknesses as a reinforcement material. Finally, the huge potential applications of lignin in industry are explored with respect to its low cost, recyclable properties, and fully biodegradable composites, and the way they apply to the automotive, construction, and packaging industries. Reviews the state-of-the-art on the topic and their applications to composites, including thermoplastic, thermosets, rubber, foams, bioplastics, nanocomposites, and lignin-based carbon fiber composites Presents the essential processing and properties information for engineers and materials scientists, enabling the use of lignin in composites Provides critical insight into the applications and future trends of lignin-based composites, including advantages, shortcomings, and economics Includes a thorough coverage of extraction, modification, processing, and applications of the material

Pine-polyethylene (wood-polymer) Composites

Pine-polyethylene (wood-polymer) Composites
  • Author : Parviz Sharif Razi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1999
  • Total pages :198
  • ISBN : OCLC:42093159
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Summary :

Green Composites

Green Composites
  • Author : Caroline Baillie
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-03-08
  • Total pages :308
  • ISBN : 0849325765
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Summary : With an internationally recognized team of contributors, Green Composites examines fibre reinforced polymer composite production and explains how environmental footprints can be diminished at every stage of the life cycle. The introductory chapters examine why green composites should be considered. The book then discusses properties of cellulose and wood. It examines recyclable synthetic fibre-thermoplastic composites as alternatives, then covers polymers derived from natural sources. The text details the factors that influence properties, and considers clean processing, applications, recycling, degradation, and reprocessing. The book is essential for government agricultural departments, automotive companies, and others devoted to eco-friendly materials and production.